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£>a\H - Salr-i^ /A^ 







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r;xtrotyf,ers, Printers and JUnders, 

Kl'FFAI.O, N. Y. 



■♦ — 

My poor husbnnd piibli^bcd some years n^o hi:? 'Diary in Mexico.' I 
conti iKutctl to llli'^ work sdihl' leaves of mine, promising to puMi««lj more 
wluMR'vt-T I should liml leisure. Kiic(>ina,i;eil by mriiy friends ami the kmd 
manner in whicii the above-mentioned fra^imenl was received, 1 shall carry 
out my promise now. 

World-stirrini; events have taken place since i86S. History has turned 
another leaf in her '.'temal l^mk. The French period has come to a close, 
and liie Geiman era commenced. The old ('Crman Kmpire has risen, 
like the |)h.<eiux from its ashes, m richer ^,'lory than ever before, and from 
its ndu; It throne a fre h and wholesome current is sweepmgover our globe. 
Mul!i anti(Mial'^d dust has been kicked up ; time-honouretl prejudices and 
ge!U:rally admitle ' j)rmciples are lUilteiinji in the air ; old peopl<: look at 
them regre ingly and, prophesying the end of ail things and 
howling a M'serrrc, whilst ♦he young generation rejoice, full of hope, and 
breathe w'h delighc \\vi spring air of rational liberty. The genius of the 
agi lojks smi.'ngly fiom i's sunny height upon flying superstition, carry- 
ing fyanr.y on its back. 

Tiiough it seems to he a law of nature that even the most bcnehcial 
polilical or socitu changes tiust be ushered in first with bloocLheel and tears, 
it is al o naiuiwl that the '."eelmgsof tho.-,e w'lo saw flow the hearts' bloo<l 
of their fa'he-s, husbands,- or sons, and who .vith their tears and ruineil 
liv^s in reality paid and still pay alone for the national hopes bought by 
such sacrilice.-., are not quite in harmony with the feelings of the great 

Though well aware ihat the lat^ cruel war made, alas, too many sufTer- 
ers like myself, anrl that our grief is felt like a dissonance in the general 
concert of rcj( iciiig, who is cruel enough to biame a poor woman becau-e 
she moi'Ts hei li'ile flow-r-gard'.n changed by that storm into a wilder 
ness? Who is uniu>t enough to accuse her of selfishness, or want «>f 
jvitriol'im, or narrowness of mind, if she cannot supj)ress a shudder on 
heaung the marches of triumph or the rejoicings ol the crowd? Alas I 
in my ear is still resounding the din and roar of battles, ahd in my heart 
are still lingering the cries of the wounded and the heartrending whispered 
woids of t!ie dying, sending thei: last greetings and blessings to their be- 
reaved mothers, wives, or children. And above all, before niy menta' eye 
is still a maddening vision — the gory body of a dear, kind husband. 

Yes, yes ; I know he died a most glorious death for his beloved king 
and the independence and glory of his dear Germany, and his remains are 
enshrined in a princely tomb, — hut alas, he is dead, dead, gone forever, — 
and I have only a poor weak woman's heart. 



Indulpcnt readers, i nm sure, will forj^ive me if now and then a mclan- 
cl'oly !)r l)iltcr tone vibrates tlr.ouj^h the followin}; i)a,:^'es ; l)iit I am less 
Mire of heinij forjjiven hy another class of readers, who, on the contrary, 
will be indignant and accuse me of want of feeling, or of levity, because I 
am not ahvoys melancholy. 

As I am afraid that amongst them might be persons whose opinion is of 
very great value to me, I sliall say a few words in self-defence. 

Those who have never experienced great losses or troubles, and know 
grief as it were theoretically, who are living quiet and haj)py under the 
protection of a kind and beloved husband, surrounded by a crowd of 
nealthy children, often imagine that they could not survive the loss of one 
of their beloved, or at least never smile or feel happy again. That is an 
error. The Almighty, who tempers the wind to the shorn lamb, has 
ordered time and reason to blunt the edge of grief; the desire or attempt 
to perpetuate it is unreasonable and sinful and not vvorlhy of a soui.d- 
minded person. I consider it to be a duty towards myself and the world, 
in which I may have to live still many years, to try my best to conquer this 
morbid inclination, and if I succeed partially in doing so it would be hard 
and unjust to accuse me of levity, for that I am not tlevoid of feeling may 
be proved by the fact that my hair has become grey since then, — and 1 have 
j;carcely passed my thirtieth year. 

In wridng the following pages it is not my intention to write tny biography. 
I shall only relate what I have seen and observed since 1862, the year in 
which I was married to Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm. This time of ten 
years is one of the most memorable in history, including the great Ameri- 
can civil war, the catastrophe in Mexico, and the fall of the Napoleonic 
empire. During the American war I was almost always with my husband ; 
1 followed him also to Mexico, and was not only a mere spectator in the 
great and sad tragedy enacted there. During the last PVench war I was 
with the army from the commencement to the end, and afterwards I visited 
Rome and Spain. Everywhere my position enabled me to become 
acquainted with the leading persons, and to be an eyewitness of the most 
important events. It may therefore be supposed that I have something to 
tell. Supported by a very good memory and a carefully and regularly 
kept diary, I shall try my best to make my account as interesting as possi- 
ble, and if my bot)k may be insignificant as a literary production, I hope 
it will nut tire the patience of the reader. 

Agnes zu Salm-Salm. 

Bonn oD-the-Rhinab 







Some Words to the Reader — The War Excitement in the United States— 
The fallin{^ and the rising Military Stars— McClellan Conimandci -in- 
Chief — Organizing the Army — His First Review — Visit to Washington 
— Visiting the Camp — General Louis IMenker — German Refugees — 
Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm — What happened to him and to me — The 
old, old Story — End of the chapter, and turning a new leaf. . Page 19 


Who governs the United States? — How it is done — Trying my wings — 
Senator Harris — Albany — Governor Morgan, the woman hater — My 
first battle — Victory — Salm, Colonel of the 8th N. Y. Regiment — 
Arrival in Aldy — Breaking up a camp — Ride to Chanlilly — The 
country-seat of a Royal Stuart 31 


Returning to Washington — Bumside's defeat at Fredericksburg — Return- 
ing to the camp — Our birthday — How the soldiers celebruled it — A 
curious birthday caka — Aquaia Creek — Our canvas palace — General 
Hooker commanding the Potomac army — Our factotum, old Groeben 
— General Sickles — His sumptuous festival — How Uncle Sam cared 
for his soldiers — Mr. and Mrs. Lincoln visiting the camp — The 
President's wife — Portrait of President Lincoln — Salm's regiment 
mustered out —Returning Home— Reception in Washington — In 
New York — A festival in Hamilton Park — Salm presented with a 
sword of honour — A soldier's ball — I must attempt a speech — Turning 
another leaf. 37 

■ » • 





The Provost-Marshal-Genenil U. S., Gi'neral James Fry — My success — 
Governor Yates, of Illinois — lowers of spirits among high-spirited 
gentlemen — I i)ecome a captain, commanding a company — Life in 
Washington -Mada'ne vcm Corvin — Sanitary arrangements in the 
United States — The Sanitary and Christian Commissions — How the 
Government honoured dead soUliers — National cemeteries — A hospi- 
tal city — Salm again on the war-path — My journey to Nashville, 
Tenn. — Returning to Washington. , . . • • • 65 



Madame von Corvin and I travel from Washington to Bridgeport, Ala- 
bama — American railroads — Pittsburg — Meeting Charles Schurz — 
How he was received there — Louisville, Kentucky — Nashville, Tenn. 
— The St. Cloud Hotel — Travelling with a military train — Why I 
stop the train —Arrival in Bridgeport — The camp on the Tennessee 
island — The hospital — Traffic with the rebels — Salt serving instead of 
money — Neighbours — Expecting a rebel surprise — Bridgeport — Col- 
onel Taylor — Rev. Gilford and family — Dangerous roads — Fort 
Prince Salm — Life on the island — Excursion to Chattanooga — Major- 
General J. Steedman — The Match-bridge at Whiteside — Lookout 
Mountain — Fighting Joe's rock — The rebels advancing — Salm leaving 
the island alone — Cut off from Nashville by General Hood — How we 
passed our time — Visits received and paid — Generals Brannon and 
Granger — Rather dangerous — Pleasure trips to Stevenson — Victories 
— The 68th Regiment leaving the island — The deserted camp — Dan- 
gerous position— Nightly disturbances — Meeting Salm and Steedman 


Our New York life— In a Methrnlist's house — Salm, Colonel of the 68th 
Regi.nent N.Y. V. — In (Hirtihus — Recruiting <lifficulties — Salm autho- 
rised to raise a brigade — His ami Corvin's recnnting plan favourcnl by 
Secretaiy of Stale, W. H. Seward — An audience with President 
Lincoln— Secretary of War Stanton op|)osing — A visit to Blenker's 
farm — The battle of Chanwcllorville — Defeat of Hooker— Supersedetl 
by Cieneral Meade — The glorious battle of Gettysburg — General 
Sickles severely woundeil — The New York Kiots — Mrs. Bennett — 
Mr. James Gordon Iknnett — His Son — Fort Washington — The first 
appearance of Master Jimmy — Mrs. James SjH.'ier — 'Ihe Spiritualist 
Kxcitement — Mrs. Anna Sugdon, a pretty knocking, and Mrs. Ilcatli 
Adams, a writing medium — .Spiritual seances at my house — At Mrs. 
Bennett's — The flying music-book — At Mrs Speier's — A table 
knocked off its legs — A detected tipping medium — Bad state o( affairs 
— I go out recruiting to Washington I'age 48 



in Stcvpn«;r)n rxffcr tlip vicforious bnttlcv in AI;»l»am.i Wo 
K-avc all f»)r Nashville — Culoiul ami Mailaine vdh (Drvin relnru tu 
Washiiij^toii, and I ^'o with Salm lo Uritlj^titort lie is i(»iiuu.imltr 
of the post— IIi< raitls against t!ie lebeis— Ilis staff -Captain John- 
son and his wife, my sister, arrive I )illfiiiilties in rcfertMitc to pronio- 
lion — Tu rcinuvc these I am scut to \Va.shinj;ton. . . I'^gc 78 




On board the 'General I.yttic * — In VV'asbinj^ton—Up-hill'work -Senator 
Vales -(jo with (iroel)ento New York (icn'ernor Kenton- -( lovernor 
(iilinore of New Hampshire — Kelurn to \Vashin«;ton— Victory — 
Receive the (ifneral's c«)mmission for Salm -I-ivinj^ at Corvin's in 
(ieor^etown — Short sketch of war events — Characteristic of (ieneral 
Cirant-The assassination of Lincoln Attempt against Secretary 
Seward — Impression made by that catastrophe -The Funeral- 
Andrew Johnson, the new President — Mr, Kield, Assistant Secretary 
of the Treasury — keturniny; to the war -Felix in I)alt(»n, (leorjjia — 
Arrival in Chattanooj^a — No trains — Clet a locomotive -Killing on the 
cow catcher — A journev from I)alton to Cleveland —A fearful nij^ht in 
the wotids — l)anj;ers of railway traveUing -A narrow escape — I get a 
l)al)y of my sister's- Starting for Atlanta, (ieorg'a — Slate of the 
country — Our life in Atlanta -Leaving for Savaunah -F<jrt Pulaski — 
An excursion to Augusta —-Dangers of the Savannah rivers — Our 
steamer, the ' Fanny i^ehr,' running on a snag — Sticking in the mud — 
The alligators — Assistance arriving — Continue our journey — Coming 
up with the 'Robert Lehr,' which strikes a snag and goes down — 
Returning to Savannah— Knd of the war~(joiiig via iJalfimore to 
Washington — Living in Georgetown at Corvin's — Forming new plans 
— Salm resolves to go to Mexico — (iroeben is to go with him — I re- 
main in Washington — Take a house in that city together with xht 
Corvins — Our life — Excursions — Colonel Moore — Leaving for Mexico 
— Good-bye to President Jolmson — On board the ' Nlanhattan ' — 
Father Fisher — Arrival in Havannah — Surprise — Meeting Salm — 
Arrival in Vera Cruz , , loa 





Vera Cruz— Great graveyard — A Mexican diligence— Robbing the diligence 
— A gentlematdy sport — Paper dresses— Terra Templada — ' (iet ou; 
if you can' — Pulque — In an Indian hut-Orizava — Pucbla — The 
plateau of Mexico — General Zerman — Baron Magnus. . 125 

X Contents. 


Orij^in of tlie City of Mexico — The Alameda — The Paseo Nuevo- A 
Mexican f^eiuleman on horscljack — Promenade de la Viga — The float- 
ing' islands — Theatres— I'lace d'Armes — The Cathedral — The Sangra- 
lio — Disputacion Iturbide — Aqueducts — The National Museum — The 
Sanctuario de (iuadalupe — Its wonderful origin — The Creole Virgin — 
('ha])ullepec — i lummiiig-birds — Mexican houses and life — Mexican 
iudich) — The Indians — A Ranchero — Mexican market. . Page 135 


Marshal Bazaine — Madame la Mar^chale — Princess Iturbide — Tacubnya — 
San Au;;ustin — A projecteil important miss'on — How it ended — We 
go on an expedition — Meeting the enemy — Result — Arrival in Tulan- 
cingo — Order to evacuate — Jimmy — Carabajal, tiie robber-general — 
March to Puebla — Meeting the iilmperor Maximilian — The 'woman 
in white ' — I fall ill— General panic — Returning to Mexico — The 
family Mube — Departure of the French — The Emperor leaving for 
(^ueretaro — Salm going after him — I am left behind — Getierai Mar- 
quez — Cieneral Vidaurri — Good news — The bactle of San Lc>renzo — 
Marquez a coward — Porfirio Diaz before Mexico. . . .157 


t ai ful dreams — My escape from Tacubaya — Going to Mexico— Colonel 
Leon — My propositions to the Germa^^. Colonels — Negotiations — 
ivladame Baz — A sad mistake rewarded by a bullet — At the head- 
quarters of Portirio Diaz — Mr. llube my interpreter — Return to 
Mexico — Two volleys fired at me — No harm done — A thunderstorm 
as V oeace-maker — Baron Magnus retains me in Mexico — What re- 
.;ulted from it — Confusion in Tacubava — A kind invitation to go to 
Jericho, or elsewhere beymd the sea — Will not go — Female general- 
ship r.-ainst Mexican strategy — General Baz — Permission to go to 
K:»oobi;do- -Thirty-seven letters of recommendation — My journey to 
Qc'V '•-)ro — Mexican justice. . . . . . . • I74 


Arrival before Quereiaro — Visit to Escohedo's head-quarters — One who 
had 'known me intimately' — ^Journey to San Luis Potosi — Lieut. - 
Colonel Aspirez — An audience with President Juarez — M. Iglesia — 
Tiie fall of Queretaro — The Emperor and my husband prisoners — 
Journey to Queretoro — San Teresita — My first interview with the 
I'mporor — His prison — I arrange a meeting between the Emperor and 



Tieneral Ivscobcdo— What happened in the Ilncicmla de ITorculos— 
(leneral Kefu^'io (lonzalcs a Marplot— Thi- co:ivent oftho CapiKhins — 
Tlie Emperor forced to remain in a tjrave vault i'oluncl Vill.inu(.'va. 

Tagc iS6 


My plans to save the Emperor—What Consul Hahnsen thought of them — 
Visit to the Emperor at midnight — A letter to Juarez -I'uliteness ol 
Escobedo — I'reparing to go to San Luis — Consul ISahnsen's fear justi- 
fied — His sleepingjiartner— Another audience with Juarez — My ))lead- 
ing for delay —Mr. Iglesia en my side— Victory — Return to (^ueretaro — 
A wide-awake partner of Mr. Uahnsen — A fearful journey— I low I 
looked — Scene on my arrival in Maximilian's pvit.o'1 describeil ly 
another eye-witness • '94 


My husband's plans for escape — I do not believe in them — I o(Ter to go to 
Mexico to fetch Baron Magnus, lawyers, and money — Dehys— How 
I managed Escobedo — A telegram makes my journey superfluous — 
Consul Bahnsen again in a fright — Judge Hall — Arrival of the For- 
eign Ministers in (^)ueretaro — Impression made by it — Baron Magnus 
— Money no object — The Austrian and Belgian Ministers — Mr. 
Curtopassi -My pla!i to save the Emperor — Money wanted — Baron 
Magnus gone to St. Luis— Colonel Villaneuva — Colonel Palacios— 
How I tempt him — Two bills for one hundred thousand dollars each, 
but no cash — Baron Lago in deadly fear for his neck — His cow- 
ardice 200 


Dr. Basch arrested on leaving my house — General Escoi)edo wishes to see 
me — A grand scene — A furious General and a re;solute woman — What 
Escobedo thought of the great Ministers — The carriage with four 
mules at my door — How I frighten a little cajitain — Negotiations — 
Getting in the carriage — How I got out of it — Villanueva - I am 
brought to Santa Rosas — Go from there to San Luis— Lenience of 
Mexican Generals against attempts to escape — Reasons for it — How 
I was received by Mr. Juarez and Mr. Iglesia— Resrite of three days 
■ — What Baron ^Iagnus might have done if he had been somebody 
else — My last pleading for the Emperor's life — Jauiez will only grant 
that of my husband — Madame de Miramon's audience with the Presi- 
dent — Death of the Emperor — Mr. Lerdo — Return to (jueretaro — Go 
to Mexico — Again to Queretaro — Salm's prison life — A roguish doctor 
— Transportation of the prisoners to Mexico — To Vera Cruz — My 
husband in Tehuacan— How he was treated by Borfuio Diaz and 
General Baz — Exertions for the release of the Prince — Success On 
my arrival in Vera Cruz, Salm had left with Baron Magnus — My 
despair — Going to New York and Washington — On board the ' Villa 
de Paris' — Ariival in luuope. 216 





Bi est —First impressions — A four-le^jged baby — Paris — C^astle Anholt— 
I'rince Alfred — Ills family — Our position — ^^foiuney to Vienna — 
Audience with the Emperor of Austria — Result — Salm in the hands 
of his old enemies — Flight — My audience with the mother of Maxi- 
milian — Her present — Munich — Countess Salm-IIoegstraeten — Re- 
turn to Westphalia — Princess Minna — Prince Alfred dangerously ill 
— Rheingrafenstein — von Stein— Meeting with Corvins in Rorschach 
— Castle Wiggen — The Rorschach Hill — The Lake of Constance — 
Mrs. Raggehas — Visitors — A visit to Combe Varin — Professor 
Edward Oesor — Baron H. and wife — A Russian Baron and his 

daughter — Prince Hohenzollern — At the Weinburg — Oif to Berh'n. 




Salm's Diary in Mexico published--Prince KrafTt Hohen'ohe — Baron 
Magnus — Audience with Princess Charles of Prussia — Countess Seyd- 
ewitz — At Baroness Schleinitz's — Salm Major in the Guards — Audience 
with Her Majesty the Queen — Countess Schulemburg — Countess 
BenckendorfT — Fast habits — Coblentz — Society there — '1 he Prussian 
army — Prussian officers — The regiment * Queen Augusta.' . 251 


Our society — Countess Ilaakc — In Berlin with the Corvins — Another 
audience with the Queen — The King — A queer cousin — Prince Salm- 
Horstmar — A princely apostle — Housekeeping lessons — Mr. General 
von S . — Salm's revolt — 1 try my hand at match-making — Excur- 
sions — Mr. Moriaiy — Princess S W and her sons — Mesal- 
liances — A poetical friend — Coblentz life — Public tea-gardens — The 
Queen in Coblentz — Princess Liegnitz — 'Uncle Herrmann' — The 
Grand Duchess Dowager of Mecklenburg — in Ems — Their Majesties 
The Queen as a godmother — Baron Gerolt — Why he resigned — Mr. 
Bancroft— His meanness — In Ems with his Majesty — My cousin, the 
Duchess of Osuna — Breakfast with their Majesties at Sayn — Military 
manoeuvres — Visit to Anholt — Prince and Princess of Weid — A party 
at her Majesty's — Grand liuchess of Baden and Princess William — A 
ball at her Majesty's — I dance with the Grand Duke of Weimar — 
Breakfast at her Majesty's- -Dinner at Neuweid — Prince and Princess 
of Roumania — The Count of Flanders — Depart'.v 2 of the Queen — 
Christmas in Anholt — A battue — Bitter reflections. . . . 26^ 


Cauif fiK. 







New Vonr — The * little b'lls'— In awhiilpnol — Our new Cnlmcl, Count 
Walciersee — In lierlin — An evening party at lier M.iji'>ty's — The 
brother of Maximilian — Audience with their Royal Iii;4hnesses the 
Crown Prince and Crown Princess — Their great kindness — CIrand 
Court-day — I conquer China — Hanniess Schleinit/— (".rand Opera 
I'all — The whole Court jnesent — Carnival in Coblentz — Palls — 

l^ancyPallat Mr. von C 's — A Spanish Quadrille— Fancy Pall 

at General von Ilerwarth's — A fishy Quadrille — Mayence — Prince of 
Ilolstein — Bonn — Professor Dr. Pusch — 1st of April — Studying in the 
Hospitals — Salm promoted — Sad forebodings — Return of the Queen 
to Coblentz — Season in Ems — The Dukeof Ossuna — His Majesty the 
Emperor of Russia — Princess Rose Salm- Salm — An unpleasant occur- 
rence — At Prince Solms-Braunfels — Thirteen at the table ! — Our set 
in Ems — With his Majesty — The Duchess of Ossuna and her train — 
Prince Albrecht of Prussia — Brilliant misery — Again in Bonw — Ru- 
mours in Ems — Supper with the King— A Review in Ems — Dinner 
at her Majesty's in Coblentz — A cafe-dansant — Caught in a shower — 
Arrival in Ems — The King and Benedetti — Sensation — Supper with 
his Majesty — How the King looked — I tell his Majesty that I shall go 
with the army — Concert at the Swiss house in Coblentz — How the 
King and Queen were received — War declared — Taking leave of his 
Majesty — Affecting scene — The King gives me his photograph — 
Panic in Ems — Return to Coblentz— The behaviour of the Germans 
— Leave-taking of the Queen — Approval of my resolution — In 
Bonn — I receive a certificate from Professor Dr. Busch — In the Aula 
— Professor Dr. Busch appointed Surgeon-General of 8th Army Corps 
— I am to accompany him — Arrival of Colonel Corvin — Of Mrs. von 
Corvin — Of Princess Minna and Florentine Salm — Preparations — 
Dark forebodings — A conversation between Salm and Corvin — The 
regiment ' Queen Augusta' leaving — Farewell to Salm — A sad mother 
and sad wife Page 214 


b— A 

jiar — 
pen — 

My preparations for the field— Miss Louisa Runkel — Leave-taking in An- 
holt — Prince Alfred and three sons in the war — Difficulties about a 
horse — I try impossibilities — Make them possible — With General von 
isteinmetz, chief of the first army — En route — My defeat — Hermeskeil 
— Trtjves — Disappointment — Saarlouis — Impiiident ducks — Ilenswei- 
ler — Gloious news — In a brewery — Prince Adalbert of Prussia — An 
Admiral on dry land — The distant thunder — Of Spichern— Saarbruck 
— Meeting Corvin — Entering on my duties — The starving French 
prisoners — Confusion — The battle-field — Arrival of the King -A raid 
on the Royal kitchen — Carrying off my booty — Caught l)y his Majesty 
— My confusion — In the Il()S})itals — The l8th of August — Fearful 
dreams — Vague rumours — Starting for the front — Felix killtd — 



Hr entinc killetl — IIow my husband died — letter of Rev. Mr. Parmet 
— Letter of Salni's servant — My vow — {l(jinj,' on a sad errand — A 
fearful nij^ht in Remilly — Ars sur-Mosc-lie — A melancholy task— 
* Mother Simon ' — How I found my poor husband — liringing home 
the bodies — Funeral in Anholt — Last words of love. . I'age 306 


RetumhifT to the war — In Colo;Tne — The Kniijlits of St. John — Baron 
Edward Oppenheim — In Jouy-aux- Arches — Voluntary nurses — Ke- 
forms — Gifts from Cologne — My store-rooms — Trince Alfred — Miss 
Runkel — Shells — Surrender Metz — Theft — Bad conscience — A rude 
doctor — A princely box on the ear 325 


Marching orders — Death of Count Waldersee — On the mo'-r^h — Lost on 
the road — Jkabant — In search of quarters — In a shepherd's house — 
IIow we passed the night — A wonderful snorat(;rio — Vienne le 
Chateau — An ecclesiastical cat — In Rheims — Ville aux Bois Joucheiy 
— A Frenchified German — Madame la Baronne de Sachs. Attichy — A 
* particulier ' — Compiegne — The rooms of Empress Eug(5nie — Monti- 
dier — The 'terrible' things — Battle of Moreuil — Fog — Strange mis- 
take — Miss Runkel taken for a ' Protzkasten ' — ^Jimmy — My pigeon — 
After the battle — General von Kummer — Amiens — In Boves — Colonel 
Cox — The international commission — Starling for Rouen — La Feuilie 
— A sacked chdteau — In Rouen — Dangerous looking people — Visit to 
General von Manteuffel — Leaving Rouen — Le H6ron — Order to pre- 
pare for battle — The battle of Querridre — Our Verbandplatz — ^The 
room for the fatally wounded — Short of provisions — Fed by the 
English — My assistance —Under fire — Dangerous curiosity — Rev. Mr. 
Gross wounded — End of the battle — Supper on the amputation table 
— Returning to Amiens — A busy night — Miss Runkel's Samaritan 
work — My birthday — Count Luttichau and Captain Voelkel — Tele- 
graphing for their wives — Captain Voekel's death — Arrival f his 
wife — General von Blankensee — His wife — His death — In Albert — 
Captain von Marien — Bapaume- -General Count von der Goeben — A 
distracted cook — The wounded — Captain von Butler— Dead — Hospi- 
tal in the convent — I discover an old acquaintance — And make the 
acquaintance of the black small-pox — Returning to Amiens — Arrival of 
ofiicers' wives — I fiill ill with the small-pox — Marching orders — Four 
days in bed only — In Peronne — General von Memerty — My prophetic 
talents — Three hundred wounded and nothing to eat — Again our 
Engli ,h friends — Prince Alfred's exertions — Miss Runkel's exhaustion 
— Jimmy catching a Tartar — The glorious battle ot St. Quentin — 

* Shoes and stockings left in the mud — In St. Quentin — The H6tel 
Cambronne — Adoctorless private hospital — Miss Runkel's glory — My 
"ive hundred boarders — Howl managed lor them — Aim'stice — Going 
home — Acknowledgments — General von Manteuffel proposing me for 




the iron cross — Tliank'^ in tlie name of the 1st army hy letter ol 
General von Goeben — Letter of Ge'Jcrui von Fransecky. . Taj^e 335 


^— ke- 
— Miss 
. rude 

• 325 


(•oinpr to Germany — In Anholt — My husband's debts — Different views- 
Returning to my deserted home — Sym|)atliisers — Pestered to death — 
A last appeal to a l)rother — A prineely answer — What I resolved to 
do — IJaron Edward Oi)iienhcim— Going to Berlin — A private audience 
with his Majesty the Emjieior — What happened in it — Cieneialviju 
Treskow — My offer accepted — Audience wiili my gracious Empress- 
Moving to the Augusta hospital — Noble nurses — Visit of I'mperor 
and Empress — A present from Her Majesty — Lost — Called home- 
Moving to Bonn — Persecutions — A forged signature- -Law suit — My 
health failing — In Luzern — Going to Clarence — To Pisa — To Naples 
— Eruption of Mount Vesuvius — I want to see it very near — Jimmy's 
distress — Pompeii 362 


1 want to enter a convent — Applying to the Empre<?s — Letter of Count 

Armin — A card from Baron S to theCierman minister in Rome — 

In Rome — Count Brazier de St. Simon — His portrait — His mixtum 
compositum wme — His hobby-horse — I make an impression on the 
old diplomatist — Effects — Seeing San Aiigelo — The Prison of I5en- 
venuto Cellini — Causing the death of the old Count — Monsignore 
Merode — Two audiences with the Pope — Declares that I have no 
talent lor a nunnery — Private .Tias? by Monsignore Merode at the 
grave of San Pietro — Presents Ijom the Pope — A once celebrated 
lady and pretended princess — Rev Joseph Mulloly — The Chuich oi 
St. Clement and its subterranean wonders — What called me home — 
Invitation to Rostock in Mecklenburg — In Warnemunde — Grand Duke 
and Grand Duchess 01 Mecklenburg- -The ' Stromlahrt ' — Festival — 
Curious Wariure — Called home again — Bad health — In Scheveningen 
— An American gold uncle — Change or afiairs — I buy ,1 house in 

J Bonn — Have rented it to Baron Gerolt — ^Journey to Spain — Madrid — 

Count W A river without water — The palace ol the Duke of 

Ossuna — Invested by the Philistines — The picture gallery — The Arm- 
oury — Curious armour, ike. — The Theatres — A characteristic adventure 
— In the Prado — Duchess de la Torre — Serrano — (^ueen Isabella — 
Victor Amadeus — The attentate — Disturbed state — Returning to Bonn 
— A few last words — End of the book. , , . , , 373 







Some Words to the Reader— The War F.xcitemciit in the United States — 
'I'lie Hilling and the Military Stars— Mccjlellan Commander-in- 
C hief — Organizing the Army — His first Review — Visit to Washington 
— Visiting the Camp — (Jeneral Louis Blunker — Clerman Refugees — 
Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm — What happened to him and to me — The 
old, old Story — End of liie chapter, and turning a new leaf. 

I sHAi-i> not follow my diary day for day., Such a proceeding 
would only produce tedious repetitions, and extend my book 
to an unjustifiable length. I do not pretf.nd to write history ; 
1 sliall give only my personal experiences, and though trying 
my best to juuge persons and events impartially, I am doubt- 
ful whether 1 sliall succeed, as very wise philosophers assert 
that in women subjective feeling prevails over objective reason 
—in a word, that their heart is always running away with their 
brain. As I cannot help being a woman, I beg the reader to 
excuse, on the ground of this deplorable fact, opinions and 
views perhaps differing from his own. 

I am not writing my biography either, and I am therefore 
dispensed from the necessity of describing my cradle, the 
emotions I experienced in admiring my first pair of shoes, and 
of dissecting rny soul for the amusement of some curious 
jjeople. I confess it affords me even a malicious pleasure to 
disappoint, in this respect, a number of persons who for years 
have taken the trouble of invciiting the most romantic and 
wonderful stories in reference to my youth, taxing their fancy 
to the utmos.: to take revenge on me for my silence. 

There arc, indeed, peo]3ie who resent it as an offence if a 
person who, by chance or peculiar circumstances, has been 
raised on the platform of publicity, does not choose to show 
herself in the garb of an antique statue ; and who, as a cause 
for such ciisinclination, attribute to her some i)hysical or moral 


Ten Yeava of my Life, 

' II 

(Icfornvtics. May tlicy do so ; their 1/ nevolcnt siinpositidns 
will not iiKJiicc mc to dispel by plain and dry reality tlic rotn.'in- 
tic cloud in which they have wrapped my youth. It wuukl, 
indeed, he cruel and un^Matel'ul to novelists and c' ic 

poets who have made me the heroine of their most wonuerful 
and fanciful works, to disenchant their ])ul)Iic ! 1 therefore 
shall, jump right into tlie middle of my narrative. 

'I'he great American civil war had commenced, the first bat- 
tle of iiull Run had taken i)lace, and the whole American 
world was in an incredible fever of excitement. It was in the 
Fall of 1 86 1, and having returned from Cuba, where I had 
lived several years, I was with a married sister in New York. 
Her husband was an officer in the army, and all occurrences 
connected with it and the war were eagerly discussed in our 

Old (^icneral Scott, who once had earned cheap laurels in 
Mexico, and was thought a very great general, had ])roved that 
he was none, and the hopes set on McDowell had collapsed 
at Bull Run. The ])eoi)le had, however, already found a new 
idol in (leneral McClellan, who was i)laced at the head of the 
forces of the Union. Before having had an opportunity of 
doing much he was praised and worshijjped as if he had won 
a hundred battles, and whoever would not believe that little 
Mac was an American Nai)o'.eon was in danger of being called 
a ' coj)r)erhead.' When he really had done much, and shown 
himself to be the best amongst all the ////tVAr/z/r generals of the 
Northern Union, he was called a copperhead himself. 

At that time I am speaking of he was, as said before, the 
great military star of the N(jrth, and was engaged in organis- 
ing an army, having discovered after Bull Run that an undi- 
sciplined, enthusiastic, though radical, army is notliing but an 
armed mob. Recruiting was briskly carried on in New York ; 
everywhere the goose-step was practised under the superinten- 
dence of oflicers whose fiices one had seen quite recently 
behind counters and bars. The centre of public interest and 
curiosity was, however, Washington, and the trains between 
thai cai/ital and the metropolis were always crowded. 

McClellan hurried his organisation as much as possible, and 
knowing very well his sovereign people, he resolved to offer 
them some military spectacle to satisfy their impatience and 
curiosity. A great review of newly-formed cavalry was to tak^i 

lU'v'unv at WasJiinjton, 


e, the 
|ut an 
"ork ; 

[, and 


place near Wasliinc'^ton, and ^Tcat numbers of N\'\v ^^>rk peo- 
ple were anxious to witness such rare show. I was .is ea;-,'cr 
and enthusiastic as the rest, and arrived with a numerous coin- 
))any of ladies and gentlemen in Washington. 

'I'hat city was not yet what it is now. It is railed ' The city 
of magnificent distances,' and with very good reason. It w.i ; 
laid out for a million of inhabitants, but had, however, onlv 
about eighty thousand, though this number was then more than 
doubled by a floating poijulation. The city, notwithstanding 
some splendid public buildings, most of them still in construc- 
tion, like the Caj)itol, resembled a very big vdlage, and l*enn- 
sylvania Avenue, the principal street, which is wider than the 
Linden in iJerlin, was still in |)ossession of pigs and cattle, 
which during theniglu slept on the sidewalks, even near Lafay- 
ette Stiuate, oi)i)osite the W^hite House, ' I'\itiier Al)raha!n's ' 
residence. The tramway was not laid until much later, and 
along the street tliere still nulled a most prinutive onnubus. 

Military enthusiasm was ])aramount in Washington. The 
ladies, of course, were not left untouched by the prevailing 
epidemic; in fact, they were more excited than the men, and 
not being permitted to enlist themselves they did their utmost 
to encourage the nascent heroes. Civilians had then littk 
chance with them. Apollo hunself would have [)assed umio- 
ticeil if he did not wear shoulder-straps. Me who has not 
witnessed this military fever will scarcely believe it. All laws 
of society seemed sus])ended, and what in peaceable times 
would have been considered very improper and shocking was 
then the order of the day. JJutli sexes seemed to have change<l 

The review had an immense success, though it was*, in fact, 
a pitiful affair — as 1 am e.'iableJ to judge now after having ?cen 
Prussian Uhlans and Hussars. The Union cavalry that 
time were worse than useless. The poor fellows did not know 
whether their horses or their swords were mure in their way, 
and I saw them fall from their saddles even at a walking pace. 
Of all these deficiencies we were not aware. 1 was quite 
bewildered by the perfectly new spectacle, for I v^'as as favour- 
ably disposed towards the uniform as other ladies. 

To visit the camps around Washington was then the fashion, 
and one day after the review our party set out for such an ex- 
cursion. The canu) of the Geunan Division was at that 




Ten YvavH of hifj Life. 

period tlic principal point of attraction. This division was 
coniinandt'd by (icncr.U Louis Hlcnkcr, who was then a ^rcat 
fiivdiirile with all the authorities and the i)e()ple. 'I'lie ' Dutch ' 
did not at that time take the position in America which tliey 
now occupy. They were looked ui)()n with a hulf-shruL,^ of the 
shoulders, and a not very flattering half-smile. True Yankees 
despised them, and the military commanders were not much 
inclined to allow them j)rominent places. Wlicn McDowell 
was lending his armed mob towards Hull Run he placed the 
(Jerman Division in the rear, far from the field of his supjjoscd 
glory. When the panic commenced, wiiich * iUill Run Rus- 
sell' has described too gra|)hically and truly for the American 
taste, the stolid (iermans, and especially Jilenker, could not 
d scover any sensible reason for runnmg away. He let the 
panic-stricken Americans pass and stood his ground, wailing 
for an attack. This did not take pla(;e, for though the much- 
droaded * lilack Horse ' of the Confederates aj)pearcd in view, 
they did not like the attitude of the * Dutch ' and retired, 
i-^aving behind some forsaken Union artillery, which was 
quielly taken back by Colonel von Steinwehr of IJlenker's divi- 
sion. Washington was saved, saved by Blenker and these con- 
founded Dutch ! 

The Americans exaggerate everything, and so it was in this 
case. The danger had been too evident, and it served them 
as a measure for Blenker's merit. The (ieneral himself did 
not overrate it, but was sensible enough to j)rofit by this tem- 
porary tide of popular favour. President Lincoln, who under- 
stood nothing of military matters, but much of the danger 
which he escaped, felt extremely thankful towards the (ieneral 
and the (iermans, whom he already had good reason to like 
well, as t i,ey had done a great deal to raise him to the place 
which he occupied. McC^lellan, who liked the military i/n'c of 
Blenker and the discipline in his division, was very favourably 
disposed towards him, and a frequent visitor in his hospitable 
quarters^ which made American generals jealous. 

The German division, consisting of about twelve thousand 
men, had been renioved from the environs of Rodgers' Mills 
to the Virginian side of the Potomac, and was encamped be- 
tween that river and a place called Hunter's Chapel. 

It was a fine day when our party drove over the Potomac 
Bridge, which at that time was for miles the only commuaica- 

Visit to Ble nicer. 




f did 







)ic of 



tion between Virginia and the District of Wasliini^ton. It is 
exactly an Knglish mile long, built ot wood, and rather narrow. 
From the bridge one looks, towards the right, on (leorgetown, 
a suburb of the capital, and on Arlington Heights, on the 
Virginian side, a hill on the top of which is })icturcs(iuely 
situated the stately looking former r'.'sidence of (leneral Lee, 
the Commander-in-Chief of the Confederates. To the left are, 
])rojecting into t le lake-like Potomac, the Arsenal and Navy- 
yard, and on the Virginian side, nearly out of view, is the town 
of Alexandria. 

To the left, not flir from the bridge, we noticed a striking 
monument of old General Scott's military imbecility, one of 
the three blockhouses which he had built on the Virginian 
shore of the rivers, and which he thought suftkient for the 
defence of Washington ! The blockhouse, not larger than a 
peasant's house, was roughly constructed of logs, and alto- 
gether a most miserable and ridiculous concern, which might 
have served as an abode for a company sent out against the 
Indians in the Western wilderness. McClellan had already 
commenced the construction of numerous forts around the 
city, and that next the bridge which we had to pass was called, 
I think, Fort Albany. 

Not far from it, to the right and left of the turnpike-road 
leading to Fairfax and Centreville, extended the camp of the 
German division. It was laid out in the German fashion, the 
tents standing in rows, each regiment separated from the other. 
The lanes between them were ornamented with recently plant- 
ed fir or cedar trees, and the whole made a very friendly and 
even grand impression, especially to us, who had never seen a 
similar thing before. 

The General received us in the most cordial and polite 
manner, surrounded by his splendid staff. 

He was a man about whom I heard, both in Europe and 
America, the most unjust and undeserved judgments, and I 
am anxious to profit by this opportunity to pay a debt of grati- 
tude to this most excellent man, though his noble and kind 
heart was broken long ago, and my endeavours will avail him 

Louis Blenker was, I think, from Worms ; I know, at least, 
that he was domiciled there before the breaking out of the 
German revolution in 1848. After having served in the Bava- 


Ten Years of my Life. 

rian army and in Gree?ce, he became a wine merchant. He 
took part in German revolution, and with a corps of his 
own he made an attempt against the fortress of Landau, in 
which he was wounded. VVlien, in 1849, the Bavarian Palati- 
nate made common cause with revolutionized Baden, he com- 
manded, as colonei, a corps, and retired like Sigel and the rest 
of the popular army to Switzerland, whence he emigrated to 
America. He bought there a farm near Rockville, in the State 
of New York, and when the American wnr broke out he made 
up a regiment (the 8th of New York) and commanded it as 

When I became acquainted w'ith the General he must have 
been near his fiftieth year. He was a fine man, about five feet 
ten inches high, broad in the shoulders, and with an elegant 
figure and bearing. His weather beaten face must have been 
handsome once, and was still agreeable. 

Though a democrat, he had decidedly aristocratic inclina- 
tions, and a foible for noble names. In his staff were many 
noblemen of well known families, and it was noticed that he 
treated them with more reserve than others, never using offen- 
sive language to them. His ofiicers, however, overlooked his 
unpleasant peculiarities for his sterling good qualities ; he was 
very generous and liberal, and a reliable, self-sacrificmg, disin- 
terested friend. 

His military experience was not great ; he knew very Httle, 
if aryHimg, of higher tactics or strategy ; but he was extremely 
brave, a*\d nobody understood better than he how to represent 
a military chief — surrounding himself with all the military 
pomp of a high commanding general as he had seen it in 
Europe, and resembling half a Prussian commanding general, 
half a Turkish pasha. 

In this he differed much from the American generals, whose 
free and easy manner and indifference in regard to outward 
dignity formed a striking contrast to Blenker, whose deport- 
ment, however, pleased the Americans, as something new. 

It is astonishing how many Garman noblemen found it 
necessary to go out of the way of European dithculties, and 
seek a refuge in the United States. The Prussian and Austrian 
army furnished a considerable contingent 01 shipwrecked offi- 
cers, who mostly had to run away before their creditors, or 
who escaped the consequences of some duel, breach of disci- 


E))ug rants. 


ant. He 
■ps of his 
mdau, in 
in Palati- 
he com- 
l the rest 
(rated to 
the State 
he made 
led it as 

list have 

five feet 

I elegant 

ive been 

re many 

that he 
ig offen- 
)ked his 

he was 
I, disin- 

•y little, 
it in 



nnd it 
s, and 
»rs, or 


pline, if not of some less pardonable sins. The salt water 
flowing between Europe and America was, however, supi)osed 
to wash off all European imi)urities. Nobody cared how one 
had sinned in the old country as long as he behaved in a man- 
ner which was thought proi)er in America. 

New York and other large cities were teeming with characters 
of that kind, and their position before the war had been a very 
precarious one. Their military knowledge was not of the slight- 
est use to them in America ; and the social ])rejudices, preten- 
sions, and views which they brought with them were the 
principal impediments to their success. Many j)erished mis- 
erably because they could not renounce them; others cnly 
commenced to get on when the direst necessity had oompellcd 
them to work. Those acted most wisely who at once resolved 
to earn their living, in whatever honest manner, not consider- 
ing whether their occupation was in accordance with the i)osi- 
tion they had held in Europe. '''!\"ork does not dishonour in 
America, but a life of idleness does. 

The revolutions of 1848 and 1849 brought numbers of refu- 
gees from (Germany to America, and they were found not only 
in the cities of the East, but almost everywliere in the United 
States ; and it cannot be denied that this emigration liad a 
great and, I think, salutary intiuencu on the German element 
in America, for amongst these refugees were many disliuguished 
men, though also a great number of blackguards, who are 
always to be found in the wake of revolutions. New York 
especially was crowded with this latter class of peoj)le. 

The outbreak of the war was a godsend to most of the ship- 
wrecked Germans, especially to those from Prussia, as all of 
them had been soldiers, and even the most imperfect know- 
ledge of military things was then of the highest value to the 
Americans, who understood nothing at all of them. ' In the 
land of the blind the one-eyed is king.' Prussian corporals 
became high officers, and those who understood how to strike 
the iron whilst it was red-hot coula rise to the highest military 

The military chiefs of the German revolution, whose impor- 
tance and military talents were greatly exaggerated and mostly 
overrated by their countrymen, rose at once to high places, as 
the American Government acknowledged the military rank 
tiiey had held in the revolution, as had been done also in 


Ten Years of my Life. 

England at the breaking out of the Crimean war. General 
Sigel had a command in the West, and Blenker commanded 
the German division in the East. 

I shall have later an opportunity of speaking of the persons 
.l)elonging to Blenker's staff and corps, and return from this 
digression to the tent of the (ieneral. 

We had not been long there when we heard the sentinels 
present arms, and the curtain at the entrance of the tent was 
thrown back. An officer entered, returning from an inspection 
of the outposts, reporting to the General, who then presented 
him to the ladies as the chief of his staff. — Colonel Prince Salm. 

The Prince was then a man of thirty years. He was of 
middle height, had an elegant figure, dark hair, light mous- 
tache, and a very agreeable handsome face, the kind and 
modest expression of which was highly prepossessing. He 
had very fine dark eyes, which, however, seemed not to be 
very good, as he had to use a glass, which he perpetually wore 
in his right eye, managing it with all the skill of a Prussian 
officer of the guard. 

Though the movements of the Prince were elegant and 
pleasant, he could not get rid of a certain bashfulness or 
embarrassment, which, however, did not make him appear 
awkward, but which prejudiced the ladies in his favour far 
more than boldness and assurance in his demeanour would 
have done. In speaking, even to gentlemen, the Prince had 
always a smiling, pleasant expression, and one could see at 
once that he was an extremely modest, kind-hearted man. 

I felt particularly attracted by the face of the Prince, and it 
was evident that my face had the same effect on him. He 
addressed me in his polite and smiling manner, but, alas, he 
did not speak one word of English, and as I did not under- 
stand either German or French, and only very imperfectly 
Spanish, of which he had some superficial knowledge, our 
conversation would have been very unsatisfactory without the 
assistance of the more universal language of the eyes, which 
both of us understood much better. 

Prince Felix zu Salm-Salm was a younger son of the reign- 
ing Prince zu Salm-Salm, whose now mediatized principality 
is situated in Westphalia, belonging to Prussia. The capital 
of this principality is Bocholt, but the family are now residing 
in the town of Anholt, where they have a very fine old castle. 

TJlc Famllij of Prince Salm-Salni. 


The Salms belong to one of the oldest dynastic families of 
(Germany. Of ils many branches that of Salm-Salm is the 
principal line. 

The father of the Prince was a very kind and excellent man, 
whose memory is still blessed by his former subjects. He was 
also a very induly,cnt father, and as Feli^ was rather his favour- 
ite son he '-as always very generous to him, and perhaps too 
lenient. Bemg rich, he sui)plied him always with ample means, 
and the consequence was that the young Prince became rathe: 
extravagant in his habits, never learning the value of money. 

Still very young, Prince Felix was made an officer, and served 
in the cavalry. In the Holstein war he distinguished himself 
by his bravery, especially in the battle of Aarhuis, where he 
was left with seven wounds on the battle-tield, and made in 
that state a prisoner by the Danes. The King of Pru.;sia re- 
warded his bravery by sending him a sword oi honour, which 
distinction he rated higher than any other he received after- 

The family of Salm-Salm are Catholics, and iliough they 
have become subjects oi the Crown ot Prussia, they, like other 
Catholic princely families of "those parts, observe the practice 
of sending their members not only to the Prussian but also the 
Austrian army. 

Tiiough his gracious Majesty, the present Emperor of Ger- 
many, kindly tried to dissuade Prince Felix from taking such a 
step, other influences unfortunately prevailed ; he resigned his 
place in the Prussian army, and entered that of Austria. 

The old Prince zu Salm-Salm died, and his eldest son 
Alfred, the present reigning prince, became his successor. 
Prince Felix was handsomely provided for, but being very 
young and improvident, he lived in Vienna in an extra\'agant 
manner, which very soon exhausted his means, and delivered 
him over to the tender mercy of sharpers and moneylenders, 
who always are very eager to oblige young reckless and thought- 
less noblemen belonging to families reputed as rich. Not used 
to penury, the Prince, accustomed to satisiy all his wishes, 
signed ever}' paper laid before him, even without reading it, if 
he only got some money ; and he told me that he not rarely 
accei)ted bills to a large amount which were presented and 
paid, though he had never received a penny for them. 



I ( 


Ten Years of 'my Life, 

The family of the Prince was of course not willinf^ to pay 
such recklessly contracted debts. The position of the young 
spendthrift in Vienna became at last too hot ; he went fust to 
Paris, and at last to America, where he arrived in 1861, after 
the outbreak of the war, provided with letters of recommenda- 
tion from the Crown Prince of Prussia to the Prussian Minister 
at Washington, ]]aron von Gerolt zur Leyen. 

Piaron von Gerolt had been in Washington, I bellove, since 
1846. He was well acquainted with all leading American men, 
who all respected him highly, both as a diiilomatist and gentle- 
man. No minister of any Power had at that time more influ- 
ence than the linron, who was the intimate friend of Mr. W. H. 
Seward, the American Secretary of State. Baron Gerolt is a 
very kind-hearted rjan, and many Germans, not only Prussians, 
whose ministers or charges d'affaires were too indifferent to 
trc>uble themselves about poor people, obtained advice and 
help from Baron Geiolt, who even assfsted political refugees, 
though he was very far from approving their political views. 

The Baron, following his instructions, and still more the 
prompting of his kind heart, did all he could for the Prince, 
and in consequence of this he found everywhere a very kind 
reception. Though rep'iblicans, the American ])ecple were no 
enemies to princes ; and knowing them only from fairy tales 
and novels, they entertained about them the most wonderful 
ideas. A live prince was an object of great interest to both 
gentlemen and ladies, and though pretending not to care for 
titles, American ladies make always a great fuss about a prince, 
a count, or a lord. 

The modest Prince was quite terrified when he was offered 
the command of a brigade ot cavalry, which he, however, de- 
clined, because he did not understand the language, which was 
indeed a great drawback. He expressed a wish to serve with 
his countrymen, and General Blenker was glad to receive him 
as the chief of his staff Maybe that the old German Frt'is- 
chiirltT felt flattered to have a German prince under his com- 

I need not tell a ]ove story. Everybodv has experienced 
similar emotions, and my aftair did not differ from the usual 
course. When I left General Blenker's camp I left behind an 
enamoured Prince, whose feelings were far from being indif- 
ferent to me. We saw each other again ; the sweet malady 
increased, and the Pruice proposed. 

DtS'in'tSf^ifl of Ble nicer s Shnf. 


* That you are a prince shall be no impediir.ent to your suc- 
cess with us/ said President Lincf)]n, with a smile to Sahn, 
when he expressed his fear that this hereditary imjierfection 
might l)e prejudicial to his progress in a repubhc ; with me it 
certainly proved no im])ediment. An ample fortune to gild 
the noble escutcheon would have been none either ; nor was it 
his poverty, for I did not love the Prince, I loved the lovable 

Some poets say that love is a madness, and as T believe *n 
poets I suppose they are not far wrong, for in this state things 
are done at which common sense smiles, if it does not frown : 
sensible people, therefore, will not blame the Prince for i)r()- 
posing a private marriage, and that 1 did not resist too hard 
his entreaties. 

We were married on August 30, 1862, in St. Patrick's 
Church, F Street, Washington, by Father Walter, according to 
the rites of the Catholic Church, for both of us were Catholics. 

Witness to this holy ceremony was our intimate friend Colo- 
nel von Corvin, whose name is well known in Germiiny, P'.ng- 
land, and America. He had been one of the military leaders 
in the German revolution of 1848 and '49, and having bom- 
barded the town of Ludwigshafen and defended the fortress of 
Rastatt against the Prussians, assisting the Grand Duke of Ba- 
den, thus covering the retreat of the revolutionary army into 
Switzerland, he was condemned to be shot, but saved by a 
concurrence of favourable circumstances. He was, however, 
confined for six years in a solitary cell of a penitentiary, and, 
when he was still persecuted after his liberation in 1855, he 
retired to England, where he lived as a refugee until 1S61, 
when he went to America as a special correspondent of the 
Augsburg All(:^€mcine Zcitung and the London 2'imcs. When 
General Blenker learnt the arrival of his much-tried old com- 
rade from Baden, he paid him at once a visit at Willard's 
Hotel in Washington, accompanied by his whole staff. On 
this occasion the Prince became acquainted with Corvin, who 
was then forty-nine years old. As the autobiography of the 
Colonel has been published, both in the German and English 
languages, I need not say more about him now. Salm felt 
great confidence in the Colonel, and liked him very much. 
Both became much attached to each other, and remamed true 
friends all these years. 


Ten Years oj my L'ljc. 

Summer ) id autumn passed among events of some im- 
portance, and Salm was still in Washington. Several otTicers 
of Blenker's staff had been dismissed already ; and one day we 
were told by knowing friends that the dismissal of the Prince 
had been resolved on by Stanton, and that he might expect 
official notice every moment. 

Under these circumstances prompt action was required. 
The only siep that cou^d save him was to procure at once the 
command of a regiment in the field Irom some governor before 
this official notice was given, and for this purpose we stn»-«^«'* 
direcdy for New York and Albany, 



Who {governs the Uniterl States? — How it is clone — Tryiii;^ my wings — 
Senator Harris — Albany — Governor Morj^an, the woman hater — My 
first battle — Victory — Sahn, Colonel of the 8th N, Y. Regiment — 
Arrival in Aldy — Breaking up a camp — Ride to Chaniilly— The 
country-seat of a Royal Stuart. 

During the absence of mv husband in the field I had remained 
in Washington, to which place my sister had removed, whose 
husband was employed there. Salm and I kept up a most 
lively correspondence, of course in English, of which he had 
acquired some knowledge. In fact we wrote to each other 
every day, but, owing to the irregularity of the mails, and the 
frequent interruptions of communication, we remained some- 
times very long without any news from each other. I received 
once sixteen of his letters at the same time. 

It is said that ladies have a very great influence in the United 
States, and I think it is so. I suppose, however, that it is 
more or less the case everywhere, for everywhere men are at 
the head of affairs, and everywhere the strong sex are weak. 

I might say a good deal about this influence, and the manner, 
means, and ways in which it is gained, maintained, and used ; 
but for what purpose should I do so ? Th"e ladies are in the 
secret, and if the men do not know it, they may be satisfied 
with the frequently quoted saying that ' ignorance is bliss.' 

A reason why the influence of ladies in America is even 
greater than in other countries may perhaps be that they are as 
a rule very pretty and clever, and that they understand better 
how to control their hearts than is said to be the case in other 
parts of the world. To keep the heart cool is, I suppose, the 
key to the American latlies' secret. 

« I 


s i ' - 




Ten Years of my L'ife. 

Tlicsc have, however, an advantage over their sisters of other 
nations wliich is of tiic greitest weight ; for, to outbalance the 
(liMulvanlage that American gentlemen are not (juite so foolish 
as tl^ose of the French and other European jieopie are reputed 
to be, they are not only extremely generous, but also very dis- 
creet in reference to ladies, and even if tricked and deceived 
by them, perhaps in the most cruel manner, they do not re- 
venge themselves by exposing their ])erhaps imprudent fair 
enemies. An American gentleman — of course 1 speak only of 
i;('ni/tif!t'fi — would iie\er betray the secrets of a lady, and one 
that should sin this sacred law would not only be mor- 
ally lynched by the ladies, but lose caste with the gentlemen. 

I have frequently had an opportunity of noticing and 
wondering at the audacity with which American ladies put this 
gentlemanly virtue to the test, and of admiring the stoical 
composure of men who have not even smiled or showed their 
astonishment when ladies in their presence ventured protesta- 
tions and assertions the falsehood of which none knew belter 
than thev did. 

I soon became aware that we could never progress or suc- 
ceed much in America without the help of influential friends, 
and whilst my husband did his duty in the field I tried to win 
the good opinion and kind interest of men who might be sup- 
posed to be able to assist him. For this purpose nowhere was 
offered a better opportunity than in Washington, where Con- 
gress was in session and all the ministers resided. Congress, 
and especially the Senate, was the spring of grace, and whoever 
had friends in that august body was sure of success. In con- 
sequence of this many people who wanted some favour from 
the Government crowded into Washington, and amongst them 
the fair sex was strongly represented. In fact, there were 
lady-politicians and lady-lobbyists, who made it a business to 
exert the influence which they gained by their coquetry over 
influential men, for the benefit not only of their husbands or 
friends, but even for strangers and for ready cash ! Of course 
these ladies were neither old, nor ugly, nor very prudish, and 
not much respected ; but as society at that time had more an 
eye to gain than to virtue, these ladies in Washington were 
not aware of the contempt in which they were held in other 
parts of the Republic. Washington was then reputed as a 
most wicked and dissipated place, and ladies that could not 

Governor MorjojL 


ce the 
ry dis- 
lot re- 
nt fair 
only of 
id one 
e mor- 
ig and 
put this 
d their 
r better 

or suc- 
to win 
3e sup- . 
ere was 
e Con- 
n con- 
r from 
t them 
e were 
ess to 
y over 
nds or 
h, and 
ore an 
Id as a 
ild not 

afford to pay it a visit shuddered at its wickedness, wliilst it 
was the liigliest desiieof all the rest, es|)ccially if good-looking, 
to pass a season in this abominable place. 

Amongst the friends I made in Washington was the Senator 
of the State of New York, Mr. Harris, who Iiad his wife and 
daughters with him for the season. He was a most excellent 
man, and a great friend of the Germans, whom he assisted 

Senator Harris was a tall, rather heavy man of about fifty- 
five, with a serious but very kind face, the expression of which 
became still milder from the manner in which his rather long 
hair was arranged, somewhat a la Franklin. Like many of the 
American prominent men, he had risen from a humble position. 
Lincoln when young had earned his living by working with his 
hands ; President Johnson had been a tailor ; Senator Wilson, 
of Massachussets, the present Vice-President, was once a shoe- 
maker ; and Senator Harris had been a printer's devil. 

When I heard that Salm's dismissal was already resolved on 
by Stanton, we both agreed that very prompt action was re- 
quired. After having consulted with some of our friends, we 
resolved to go at once to Albany, the seat of the government 
of the State of New York, where we hoped that Senator Harris, 
who was then there, would procure me an audience with 
Governor Morgan ; for as Salm could not speak English enough 
to do so for himself, I was to induce him to give my husband 
the command of some vacant regiment. 

Arrived in Albany, I went alone to see Mr. Harris, for we 
thought it best that the presence of my husband in that city 
should not be known, and he therefore remained . 'he hotel. 

When I told dear old Mr, Harris for what purpose I came 
and what I wanted of him, he shook his head, and said he was 
afraid he could serve me but little, for Governor Morgan was a 
man who did not admit any influence, and on whom even the 
entreaties of a lady would not make any impression. That 
was discouraging indeed, but I was full of hope because I was 
so eager, and I requested Mr. Harris to accompany me at 
least, and to present me to his Excellency, to which he agreed 
most readily. 

Dear me ! how my heart was beating on the way. I had to 
win my spurs, and against a man who had the reputation of 
being a woman-hater. I w^onder how he could ever have been 







7'en Years of my Life. 

elected j^overnof with such a reputation. Harris had even ex- 
pressed a doubt wlicther the Governor would receive me at all, 
and I waited with great anxiety for the return of the aide-de- 
camp who announced us to the dreaded man. The titles of 
Senator and Princess exerted, however, their influence, and we 
were admitted. A Senator of the United States, 1 will mention 
here, ranks before any governor or minister, and is equal to the 
President, therefore a very high personage. 

Governor Morgan was a tall, square-built man, of about forty- 
five, with greyish hair and a handsome but severe face. On 
looking at him my heart fell into my shoes, for 1 saw little hope 
of success in that calm, stern eye. 

With a faltering voice I commenced pleading for my husband. 
I spoke of his ardent desire to serve the cause of the Republic, 
and described his despair at his being kept inactive when his 
comrades won honour in the field ; I praised his military 
qualities, and dwelt on the proofs which he had given of them. 
1 became warmer and warmer, I si)oke for about a quarter of 
an hour, and he never helped me with a word. 

At last the Governor spoke. He said he did not know 
whether any regiments were vacant, and callea a colonel, his 
secretary, to inquire. There were G-veral free, mostly American 
regiments. As my husband did not speak English well enough 
yet, I expressed his desire to be placed, if possible, at the bead 
of one of the German regiments. Yes, there was one free — the 
8th New York. 

Seeing that 1 had won the battle, joy made me very lively 
and bold, and when Governor Morgan seemed still to waver, I 
said that I would not go away without his favourable decision : 
and when he relaxed into a smile at my eagerness, which 
seemed to please and amuse him, and ordered the colonel to 
appoint my husband, I pleadingly insisted on my having his 
commission made out and signed at once, that I might be able 
to carry it to him immediately. That was an important point ; 
for if, meanwhile, the dismissal of the Prince had been made 
officially known, he might not have got the place after all. I 
gained my point ; the Governor ordered the commission to be 
made out at once, and he signed it. 1 thanked him with the 
warmest words, on which he replied that the best manner in 
which 1 could show my gratitude would be to remain always as 
true and faithful to my husband as I was then. When I left 




rer, I 

iion : 


lei to 

[oint ; 


to be 


ler in 


ll left 

the govcrnnuMit building I felt more hai)py than I liave ever 
heen in my liic. 

Senator Harris congratulated me, but shook his head wonder- 
ingly, for he never could have believed in such a success of a 
lady with (lovernor Morgan. \V1ien I entered the room in the 
hotel where Salm was waiting in great anxiety for my return, I 
assumed an indifferent look, and with a sad face he said 1 had 
not been successful. I could not stand it any longer, anil 
taking out my precious document, I said, ' Here, dear, is your 
commission as colonel of the 8th Regiment.' He would, at 
first, not believe it ; but on unfolding the paper the nightmare 
oi)pressing his heart was taken away, and we both shed tears 
of joy. 

We at once left Albany, for Salm had to make preparations 
to join his regiment, which was still in West Virginia. 

At the end of October Salm started for West Virginia, to 
take the command of his regiment, which, in the commence- 
ment of November 1862, stood in the most advanced position 
in Aldy, a place about six miles from General Stahl's head- 
quarters ; and a short time afterwards it was arranged that I 
should pay him a visit under the escort of Colonel Corvin. 

On a night soon after my arrival at Aldy, we received news 
that the enemy were advancing, and towards morning the order 
to retire to Chantilly, a place about ten or twelve miles from 

The soldiers regretted having to leave, for they had es- 
tablished themselves rather comfortably. Most of them had 
improved their tents by means of boards and doors, using the 
canvas as a roof. Many of these huts had even a window and 
stoves. The breaking up of the camp was a new and stirring 
scene, and I was much amused notwithstanding a fine rain, 
which did not make the November morning more pleasant. Our 
tent was of course packed also, and whilst the preparations were 
going on I was sitting on a chair on its wooden flooring, 
warmed by a roaring fire close by. The soldiers not willing 
to leave to the rebels all their elaborate commodities, burnt 
every piece of board or furniture they had. 

It was arranged that I and Colonel Corvin should ride in 
advance of the brigade to Chantilly. The drizzling rain had 
become a most abundant one, and our sharp ride was no 
pleasure party especially for the colonel, to whom I had con- 


I'cn Years of my Lije. 

fided a large and fine red ostrich plume for my hat, wliic h I 
did not want to have spoiled, and which he, half lauL;hing and 
half grumbling, sheltered under his waterproof. 

We arrived in good time at Chantilly, and were surprised at 
finding here quite a princely establishment, with a mansion, 
which would be allied in France or Germany a chateau, and 
with a magnificent stable buildings, justifying somewhat the 
name of Chantilly, borrowed from the far-famed seat ot the 
Princess of Conde near Paris, and renowned for its palace-like 
stables. The splendid estate belonged to the famous rebel 
cavalry-general Stuart, who derived his origin from the Koyai 
Stuarts, I do not know with what right 


Rctiiining to Wasliingtnn — Rumside's defeat at FrcdcrlcltsTnirg— "Return • 
iiif^ to tlu' camp— Our birthday — How the soldiers celebrated it — A 
curious biilliday cake — Aquaia Creek — Our canvas palace — General 
Hooker coniniandin}^ the Potomac army — Our factotum, old Groebeii 
— General Sickles — His sumptuous festival- -How Uncle Sam caretl 
for his soldiers — Mr. and Sirs. Lincoln visitinj^ the camp — The 
President's wife — Portrait of President Lincoln — Salm's regiment 
mustered out -Returning Home — Reception in Washington — In 
New York — A festival in llamdton Park — ?^alm presenttd with a 
sword of honour — A soldier's ball — 1 must attempt a speech — Turnin^i 
another leaf. 

When the Confederates advanced, some fighting took place 
near Chantilly, and our troops received orders to fall back 
towards the Rappahanoc River. I accompanied my husband 
lor a while, after which he thought it better that I should go 
to Washington, until the troops should have arrived at some 
l)lace where they would remain perhaps for the winter. I 
went away in company of Colonel von Amsberg's wife, and 
stayed a few weeks in the National Hotel in Washington. 

These short separations from my dear Felix were not with- 
out charm, for I could quietly reflect on and enjoy my happi- 
ness. I was then happy, as I have never been again in my 
life. My husband was in the position he desired, and perfectly 
contented, and we loved each other very much. • 

When the Potomac army arrived at the Rappahanoc, there 
were no means ready to cross that river, and General liurnside 
had to wait eight precious days, which were not lost by the 
Confederates. Corvin wrote to Europe, that if Burnsidc 
crossed the Rappahanoc we should experience a second edition 
of the Berezine battle, no miracle preventing such a disaster. 
He was right. Biirnside crossed\that river ; the bloody battle 


Ten Years of my Life. 

of Fredericksburg was fought in December, 1S62; and bid 
iiurnside not been wise enough to profit by an unusually 
stormy niglit, and to recross the rivei, the whole army would 
have been lost, as it was standing on a plain surrounded 
with hills which were occupied by the Confederates. Salni 
was not in that battle. 

The 8th New York Regiment, and Stahl's whole division, 
halted at a place near the Potomac, and Salm sent word for 
me to come. I went down the river on a gunboat, and drove 
from the landing to the camp in an ambulance. Saim's regi- 
ment was encamped m a pine grove, on the slope of a hill not 
far from a village where Stahl had established his head-quarters. 
It was a beautiful spot, and the weather was extremely mild 
and fine on December 25, Saim's and my birthday. The sun 
was shining brightly, and the birds were singing in the grove. 

In the commencement of the war, each regiment had its 
band ; bu: I'lis was found superfluous, and afterwards only each 
brigad '• i division had one. Stahl sent one of these bands to 
serenade us in the morning, and the soldiers of the regiment 
had prepared a surprise for us. They had laid out a little 
garden with much taste, in the old Italian style. The beds, 
into which it was divided, were surrounded with stones, of 
which also figures were formed. Little shrubs and trees were 
planted, and on one bed was standing what looked like an 
enormous birthday cake. It was a soldier's joke, for a real 
cake being out of the question, they had made one of mud, and 
ornamented it as is done by the confectioners in Germany, 
with green leaves, coloured sand, and stones representing fruit. 

We were then very badly off for food in the camp, for the 
enemy had succeeded in capturing several provision trains. 
For many days we had, indeed, nothing but salt pork — and 
not much of it — and hard tack. The soldiers soaked the 
latter in water, and fried it with the salt pork ; they prepared 
a dish which«was at lea :t eatable. The officers had nothing else, 
for the roads in Virginia 'ere at that time bad beyond all descrip- 
tion, and provision vendors were not permitted to come to the 
camp at that time, for fear of being intercepted by the enemy, 
and the regiment sutlers were long ago exhaused. 

When the officers came to congratulate us, we wished, of 
course, to offer them some refreshment ; and with the utmost 
difficulty Salm procured four bottles of very vile whiskey, for 

Tent Furniture, 



e an 





• the 








which he had to pay eight dollars a bottle. Sugar and some 
lemons were procured also, and we could treat our guests 
with a punch which found immense favour with them, though 
it was a most abominable, abundantly watered stuff. We were, 
however, as merry and happy as could be. 

After a time, in January, 1863, we received orders to march 
to Aquaia Creek, where a good number of troops were assem- 
bled. The march there was very difficult and disagreeable, 
for the roads were, as mentioned before, beyond description. 
The soldiers sunk up to their knees in the mud, and the 
waggons and guns were often not to be moved by a whole herd 
of horses or mules. 

This state of the roads made war nearly impossible for both 
parties, and we expected that we should remain a good while, 
perhaps the whole winter, at Aquaia Creek, and arranged our- 
selves accordingly. Salm procured a large hospital tent, which 
was decorated very tastefully and even gorgeously ; for amongst 
the soldiers of his regiment were workmen of all trades ; uphol- 
sterers, carpenters, &c. The tent was made less transparent 
by doubling and decorating it with white and red woollen 
damask, arranged in festoons, between which were fastened 
flags. The board floor was covered with a carpet, and our 
sa/on was provided with a s[)lendid sofa, which the soldiers had 
very skilfully made. Though the cushions were only straw, 
they were well made, and covered with damask. The admi- 
ration of everybody was, however, a large mirror which Salm, 
with great trouble, had procured from a neighbouring village, 
imagining that no lady could be happy without a looking-glass. 
I had, however, little need of it, as my toilet in the field was 
as simple as possible. I had a black and a grey riding dress 
— I must have a change, as we not rarely got drenched in our 
excursions on horseback — and two uniform-like costumes, 
which I adopted for the whole war-time in the field, consisting 
of a petticoat falling to my ankles, and a tight-fitting jacket, 
both of cloth. 

Our bedroom looked also, splendid ; for the soldiers had 
made of boards a large bedstead, and provided it with a straw 
mattress, over which was spread a buffalo robe, and another, 
together with blankets, served as a coverlet. Over our heads 
arched a canopy, decorated with white and red damask, and 
the whole looked quite grand. 


Ten Years of my Life. 

We possessed, also, a tin service for six persons, not to for- 
get half a dozen of knives and forks, so that we were enabled 
to entertain a guest ur two. Behind our canvas palace was a 
smaller tent, which served as a kitchen and a dormitory for 
my negro servant girl, whom I had brought with me from 
Washington, and a shed was used as a stable for our horses. 

Starvation was at an end now, for victuals of all kinds were 
abundant. We had our own caterer, who provided us with all 
the delicacies of the season, and our wine cellar, which was 
dug in the ground, contained bottles of the most different 
shapes and contents. 

When it became certain that we were to stay all the winter 
where we were, the camp assumed soon the aspect of an im- 
provised town. General Hooker, who commanded the corps, 
and of whom I shall speak directly, permitted the families of 
the officers and soldiers to visit and stay with them, and the 
whole camp was teeming with women and children. In fact 
there was scarcely one officer who had not his wife, mother, 
sister, or cousin with 'him, and beside the tent sprang up like 
mushrooms one shanty or blockhouse after the other. The 
country around was fine, the weather mostly mild and pleasant, 
and everybody only thinking how to amuse himself and others. 
I felt as happy as could be, and remember still with delight 
that time. 

Whilst we were there we were joined by a relative of my 
husband, Mr. v. d. Groeben, a former captain of the Holy 
Father's army, for whom Salm procured a captain's commis- 
sion. Old Groeben, as we called him, though he was not old, 
became much attached to us, and contributed immensely to 
our comfort. He installed himself as our major-domo, man- 
aged all our affairs, and arranged all pleasure parties and the 
like. He was a somewhat pedantic, queer man, who grumbled 
always and at everything, though he by no means satui- 
nine or of bad temper, but, on the contrary, rather full of a quiet 
good humour. He was everywhere with us, though it cost 
him many sighs and groans to. follow us across the country, 
for he was a very indifferent horseman, and, warned by nume- 
rous tumbles, he preferred whenever he could a seat in a boat 
or ambulance to one in the saddle. 

As we had to do nothing but amuse ourselves, and kill the 
time agreeably, scarcely a day passed without some excursion, 

A CaiKp Sii.pper. 



pleasure party, dinner, or ball ; and for the entertainment of 
the soldiers care was taken likewise. 

Some of these festivals were indeed sumptuous, and I espe- 
cially remember one given by General Sickles, in a hall impro- 
vised from canvas by uniting a dozen or more large hospital 
tents in a convenient manner. 

This immense tent was decorated inside and outside with 
flags, garlands, flowers, and Chinese lann)s in great profusion, 
and otfered a fairy-like aspect. The supper laid under the tent 
for about two hundred persons, ladies and gentlemen, could 
not have been better in Paris, for ine famous Delmonico from 
New York had come himself to superintend the repast, and 
brought with him his kitchen aides and batteries, and immense 
quantities of the choicest provisions and delicacies, together 
with plate and silver, and whatever was required to make one 
forget that it was a camp supper. The wines and liquors were 
in correspondence with the rest, and no less, I suppose, the 
bill to be paid. 

It is true it was an unheard-of luxury displayed on this 
occasion, and had such a festival taken place in a German 
carnp it would have creatctl throughout the country a bad feel- 
ing, and the press would have commented on it in no pleasing 
manner. It was, however, far different in America. Soldiers 
and people liked and approved such display ; they would have 
blamed parsimonious generals, whilst they did not control too 
closely those who freely spent what they perhaps made in 
consequence of their position. Moreover, many of them were 
very rich. The soldiers did not grudge the generals their 
luxurious habits either ; they found an amusement in such 
festivals, and were sensible enough to understand that they 
could not all partake ir) them. It would have been difl'erent 
if thi Government had been stingv towards the army, but 
that was by no means the case. ' Uncle Sam ' opened his 
strong boxes, and the army was paid and supplied with pro- 
visions in a manner quite unheard of in P^urope. If accidents 
inseparable from such a war prevented the arrival of provis- 
ions for a time, there was always plenty, and not only the main 
necessities of life, but things were furnished which never 
appear in the stores of a German army, and which would be 
there considered as preposterous. Though the immense dis- 
tances and the bad state of the roads made this branch of the 


Ten Years of my Life, 

service extremely difficult, the practical sense of the Americans 
surmounted all difficulties, and soon after the commencement 
of war things in the commissariat of the army went like clock- 
work. The rich American people did not care if some hun- 
dreds of millions were perhaps squandered ; trade in the North 
States was as brisk as ever ; nay, on the contrary, war, instead 
of hindering, seemed to increase it. Money was circulating 
more freely than ever, and instead of suffering, the country, 
and especially the cities, seemed to improve by the war. 

The soldiers lived well, for they were paid well. Everything 
was furnished to them liberally by the Government ; nothing 
was deducted from their pay, which amounted even for private 
soldiers to fourteen dollars a month. Everything was done 
for the soldiers of the nation by the National Government, 
the utmost care taken to procure for them all possible commo- 
dities, and private industry speculating in that direction was 
never hindered except by the requirements of discipline. The 
connection between the army and home was carefully consi 
dered, and the postal arrangements were wonderfully regular, 
notwithstanding the enormous distances. Virginia alone is as 
large as all Germany, and the distance from the Mississippi to 
New York as great as the whole length of Europe. 

It was indeed interesting to observe the wonderful celerity 
with which the Americans proceeded. ' Adams's Express 
Company ' and the telegraph were institutions which I might 
say followed the skirmishers. At the same time, with the first 
tent generally grew up a shanty with die firn of ' Adams's Ex- 
press,' which conveyed parcels of every size to the army and 
throughout the Union. In America it was thought desirable 
that the soldiers should know what their comrades were doing 
hundreds of miles off. One of the fir^t things done was there- 
fore the arrangement of a very regular newspaper service. 
Stations were established between the camp and the next rail- 
road or steamship landing, and newsboys on horseback, nearly 
disappearing between papers, came in full gallop and brought 
the welcome sheets to the soldiers, who bought thousands of 
copies, paying with pleasure double prices and more. 

A department highly important for the comfort of the sol- 
diers is that of the sutlers, and I frequently wondered how 
miserably this branch was arranged in the German army, which 
in other respects is so far superior to any other. I shall speak 

Camp Life at Aquaia Creek. 


le sol- 

of this and many oilier things in their place, but only mention 
liere that the care for the extra and }jrivale comfort of the sol- 
diers was in the American army not left to such low and desti- 
tute wretches as we have seen disgracing the (ierman by their 
rapacity. The sutlers were regularly appointed and enrolled, 
and wore uniforms, and many of them were very substantial 
people, kept well-supplied stores, and had many subordinates 
and agents. Of abuses and other inconveniences in this 
respect, I shall have occasion to speak later. Liquors were 
prohibited in the American army, which would appear quite 
intolerable to German soldiers ; but wit'a Americans it was 
necessary ; especially in regiments where the Irish element 
prevailed. Germans are reasonable in the use of liquor ; 
Americans, 1 am sorry to say, are in general not ; and besides 
it must be considered that discipline in an army formed like 
the American could not be maintained in the same manner as 
in the German army. 

Of the sanitary arrangements I must speak more at length 
later ; I shall drop the subject, and return to our delightful 
camp life near Aquaia Creek, which was a string of anmse- 

In the daytime we wentabout visiting our neighbours, amongst 
whom were very pleasant people. And every evening we had 
receptions in our tent. We played a rubber of whist, whilst 
Groeben was brewing punch or eggnog for our guests, who 
retired always at midnight. 

There were, of course, plenty of newspaper reporters in our 
camp ; and as they bad not much to write about the war, they 
described our sports and festivals, which descriptions tempted 
many people to pay us a visit ; and even Mr. Lincoln, or per- 
haps Mrs. Lincoln, could not resist. The announcement of 
this visit caused, of course, great excitement ; and preparations 
were made to entertain them as well as possible. They were 
to stay at General Hooker's head-quarters ; but the real maitre 
de plaisbs was General Sickles, who had been in Europe, and 
who knew all about it. He wanted to introduce even some 
novelties of a monarchical smack, and proposed to appoint for 
the time of the visit some ladies of honour to attend on Mrs. 
Lincoln. This plan, however, was not to the liking of the 
American ladies, each of whom thought herself quite as 
sovereign as the wife of the President. 



Ten Years of my Life. 

President Lincoln's features are well known. People 
that his face was ugly. He certainly had neither the figure nor 
features of the Apollo of Belvedere ; but he never appeared 
ugly to me, for his face, beaming with boundless kindness and 
benevolence towards mankind, had the stamp of intellectual 
beauty. I could not look into it without feeling kindly towanls 
liim, and without tears starting to my eyes, for over tlie whole 
face was spread a melancholy tinge, which some will have 
noticed in many persons who are fated to die a violent death. 

A German author, I think it is L. Tieck, says somewhere 
that one loves a person only the better on discovering in him 
or her something funny or ridiculous, and this remark struck 
me as very correct. We may worship or revere a perfect per- 
son ; but real warm human affection we feel towards such as 
do not overawe us, but stand nearer to us by some imperfec- 
tion or peculiar weakness ])rovoking a smile. President Lin- 
coln's appearance was peculiar. There was in his face besides 
kindness ar^d melancholy, a sly humour flickering around the 
corners of his big mouth and his rather small and somewhat 
tired-looking eyes. 

He was tall and thin, with enormously long loose arms and 
big hands, and long legs ending with feet such as I never saw 
before ; one of his shoes might have served Commodore Nutt 
as a boat. The manner in which he dressed made him appear 
even taller and thinner than he was, for the clothes he wore 
seemed to be transmitted to him by some still taller elder 
brother. In summer, when he wore a suit made of some light 
black stuff, he looked like a German village schoolmaster. He 
bad very large ears standing oft a little, and when he was in a 
good humour I always expected him to flap with them like a 
good-natured elephant. 

Notwithstanding his peculiar figure, he did not appear ridi- 
culous ; he had of the humourous just as much about him as 
the people like to see in public characters they love. Lincoln 
was beloved by the Americans more than any other man ; he 
was the most popular President the United States ever had, 
Washington and Jackson not excepted. 

I need not say that e^- ything was done by the command- 
ing-generals to entertain Mrs. Lincoln and the President, who 
on revievvuig the troops was everywhere received with heart- 
felt cheers. 


e said 
re nor 
;s and 
I have 
in him 
ct per- 
uch as 
it Lin- 
nd the 

ps and 
:er saw 




ne light 


las in a 

like a 

ir ridi- 
lim as 
in coin 
an ; he 
:ir had, 

it, who 

A Ueccptiun on New Years Day. 


After having lived now for a number of years in P'urope, I 
can well understand the astonishment of (iermans newly arriv- 
ing in America on seeing the simple and unceremonious manner 
in which die President is treated. 

Though standing at the head of 40,000,000 of people, and 
having during their reign more power than any European king, 
neither Lincoln, nor Johnson, nor Grant behaved with half tlie 
conceit that we notice in a Prussian ' Regierungsrath.' The 
title of the l^resident is ' your Excellency ;' but it is only used 
by foreigners. Americans call him Mr. President, or simply 
by his name. There were before the White House no sentinels, 
not even a porter ; everybody could enter the residence of the 
nation. There were ooe or two oificials in citizens' dress in 
the house to answer cjuestions ; but no crowd of gorgeously 
liveried footmen was to be seen, and even at great public re- 
ceptions everything went off as simply as possible, only such 
arrangements being made as were necessary for preventing 
confusion. There was no particular dress required, and sol- 
diers coming directly from the camp m their cloaks went simply 
in and shook hands with their highest chief. 

Such a reception, for instance, at New Year's Day was very 
hard work for the President, especially for Lincoln, whose re- 
ceptions were always excessively crowded, because people 
loved him. All visitors entered a certain door, and passed — 
as they came — in a single file to the President, to whom a 
marshal called out the names. The President shook hands 
with everyone, saying, at least, ' How do you do ? ' if not hav- 
ing occasion for a few words more. The file passed out through 
a window on a kind of bridge constructed of simple board. 
This hand-shaking was a most fatiguing exercise, for it had to 
be repeated several thousand times and President Lincoln's 
shoulder was always swollen after it, so that he could scarcely 
use his arm for a few days. 

Notwithstanding this absence of ceremony, the President is 
respected as much as any king. Outward pomp is not required 
with a free people. An Asiatic despot would be nothing with- 
out his guards, his throne, and gorgeous dresses, &:c. The real 
power of a prince is based on the love of his nation, and the 
comparative simplicity with which our august empress and 
emperor appear now always in public is a very significant 


Ten Years of my Life. 

\' i\ 



I explained before that the American soldiers were engaged 
only for a certain time, and that the commission of the colonel 
and other ofliccj's expired when the regiment was disbanded ; 
they became then again simple citizens, receiving neither pay 
nor pensions, if not disabled in the service. Did they want to 
serve again, they had to look out for a new commission, and it 
happened ireciucntly that they accepted one of a lower degree ; 
that is, former colonels became perhaps captains or lieutenants. 
Nay, I knew a case where a colonel entered as a private sol- 
dier in a regiment, which was commanded by a colonel who 
had served before as a private in his former regiment. 

When the war commenced it was expected to last only a 
short time, and the 8lh New York Regiment, which was one 
of the first formed, was engaged only for two years. Its term 
therefore expired in the s])ring of 1863, and Salm was, of 
course, to be dismissed with his men. He was therefore 
anxious to procure a new colonel's commission, which was not 
so very difficult for him , but a colonel was only accepted as 
such by the War Department of the Union if he brought with 
him a regiment, or, at least, 700 men of it. Had the men of 
the 8th Regiment chosen to enlist for another term, everything 
might have remained as it was, but the men wanted mostly to 
go home for a time, and only about a hundred remained. 

Salm tried hard to arrange everytliing so as to make it pos- 
sible to remain with the army, as heavy figliting was to be 
expected very soon ; but he did not succeed, notwithstanding 
the goodwill of the commanding generals. He had to lead his 
regiment back to New York, where it had to be disbanded. 

I was at that time in Washington, very busy in behalf of my 
husband. The 7th and 8th New York Regiments, on their 
way to their city, had to pass Washington, whose citizens pre- 
pared for them a reception. Accompanied by Colonel Corvin, 
who rode Blenker's most beautiful thorough-bred Victor, and 
several other ofiicers, we proceeded to the landing on the Po- 
tomac, where the regiments were to arrive in large transport 
steamers. They were received with much cheering, and after 
having formed, the whole procession, headed by myself and a 
numerous cortege, marched across Washington to the New 
York railroad depot. The 7th regiment had been commanded 
by Colonel von Schack, a very brave and popular officer, who 
was formerly a chamberlain of the Princess Charles of Prussia, 

End of a pleasant pericd of my Life. 



nd a 

and who for similar reasons to Salm's had come to America. 
In his regiment had i)een, as a captain, anotlier Prii.'.sian 
officer, who had served in the 0;irdes du Corps, Von lUii^^ucn- 
hagen. He was severely wounded at the battle of Fredericks- 
burg, and died in Washington on the New Year's night. 

He was buried with all military honours through the care 
of the Colonels Corvin and Radowitz, and Mr. Gau, Secretary 
of the Prussian Legation, in the senatorial churchyard, where 
he lay at the side of Captain Schwenke and Lieutenant-Colonel 
Gerber, who was murdered by mistak.% a jealous lover taking 
him for another man. 

We went to New York, where the regiment was disbanded. 
The returning soldiers were received by their fellow-citizens 
with great rejoicing, and all contributed to do them honour. 
On the 2nd of May, Mr. Landmann and Mr. Edinger enter- 
tained at their expense the whole regiment in Landi"»'»;inii's 
' Hamilton Park,' and on this occasion the soldiers presented 
Salm with a testimony of their love and respect, consisting of a 
magnificent sword of honour, with a solid golden scabbard and 
hilt with silver ornaments bearing the following inscription : 
*The Soldiers of the 8th regiment, N.Y.S.V., to their Colonel 
Felix, Pr. Salm.' Salm thanked them in some deeply-felt 
appropriate words, and the whole festival gave general satis- 

In the evening we had a ball, where all the soldiers appeared 
with their wives or sweethearts, whom they presented to me, 
and I held quite a reception. I scarcely recognized the well- 
known faces of the soldiers, who appeared in their citizen 
dresses. It was a very pleasant party, and I felt quite affected 
by the kind and confident manner in which I was treated by 
these good Germans. At supper I was of course toasted, and 
when Salm rose to answer, he was silenced by che clamorous 
demand for a speech from me. I had to comply, and my 
efforts to express myself in German were received with thunder- 
ing applause. 

Thus ended a very pleasant, rather too short, period of my 
American life, and one of trouble and anxiety commenced. 


m i 


Our New York liTe — In a Methodist's house — Salm, Colonel of the 68th 
Regiment N.V.V. — In partibus — Recruiting difficulties — Salm autho- 
rised to raise a brigade — Ilis and Corvin's recruting plan favoured by 
Secretary of State, W. II. Seward — An audience with President 
Lincoln — Secretary of War Stanton opposing — A visit to Blenker's 
farm — The battle of Chancellorville — Defeat of Hooker— Superseded 
by General Meaae — The glorious battle of Gettysburg — General 
Sickles severely wounded — The New Y^rk Riots — Mrs, Bennett — 
Mr. James Gordon Bennett — His Son — Fort Washingron — TiiC first 
appearance of Master Jimmy — Mrs. James Speier — The Spiritualist 
Excitement — Mrs. Anna Sugdon, a pretty knocking, and Mrs. Heath 
Adams, a writing medium — Spiritual seances at my house — At Mrs. 
Bennett's— The flying music-book— At Mrs. Speier's--A table 
knocked off its legs— A detected tipping medium— Bad state of affairs 
— I go out recruiting to Washington. 

We took private lodgings in 32, Bond Street, New York, in 
the house oi" Rev. Baldwin, a Methodist preacher. Every 
Wednesday and Saturday night prayer meetings were held in a 
large room Adjoining ours, and we were much astonished by 
the clamorous devotion of the congregation. The spirit moved 
them vehemently, and those who did not know what they were 
about would have believed that the inmates of a madhouse had. 
broken loose. Their ecstacies were wonderful, and the longer 
the thing lasted, the louder and wilder and more piercing be- 
came the shrieks of the devoted. Dozens of voices cried out, 
* Jesus Christ, come down, come down, that we can touch 
your garments 1 ' or ' Glory, glory, glory ! Many fainted or fell 
down in fits, kicking and beating the ground. 

One of these nights, when some particular occurrence must 
have moved the saints in an unusual manner, the police 
knocked at our shutters — we lived on the ground-floor — and 

Recruit uiQ. 


in a 
I by 
5 be- 




told us to stop that fighting and sl^riL•kin',^ wliirh nlarmod the 
whole street. They were nuich astonished on liearini; that the 
Methodists were only flighting with the devil, and having no 
desire to hinder su( h holy contests, they disa])i)earcd awe- 
struck. 'A'e afterwards always went out on those evenings. 

Salm succeeded in his endeavours to get a new colonel's 
commission from the Governor of New York, who appointed 
him colonel of the 68th Regiment N.Y.V. That regiment was 
not yet disbanded, and figured still on the list of regiments in 
the service, but it had dwindled away to scarcely one com|)any 
who stood in the field. Salm had to reorganise the regiment, 
and opened a recruiting office in Broadway, No. 619, at Mail- 
lard's Hotel. He was very sanguine in his hopes, and, being 
ambitious also, he wanted to raise a whole brigade, for which 
he procured the authorisation and the promise of several colo- 
nels in par/i/fus, to serve under his command. 

Things had, however, changed very much since i86r. The 
immense losses sustained in McClellan's peninsular campaign, 
on the many battle-fields and the swamps of Chickahominy ; 
the hardships which the soldiers had to undergo, the incompe- 
tence of most generals, and the barbarous manner in which 
the soldiers were still treated in the army, had considerably 
cooled down the military enthusiasm of the nation. When 
the war commenced most people imagined that it would be 
soon and gloriously ended, and, excited by the political ora- 
tors, and attracted by the novelty of military life, of which the 
dark and appalling features were not known yet, an immense 
number of volunteers rushed to the recruiting offices. In fact, 
the whole first army consisted of volunteers. That was at an 
end now, and the Governments of the different States had to 
resort to all kinds of inducements, which, however, did not 
induce many, and the advantages and promises granted to sol- 
diers had to be made more alluring every month. The Gov- 
ernment of New York offered a bounty of three hundred dol- 
lars to everyone who enlisted for three years ; and patriotic 
sociedes throughout the United States, and the Genen \ Gov- 
ernment itself, provided means to increase this bounty, v^hich 
at the end of the war amounted in several states to nearh/ one 
thousand dollars. This bounty was, of course, not to be paid 
at once and in. advance, but it was sure to be paid at the end 


Ten Years of my Life. 


1 • 

if .. 

,1 i 

of the war, or after three years, or sooner if the soldier should 
])e killed, or die when in service, to his heirs. 

It was very naiural that the attention of sharpers, and all 
sorts of people who wanted to make money in an easy manner, 
was soon directed to this recruiting business. Promises, how- 
ever great and sure, have not much attraction for common 
men ; they ])refer a hundred dollars in cash to a thousand to 
be paid after three years, and there were i)lenty of people 
ready to furnish such cash, well satisfied with the certainty of 
getting six or ten times the amount after three years. A colo- 
nel raising a regiment, and desirous of reaching as soon as 
})0ssible the number ret^uired for his acceptance by the Gene- 
ral Government, could not succeed without the assistance- of 
agents, who hunted out people willing to enlist on payment of 
a small sum, and to cede all their claims to them. 

The agents were, however, not the only persons who had an 
eye to business ; the men on whom they speculated were just 
as sharp as themselves, and amongst them were precious 
rogues who liked the money but not the service. Knowing 
that most of these recruiting agents were sharpers, and not 
particular in regard to the honesty of their transactions, they 
did not think it a crime to cheat them. Circumstances flivoured 
their fraudulent 'ntentions, and they had hundreds of means to 
carry them out. In European States everybody is, as it were, 
labelled by the police as soon as he is born, and in the books 
of this institution is to be found his biography. That is not 
so in America, where the police only take notice of a person 
when committing some breach of the law. Many persons 
enlisted under a false name, and deserted, after having received 
money, to a neighbouring State, where they repeated the same 
trick. Those who practised this business were called ' bounty- 
jumpers,' and they were severely punished — if caught. 

Poor Salm, though a very brave soldier, was very little fit for 
this kind of business, and became utterly disgusted with it : 
necessity compelled him to go on as well as he could, but he 
made indeed but little progress. 

It was natural that he reflected on some more effective 
manner of raising men for his brigade, and as so many people 
came from Europe attracted by the war, his eyes were longingly 
directed towards that country where recruiting under such 
favourable terms would have been the most easy work in the 


i all 
d to 
ty of 
)n as 
ce- of 
;nt of 

ad an 
e just 
id not 
h they 
ans to 
is not 

ith it : 
ut he 





In the 

Itccrn tting Slia r^'crft. 


world. Tlicre were thousands of younj,' men wlio woull ha\c 
liked to eniiL^rate if they rould only find the means to jkiv llicir 
passa^'e, and being comi)t'lled to serve in tiie armies of iheir 
native countries for a very low pay, and no bounty at all, tliey 
would most willingly serve in that of the United Stites, on re- 
ceiving free passage, a round sum of money, fourteen dollars a 
month, and after the expiration of their time a grant of a con- 
siderable number of acres from the (loverninent. 

Tlie subject was freijuently discussed between him and Col- 
onel Corvin, who was much in favour of emigration. Corvin 
had arrived in Washington with very good recommendations 
to President J.incoln, who introduced him to the Secretarv of 
State, Mr. Seward, in whose house he was very kindly received. 
He ])assed many evenings, sometimes alone, with that eminent 
statesman, who conceived a very favourable opmion of the 
military talents of the colonel. He offered him repeatedly 
the command of a regiment, but the colonel declinetl, not 
liking the state of military affiirs in the United States, and 
preferring his jjosition as a war correspondent to the intUiential 
pajjcrs with which he was connected. Mr Seward even had 
the intention of making him a general, and employing him in 
the organisation of a great general staff, which was an utterly 
unknown thing in the United States. He caused him to con- 
fer on that subject with Senator Wilson, of Massachusetts, 
who was at the head of the military commission of the Senate. 
The affair ended, however, in nothing, as it was impossible to 
make people understand the utility or necessity of a general 
staff. ' The generals had all their staff, and staffs were nui- 
sances ; they required practical field ot^cers.' 

When the diliiculty of raising men was once spoken of, 
Colonel Corvin suggested the above mentioned idea to Mr. 
Seward, who was rather pleased with it, and thought it practi- 
cal. He promised to speak about it to the President, and one 
day Salm and the colonel had an audience. 

The colonel, who speaks English quite perfectly, explained 
to the President his and Salm's plan, requiring from him au- 
thority to raise twenty thousand men for the army of the 
United States. 

President Lincoln, his knees drawn up, his head in both 
hands, and his elbows resting on his knees, listened attentively 
for about a quarter of an hour. When the colonel had finish- 


: — _ ..j^nm 


Ten Years of r)iy Life. 


! : 






11 ! 

J I 

ed, Mr. Lincoln remained for a time silent, then at once he 
threw up his long arms, caUing out in his peculiar manner, 
' Well, gentlemen, that's a very great affair ! But mind, I do 
not promise you anything for certain, I must first speak to the 
Secretary of War !' 

In the ensuing conversation he touched on the difficulties 
into which his Government might get with the European Pow- 
ers, on which Colonel Corvin said, that if he gave Salm and 
him authority to raise twenty thousand men it did not include 
the authority to raise them in Europe, and whaC *^hey thought 
expedient to do for the purpose would be done on their own 
danger and responsibility. 

' Bring the men,' said Mr. Lincoln, * you know they will be 
welcome, and no questions asked.' 

' Yes, Mr. President,' answered Corvin, * but I cannot tret 
them without money, and cannot get money v/ithout your sig- 
nature, under the requested authorisation.' Mr. Chittenden, 
then * Register of the Treasury,' to whom Corvin had commu- 
nicated the plan, had said that his bankers would be at the 
colonel's disposition if l^incoln would give such authorisation. 

The negotiations ended, however, in nothing, for Mr. Stan- 
ton, who was utterly disgusted with foreip^neib,, and besides 
averse to anything supported by Mr. Seward, would i"»ear noth- 
ing of such a proposition, and opposed it decidedly. I will 
only mention in reference to this affair a circumstance w'lich 
is rather characteristic. The Prince and Corvin signed a paper 
promising an influential person twenty thousand dollars if the 
President would sign the requested authorisation. 

While Salm was busy all day with his recruiting affairs, my 
life in New York was by no means agreeable, especially as it 
was midsummer and the heat overpowering. I accepted, 
therefore, with pleasure, the invitation of General Blenker to 
pass a few weeks on ' Blenker's Farm,' near Rookville, in the 
State of New York. 

Dear old Blenker's home was a place which I remember 
with great pleasure and affection. I have seen grander country 
seats, but nowhere have I been received with such heartfelt 
kindness and hospitality, and nowhere I felt more at home. 

It was a delightful time. Poor Blenker died, I think, in 
r)ecember of the same year. I am glad that I have had an 
ojjportunity of doing justice to his memory, for he has been 


' ( 

General Ilouher. 


U it 





• I 


reviled much by his enemies, who treated him mist unjusily 
and shamefully. 

I mentioned that heavy fighting was expected to take place 
soon when my husband's regiment and himself were disbanded. 
These expectations were mere than fulfilled by 'Plighting Joe,' 
as General Hooker was called, who crossed the Rappahanoc 
at Kelley's Ford above Fredericksburg, and took up a position 
near Chancellorsville 

Hooker, whose design was said to be to attack the rebels in 
flank and rear, was attacked himselt on the 2nd May, 1863, 
by Stonewall Jackson, who appeared on his right flank. The 
right wing, consisting of the iitli Corps, compo>ed only of 
(jt'rman regiments, was rolled up like a sheet of paper. Fight- 
ing was continued the following davs with no better success, 
and Hooker, profiting by an opportune storm ot heavy ram, 
recrossed the river on the 8th of May at night, having lose in 
these days above twenty thousand men. 

Hooker was a great favourite vvith the Americans, and as 
they did not like to lay the fiiult of this great disaster on his 
shoulders, the poor Germans had to serve as a scapegoat. 
They were accused of cowardice, and everybody was wroth 
against them except those who understood things belter. 
'I'hese said that neither Napoleon's Old Guard nor the best 
Prussian troops would have been able to resist this flank attack 
of Stonewall Jackson, placed as badly as they were. 

I am no military critic, and only repeat what 1 heard from 
some who were supposed to understand war, and also from 
German officers who took part in that battle. 

Some of these feeling uneasy at the position of their corps, 
had reconnoitred on their own account, and discovered in 
time the approach ot Jackson's army on their fl:ink. Seeing 
the imminent danger, they reported it at once to General 
Howard, a very devout man and zealous abolitionist, with only 
one arm and no military head ; but the general treated their 
news with contempt, and answered — like a Chinese — ' tliar he 
expected to be attacked in front.' 

Lee's victorious army advanced rapidly, again with the de- 
cided intention of transferring the war to the territory of the 
Union ; part of his forces crossed the Potomac on June 14th, 
and entered Maryland — just as they had done a year before ; 
and towards the end of the month Lee took his head-quarters 


■f ': 



Ten Years of my Life. 


nt Hagerstown, only a few miles from the glorious battle field 
of Antietam. 

The consternation at Washington beggers description. The 
President called out a hundred thousand men more, to serve 
for six months, and to be levied from the next threatened 
States— Maryland, Pennsylvania, and New York, which State 
was to furnish seventy thousand men. 

Many sighed now for M- a leilan, for they discovered that 
their favourite, 'Fighting Joe' though a very brave man and 
good commander of a corps, was no strategist. At tlie eleventh 
hour he was relieved by General Meade, who at once attacked 
the rebels, the nth (German) Corps and the ist being in ad- 
vnnce. Howard had to fall back before an overwhelming 
force, to a poci*.ion near Gettysburg, of which the centre was 
the cemetery, waiting for reinforcements. A great battle en- 
sued on the and of June, and the Germans fought gloriously, 
well supported on their left by the 3rd Corps, under General 
Sickles, who here lost one leg by a spent cannon-ball. 

The battle was renewed on the 3rd ; the rebels were every- 
where repulsed, and retired on the morning of the 4th, pursued 
by the victorious troops. Though Meade did not succeed 
either in annihilating Lee or in preventing him from recrossing 
the Potomac, and retreating towards the Rapidan, he was not 
blamed and treated as a traitor as McClellan had been, but 
praised deservedly as the saviour of Maryland, Pennsylvania, 
and Washington, though he had lost not less than twenty-three 
thousand men in dead, wounded, and missing. The Potomac 
anuy took their old position on the Rappahanoc. 

1 judge it necessary to give a short sketch of these impor- 
tant events, as there resulted from them otiiers which occurred 
in New York, and in which Salm and myself were involved. 

The military enthusiasm of the people had, as said before, 
much abated, and recruits were not to be had, notwithstanding 
thv, X *"'>rmous bounties which were paid. Soldiers the Gov- 
ernment, however, must have, and a draft was ordered. This 
measure was very obnoxious to the people, and became still 
more so to the poorer classes, in consequence of a most foolish 
law, which permitted drafted people to buy themselves off by 
paying three hundred doUari. 


Free Xejroes, 




The Republican^ Government had many enemies in New 
York, where the democratic party was exceedingly strong. 
The above-mentioned measure furnished them a welcome 
means to work on the lower classes, especially on the very 
numerous Irish element, favourably mclined towards the de- 
mocrats because they hated the negroes. The cause of this 
hatred was envy and jealousy. The now free negroes arrived 
in great numbers in New York, and became rivals to the low 
Irish, who until then had furnished most house servants, hotel 
v/aiters, &c. They were highly indignant that the negroes 
should have the same rights as themselves, that they should be 
permitted to ride in the same cars as the white people, and no 
longer be looked upon as biped cattle. 

New York was then utterly void of soldiers. All militia 
regiments had been sent to Pennsylvania to resist the invasion. 
The police force was not numerous, and the forts were garri- 
soned only by a few hundred men. The opportunity for the 
bad designs of the enemies of the Government was very favour- 
able, and they were not slow in using it. 

I have not seen the Irish at home, and cannot judge about 
them in general, I have become acquainted with well-educated 
Irish gentlemen and ladies, and found them most intelligent 
and agreeable people, but the low Irish rabble of New York 
are the most degraded and brutish set of human beings I 
know ; I shudder to think of them, and in my opinion they 
stand far beneath the m r^oes. They may, in many respects, 
be more highly gifted and talented than those, but their 
behaviour is always meaner and rougher ; and the negroes 
have besides the great advantage over the Irish, that they are 
sober ; a drunken negro is a rarity, whilst drunkenness is the 
prevailing state amongst the American descendants of Erin. 

SV^hen the draft commenced on Saturday, July ii, in New 
York, everything seemed to pass off with unexpected quiet ; 
but on Sunday mischief was brewing, and on Monday, the i3ih, 
a storm broke loose, which only found its parallell in the evenis 
taking place during the reign of the Commune in Paris. 

I The posUion of the * Democrats ' in America corresponded to that 
of the ' Conservatives ' in Germany ; their extremest Democrats were 
called Copperheads, and were in favour of secession and slavery. 




Ten Years of my Llje. 

The riot commenced with an attack by the mob on a draft- 
ing office, which was destroyed and burned. The excitement 
spread throughout the great city, and a sudden fury seized tlie 
whole low Irish population. Its only object seemed murder 
and plunder, and the attacks were directed especially against 
all persons connected with the dratt, republican officials and 
negroes, but also against wealthy people in general. The fury 
increased next day ; it was indeed as if hell had been let loose 
on the unfortunate city. The political hue of the riot disap- 
peared ; murdering and plundering became its chief objects. 
Not only men took part in it, women were to be seen 
everywhere foremost, and even children ; and the ferocity of 
the Irish surpassed anything I ever read of Wherever negroes 
were discovered, they were hung or otherwise barbarously 
murdered, and Momen stuck their knives into still palpitating 
bodies, and made cruel fun of them. A coloured orphan 
asylum, containing several hundreds of coloured children, was 
burned, and children thrown into the flames. Horrid-iooking 
men patrolled the streets in troopn, searching houses and 
plundering them. 

For four long days and nights these scoundrels terrified the 
.city. No decently-dressed persons dared to show themselves 
^1 the streets, but locked themselves up in their houses, fear- 
ng every moment to be visited by the rioters. Poor negroes 
hid themselves in cellars, where they remained without food 
for many days. The courage of the mob was increased by the 
evident inability of tne authorities to suppress the riot, and 
also by their want of decision. Governor Seymour seemed not 
to be well disposed towards the General Government, and dis- 
approved of the draft. Not wishing to lose his popularity with 
the Irish element, he acted with blameable leniency and want 
of energy. The police and the few troops were checked and 
restricted in the use of their arms. They, by orde^- of their 
superiors, had to use only blank cartridges, which of course 
had the same pernicious effect as experienced everywhere. 
When the Tribune office was attacked, some guns were placed 
in position ; a few shots with canister would have been suffici- 

ent to drive the cowards 


away ; instead of that, the 

firing with blank cartridges encouraged them. The building 
was, however, saved by the efforts of the police force. 

the better classes of Irish were some who disnp- 





lliots in New York. 


?d the 


;, fear- 



)y the 

, and 


d dis- 













proved much of these horrors, and amongst them wns Colonel 
O'Brien. When a troop of rioters approached his house, he 
stepped out and addressed them in a conciliatory manner, ex- 
horting them to desist from their wickedness. He was answer- 
ed by cries of ' Down with him ! he is a traitor — kill him !' 
He was horribly beaten and stabbed, and sunk down on his 
threshold. Then he, still alive, was drag'^ed through the mud. 
All entreaties of his wife and children were in vain ; the un- 
fortunate man died after having been tormented for twenty- 
four hours. 

The fury raged in all districts of the city. If the mob had 
finished with the house of one abolitionist, some persons cried 
out, ' Off to the Seventh (or any other) Avenue, to the house 
of x\Ir. X.' 

J he regiments called from Pennsylvania in the greatest hurry, 
who did not fire with blank cartridges, succeeded in mastering 
ihe riot. They killed a great many people, but sustained also 
heavy losses. 

Salm placed himself at once at the disposition of the City 
Government, collected some troops from among his recruits 
and others, and led them against the rioters. During his 
absence, and whilst such excitement prevailed, I could not 
stay at home and tremble. I wanted to see and to do — but 
what, I did not know. To go in the street in my usual dress 
would have been madness, and I resolved therefore to put on 
a dress of my servant girl, EJlen, who was to accompany me as 
a kmd of a safeguard, for she was an Irish girl, and her brogue 
was then the best laisser-passer. 

The scenes I witnessed were horrible and disgusting at the 
same time. All the lowest passions were unfettered, and 
showed themselves in their vilest nakedness. The danger in 
the streets was g^-eat, for the few troops and police were scarce- 
ly to be noticed in the surging crowd, and they were, more- 
over, mostly employed in protecting the public buildings and 
offices. The rioters had it all their own way, finding no resis- 
tance from the citizens, who locked themselves up in iheir 
houses, happy if they were not noted for abolitionist princii)les 
or riches, or were unconnected with the draft. The poor 
negroes darted about like hunted hares — men, women, and 
children ; and it was heart-rending to hear their frantic cries 
and look into their horror-struck faces if caught by the pursu- 


Ten Years vf my Life. 




ing foe. To interfere would have been useless and dangerous, 
as was proved by the sad fate of Colonel O'Brien, though his 
name was one of note amongst the Irish. Seeing that I could 
do nothing, and not wishing to see any more, I was glad when 
I was home agai... 

Though Cover jr Seymour opposed it, the General Govern- 
ment remained urm, and the draft was enforced, and strict 
measures taken to prevent the return of such disorders. New 
York soon resumed its usual aspect. 

During my stay in New York I received much attention 
from many families. I cannot mention all whom I remember 
with heartfelt gratitude. I must not pass ovi^r that family who 
contribute' lost to making my rather troublesome sojourn in 
New York agreeable ; it was the family of Mr. James Gordon 
Bennett, the late well-known proprietor of the Neiv York 
Herald. I was a frequent guest at his magnificent country- 
seat at Port Washington, and at his palatial mansion on 
iMfth Avenue. 

Mrs. Bennett was a very distinguished and extremely kind 
lady, who, having lived abroad, had adopted and acquired the 
tastes and manners of the European ladies. In possession of 
a very ample fortune, she knew how to employ it in the most 
appropriate and generous manner. Her husband, on marrying 
her, presented her with one or two advertising columns of the 
Herald, of which the revenue grew with that paper, and 
amounted then to annually thirty thousand dollars. 

Mr. James Gordon Bennett was a tall, thin, square-built 
Scotch gentlemen, of great energy and talent, which was re- 
warded by the almost unheard-of success of the Neiu York 
Herald, the most enterprising paper in the world. At his 
recent death all papers published his biography, and I may 
presume that he is generally known. The last expedition in 
search of Dr. Livingstone, in whicli the Herald vied uniformly 
with even the English Government, is only one of the many 
samples of the enterprising spirit in which that great cosmo- 
politan institution, the New York Herald, was conducted by 
its creator. He was besides a very good man, and extremely 
kind to us. His meuiory will always remain sacred to me. 

His son and heir to the many millions he left is James 
Bennett, who was then a nice dashing young man. Young 
Bennett was, and probably is still, an emnient sportsman, who 

IS re- 
It his 


111 in 



I who 

Tkt spiritualistic Eindcriilc. 


had the finest horses on the turf, and who excelled especially 
in yachtin;jf. His daring and wonderful iri[) in liis yacht across 
tile Atlantic will still be remembered. 

Port Washington was a magnificent estate in the English 
style, with fine grounds and an extensive park. Being a lover 
of dogs, I was much interested in the live museum of these 
animals kei)t by Mr. James. He had not less than fifty of 
different kinds, all kept in various fine kennels. I was pre- 
sented with a pup of a particularly fine breed, a black and tan 
long-legged terrier, with a wonderful head, large clear eyes, 
and a skin like velvet. As it became a most importaiu mem- 
ber of my household, tyrannising over everybody, and myself 
most of all, and accompanying me everywhere like my shadow, 
I owe it to his dignity to say something more of this distin- 
guished four-legged gentleman. The promising pup was 
solemnly christened 'Jimmy' over a bowl of punch, and 
taken home in my pocket. After having been submitted to a 
bath m my washing-basin, to remove all reminiscences of the 
kennel, the interesting infant was nursed alternately by Salm 
and myself. We tried to appease h's well-developed appetite 
by means of the milk-bottle, but he despised milk, and we 
were in despair, for he whined all night. How happy we were 
on discovering that the little darling took kindly to fried 
oysters and the yoke of hard-boiled eggs, which refined taste 
was a sure proof that he was no common dog. On this simple 
fare he was raised until he learnt how to appreciate roast veal, 
which latter meat is still his favourite food. His meals agreed 
exceedingly well with him ; he grew soon out of my pocket, 
and became a beautiful well-sized dog, and even now, though 
in his thirteenth year, looks like a canine youth. His name 
will cccur frequently in this book. 

Another lady from whom I received much kindness, and 
whom I remember with great pleasure, was Mrs. James Speirs, 
the wife of a wealthy broker. She was an English lady of very 
good family, and I became much attached to her. She was 
very lively, and at that time an enthusiastic spiritualist. 

The spiritualistic epidemic was then commencing to rage in 
America. One heard of nothing but of spirits and of mediums. 
All tables and other furniture seemed to have become alive, 
and you could no- sit down upon a chair without a spiritual 
suspicion. , 


Tea Ycavfi of "iny Life. 


■.I' : 


When I became acquainted with Mrs. Speirs she was still In 
her first flush ot enthusiasm, and most anxious to convert every 
one to her new creed, which upset our long-entertained notions, 
and was in direct contradiction with the teachings ot my reli- 
gion. I therefore treated spiritualism as heresy, and defended 
myself against its contagious power. The more I doubted, 
however, the more eager became Mrs. Speirs to convince me. 
Her husband being, like most brokers, more of a materialist 
than of a spiritual turn of mind, treated these new-fangled 
things as deception and humbug, but being also a well-trained 
husband he let Mrs. Speirs have her way, comforting himself 
with the hope, supported by experience, that this fashionable 
fancy would die out with time, and give place to some other 
less dangerous to the brain. 

I have been told that spiritualism origmated in Germany, 
like mesmerism, which has been connected with it. Though 
this belief seems to have died out in Germany, it is still in full 
bloom in America and in England, ivhere spiritualism, in all 
its many different shades, counts its believers in thousands, in 
spite of common sense and religion. 

II would be almost impossible, and lead me too far, to des- 
cribe all the nuances of this sect, which includes mesmerism, 
somnambulism, free-love people, &c. The leading feature of 
this .reed is, however, at least as I understand it, the belief 
that the spirits of the dead do not pass from this earth, but 
that they remain here amongst us unseen, occupying different 
spheres, and fulfilling more or less high duties according to 
their more or less virtuous life in the body. Some who did 
evil have become bad spirits and oppose the good ones. 
Which duties are allotted to all these spirits of the different 
spheres, I could not exactly make out, for I cannot think that 
making strange noises, causing tables to dance and performing 
all kinds of useless and childish tricks, should be their only 
occupation. Though I, as I said before, resisted this epidemic 
on the ground of religion and common sense, I could not help 
becoming interested in this strange aberration, and feeling 
tempted to witness some manifestations of spiritualism. The 
Prince, however, tried to dissuade me from such an attempt, as 
he was afraid that the excitement would act too strongly on my 
imagination. I therefore abstained from visiting some of tho.->e 
public exhibitions of professional spiritualists, but did not resist 


ng to 
^o did 
k that 
)t, as 
|ii my 

Several Great It led lams. 




the entreaties of Mrs. Speirs to have some spiritual entertciin- 
ment at home, against which good Salm had no ol)jection. 

Mrs. Speirs had presented me to several great mediums. 
One was a ' knocking,' another a * tipping,' and a third a 

* writing ' medium. The knocking medium — that is, the one 
which communicated with the spirits by means of knocks, 
answering her questions by a certain number of them, meaning 
yes or no — was a very pretty girl, of the name ot Anna Sugden. 
I have forgotten the name of the * tipping ' medium, a lady 
who made the spirits tip tables and other heavy pieces of 
furniture for purposes I could not fathom. The ' writing ' 
medium was a Mrs. Heath Adams. She caused her friends 
amongst the spirits to induce others to answer questions in the 
same handwriting they once wrote when living in the body on 
this earth. 

This Mrs. Heath Adams made herself quite notorious. She 
afterwards went to the Potomac army and converted the 
soldiers to her belief. She created amongst them such an ex- 
citement and confusion, that the generals could not tolerate it, 
and expelled her from the camp as a dangerous lanatic, whose 
place would be better in a lunatic asylum. 

One evening, Mrs. Spiers, three mediums, and many other 
ladies assembled for a spiritual entertainment in my lodging. 
We were sitting round a table in a large room full of expectation. 
The gaslights were turned down, leaving only a dim light which 
seems to agree with spirits. The spirits were rather slow in 
coining, and the knocks, manifesting their presence, were very 
faint and timid. Miss Sugden explained that the table was 

* not yet charged sufficiently,' and requested us to be patient. 
We were patient, and the excitement and fear of some of the 
ladies increased every moment. At last the knocking became 
louder, and the spirits made such a noise that I really was 
aiiaid my table would be knocked to pieces. Now the medium 
proposed to put mental questions to the spirits, on which they 
would answer by knocks meaning yes or no, which was done 
to general satisfaction. 

Though I could see the ladies, and observe their movements, 
I could not help connecting these knocks with them, and ask- 
ing whether the powers of the spirits extended only to the table ; 
the medium answered that I might wish, only in my thoughts, 
to hear the knocking anywhere else. I did so, and scarcely 


T<n Yi'iLvs of my L'tfe. 


had I wished to hear it in a far off corner of the room, when at 
the desired place a tremendous noise commenced. Still re- 
mainmg suspicious, 1 wished to transftir the knocks to the ceilin<^ 
and had scarcely thought it, when the ceiling resounded with 
such knocks that I was afraid it would come down. That was 
too much for some of the party ; they shrieked and became 
fLiint, and the gas had to be turned up again. 

When their minds had been calmed sufficiently by persuasion, 
the gas was turned off altogether, and we were sitting all in the 
dark. At ©nee lights flitted through the room, shining against 
the wall or ceiling, as if produced by a dark lantern. We felt 
as if something was blown intc? our faces, and even some small 
b(jdies like fine sand were thrown against them. In the lights, 
flickering about, we saw spectre-like hands, and the excitement 
and fear became so great with some if dv^ virt" that the gas 
had to be reiu. 

The mediums declare- that their strengUi was exhaustea, 
and the spiritual entertainment ended. Notwithstinding all 
1 had seen, 1 remained a disbeliever , but dear Felix, who was 
afraid of the impression the whole proceeding would make on 
me, was quite excited and converted himself, 

Mrs. Speirs exulted, and was rather angry that was such a 
disbeliever. She regretted nothing more than that she was no 
medium, and that the spirits would have nothing to do with 
her. 1 seemed to be more favoured ; the medium at least, de- 
clared that I was a 'seeing medium.' But notwithstanding their 
assurances, I could see nothing, though I tried very hard to 
please them, and even invented visions for this purpose, which 
they, however, soon discovered accordingly, and resented as 
being only fun. They said that the spirits were offended at 
disbelief, and unwilling to perform in the presence of scoffers. 

We had several of such private spiritual entertainments, 
which amused me much. Though I did not believe in any- 
thinsj supernatural, I was puzzled as to how the things I had 
witnessed were produced, for what I had seen and heard was 
indeed surprising and wonderful, and well calciiated to turn 
weak or imaginative brains. 

Sometimes things would not go on in the regular way. The 
questions were answered all wrong, and the whole spiritual 
world seemed thrown into confusion. The mediums were not 
at a loss to explain this state of things. They ascribed it to the 


fe not 

lo the 

A ' Wvitlng' Medium. 


inniience ofUvj evil spirits who counteracted the doings of the 
good ones, and we were rccjuested to assist tlie latter in their 
struggle with our magnetic inlUience. We succeeded ; the evil 
spirits were driven trom the i)laces they had usurped, and 
things went on in the regular spiritual manner. 

It was most curious to observe the writing n. dium, Mrs. 
Heath Adams. When communicating with the spirits she 
was almost in a fit ; her hands moved convulsively, and before 
one could find out how it was done answers to mental (jues- 
tions were written in strange hand-writings on the ])aper, often 
signed with the name of the dead person addressed. 

As everybody was more or less excited about these spiritual 
manifestations, Mrs. Bennett was no exception, and became 
curious to witness some ol them. Slie therefore invited a noted 
professor of spiritualism, whose name 1 have forgotten, to per- 
form before a company in her house. We were sitting in her 
front parlour, the folding door of the back parlour being closed. 
The spirits were not slow in obeying the summons of the pro- 
fessor. We saw again the lights and also the mysterious hands. 
On being requested to form some mental wish to be executed 
by the spirits — the lights being turned down and shining dimly, 
Mrs. Bennett wished to have a very large music book, which 
was near the piano in the back parlour, under a whole pile of 
other books. Slie had scarcely formed that wish when the 
heavy book fell with a great noise right before her on the table 
around which we were sitting. Mrs. Bennett was so friglitened 
that she fainted. She afterwards would not have anything to 
do with spirits, and never assisted at one of our entertainments, 

Mrs. Speirs, however, became more and more believing, and 
more and more anxious to convince me. For this purpose she 
proposed a private meeting at her house, at which only herself, 
Miss Anna Sugden, and myself should be present. I accepted, 
and we were sitting one evening near a very substantial black 
walnut table with heavy legs, the gas nearly turned off. The 
spirits obeyed Miss Sugden, and awai<-ed her orders. She re- 
quested me to wish for something more difficult to perform 
than usual. I complied, and having noticed the solidity of 
the table at which we were sitting, I wished that the si)irits 
would break that table, that is break one of its heavy legs. 
Miss Anna Sugden consulted with her familiar spirit, whose 
name she said was Seth, and on being asked whether he could 
do what I wished, he answered that it was difficult, but that 
he would try. 


Ten Years of my Life. 

Very soon \vc heard a sound like one produced by distant 
rapid sawing, intermixed witli the muflled kno( ks of a hammer. 
Tliis strange noise lasted for nearly half an hour, when sud- 
ijenly the table lost its balance and fell against my legs. On 
examining it at the light I found that one of its legs had been 
sawn off. The cut was cjuite smooth, as if produced by a 
sharp knife or an extremely fine saw ; but all my most careful 
search for any sawdust was in vain. Mrs. Speirs was trium- 
phant, and (juite angry with me that I still did not believe. 

I tell the facts as I saw them. They are indeed strange, 
and I cannot explain them, but these knocking and noisy and 
sawing spirits are too absurd. When I soon afterwards went 
to Washington, Miss Sugden gave me a letter of introduction 
to a celebrated tip])ing medium, and once when Salm visited 
me there we invited that lady to entertain the company with 
her sj)iritual performance. The lady sat down to play at a 
very heavy piano, which, after some time, commenced movmg, 
two of its feet being lifted some inches from the ground. We 
were astonished, but the gentlemen present laughed, and Salm 
said that he was also a tipping medium, and could' perform 
the same feat without the spirits. He sat down, and after 
having run over the keys, the piano moved in the same man- 
ner as before. He had simply pressed his knees under it, and 
lifted it on one side an inch or two. The detected medium 
received her five dollars, and retired somewhat confused. 

The affairs of Salm did not progress meanwhile. The dis- 
inclination of the people to military service became more and 
more decided. The drafted men were employed in filling up 
old regiments, but to form new ones by voluntary enlisting 
was impossible, notwithstanding the liberal bounties which 
were ofiered. Poor Salm was in despair, for he could not 
bring together the required seven hundred men, and bad only 
heavy expenses. I felt extremely sorry at his troubles, and 
puzzled my brain to find a way out of chat maze. Having 
assisted him once, I thought it possible to do so again. I 
consulted with my spiritus familiaris^ dear old Senator Harris, 
who suggested the idea ot trying with the Provost-Marshal 
General in Washington, whom he knew to have a good num- 
ber of men at his disposition. I eagerly caught at that idea, 
and without telling Salm what I intended to do, I got leave 
from him to go to Washington, under the pretext of visiting 
my sister, who w^as living there. 









The Provost-Mnr^hal CiiKial U.S., (It'ncral James Fry- -My success— 
(joveiiior Yates, «jf Illinois — Lovers of spirits among liij^h-spirited 
jjfntlemen — I become a captain, commanding a company — Life in 
Wasliington — Madame von Corvin — Sanitary arrangements in the 
United States — The Sanitary and Christian Commissions — How the 
<lovernment honomed tieail soldiers — Natitmal cemeteries — A hospi- 
tal city — Salm again on the \\ar-palh — My journey to Nashville, 
Tenn. — Returning to \\'ashnigl«>n. 

T DO not exactly know how it happened that the Provost- 
Marshal-General of the United Slates had men at his disposi- 
tion who were not enrolled in any regiment, but it was so, and 
that was sufficient. This important position was occupied 
during the whole war by Colonel J. Fry, a man of about thirty- 
five, who was a great favourite of Mr. Stanton. I was not 
personally acquainted with him, but I heard that he, though 
very strict in his service, was also a good and kind man, who 
was not only much respected, but also beloved by his subordi- 
nates. It was some comfort to me that he was a married man, 
but still my heart was very heavy when I entered the War 
Department and sent in my card to Colonel Fry, who only 
some time afterward became a general. I was admitted at 

Colonel Fry was a tall, very elegant and hand.some fair- 
haired man, with a rather serious face, though with a kind 
expression. He was very quiet and measured, rather sparing 
of his words, but an attentive listener to all I said. I stated 
the difficult position of my husband, mentioned the services he 
had rendered, and his grief and disappointment on account of 
3iis being prevented from taking part in the important events 
going on in the theatre of war. I said that I had been in- 


^ ^ 


Ten Years of my Life. 

formed by Senator Harris that he had men at his disposition ; 
and as they had to be placed somewhere, I requested him to 
give my husband the preference. 

The colonel did not interrupt me. When I had finished he 
said that he had a few hundred men, but did not know yet 
whether he was able to give them to the 68th New York Regi- 
ment ; he promised, however, to let me know as soon as pos- 
sible. With that he bowed politely and I left, not knowing 
whether I had any h(jpe or not, for the face of the colonel was 
like a book sealed with seven seals, and did not in the least 
betray his thoughts. 

After many hours of anxiety, having received no answer yet, 
I became quite despondent and doubtful, for it may be ima- 
gined that there were, under the circumstances, many compe- 
titors for these recruits. I was, therefore, electrified and 
buoyant with hope when at last the card of the colonel was 
sent in, for if he had to bring me an unfavourable answer, I 
reasoned, he would not care to communicate it to me in 

1 was not mistaken. The colciiel was not so stplid as he 
at first appeared, and rather pleased with the zeal 1 showed in 
the behalf ot my husband, and he promised to give all the 
men he had for the 68th Regiment. I was overjoyed at my 
success, and as Vappetit inent en majigea?tt, I tried to get still 
more men, for even with those he could give me the required 
number was not made up yet. 

Though the colonel had not more at his disposal at that 
moment, he promised his assistance, and tor this purpose in- 
troduced to me his fiiend Mr. Yates Governor of Illinois, 
who at that time was present in Washington. 

Having occasion to confer frequently with General Fry and 
Governor Yates, we became good friends, and I passed many 
agreeable hours in the company of these distinguished men. 
Society was at that time somewl at out of joint in Washington, 
for nearly all the leading families were closely connected with 
the rebels, and had left the city and closed their houses, of 
which many were seized by the Government, and were used 
for public purposes, like that of Mr. Corcoran, who had not 
joined the rebels, however, but lived in Europe, like many 
persons who would not openly side with any party. The old 
Virginian families who geuerally passed the winter in Washing- 


Machime <^.e Corvln. 


iition ; 
lim to 

led he 
>w yet 
is pos- 
lel was 
2 least 

'er yet, 
)e ima- 
;d and 
lel was 
swer, I 
me irk 

i as be 
)wed in 
all the 
at my 
et still 

at that 
30se in- 

'ry and 
;d many 
'd men. 
ed with 
uses, ot 
iVQ used 
had not 
:e many 
The old 



ton, stayed avvny also, and the wliole population had changed 
its character. The hotels were then the centres of the rather 
mixed and motley society. Washington people kept far from 
it, and the temporary inhabit ""nts amused themselves as well as 
tliev could amongst themselve'^. 'J'he elegant and spacious 
drawing-rooms in Willard's, the Metropolitan and National 
H(;tel, were always crowded, and so were the frequent balls 
there, called ' hops ' in America. 

1 of course took part ip these entertainments, for never los- 
ing sight of the purpose which brought me to Washington, I 
had to visit places where I had an opportunity of seeing those 
]H">rsons who could assist me. General Fry was very kind in 
this respect, and interested Governor Yates in my behalf, and 
n.)t without success. The Governor })romised me a compaiiy 
from Illinois, but said that he would not have it commanded 
by any ' New York pumpkin,' and proposed that he should 
make me captain of that company. He kept his word, and I 
received from him a captain's commission and captain's pay, 
which, he said, would assist me in defraying the expenses I 
incurred in assisting the sick and wounded soldiers, in whose 
treatment 1 was much interested. 

1 )uring my sojourn in Washington at that time, I became ac- 
quainted with Madame de Corvin, who had come from London 
to stay with the colonel, her husband. She was well known 
from the ' Colonel's Memoirs,' and I have only to say that the 
ftivourable impression produced by that book, in reference to 
that kind and amiable lady, was fully justified on nearer per- 
sonal acquaintance. Salm was much prejudiced in her favour, 
and very much pleased when we became friends. During the 
revolution in Germany, Mrs. Corvin had gone through a course 
of surgery, and was as much interested as myselt in everything 
concerning the treatment of wounded soldiers and hos]utals. 

The American Government and people did iheir utmost for 
the welfare and comfort of their soldiers, and their liberality for 
this purpose was unbounded. I have already mentioned how 
the Government provided for them in the field, and how they 
tried to conquer the great difficulties caused especially by the 
.great distances, the bad state of the roads, away from the rail- 
road lines or navigable rivers, and the insecurity, especially in 
the revolted States. 

The greatest attention was paid to the care of the sick and 


Ten Years of my Life. 


wounded soldiers, and although it was difficult to find as many 
competent surgeons as were wanted for the army, amounting 
to nearly a million cf men, scattered over a space as extensive 
as Europe ; though experience was wanting in the commence- 
ment, the practical sense of the Americans, and the utter dis- 
regard of expenses in this respect, conquered all difficulties in 
such a manner, that their sanitary arrangements became noted 
throughout the world, and foreign nations sent competent men 
to study them. 

During the late French war I was exclusively occupied with 
this branch, of which I shall have to speak more amply in its 
place. I am, therefore, well enabled to make comparisons, 
and to judge what is practical or not. 

In comparing the sanitary arrangements in Germany and in 
America, one must not forget that Germany is not larger than 
many an American State ; that the whole United States have 
not more inhabitants than Germany, and that scarcely half of 
them were on the side cf the Union. It must further betaken 
into consideration, that in Germany and in France towns and 
villages are close together, whilst they are very few and far 
between in those States which were the principal seat of the 
American war. Great and admirable as were the noble efforts 
of the (ierman nation in behalf of their soldiers, the Ameri- 
cans had the great advantage over them of being far wealthier, 
and that they without difficulty could raise sums which could 
never be brought together in Germany. The Germans made 
up this disadvantage as well as they were able to do by their 
personal exertions, of which there was ftir less in America, not 
for want of enthusiasm or self-sacrificing desires, but for rea- 
sons caused by local circumstances already mentioned before, 
and besides by some American peculiarities. 

In the French war an immense number of ladies were em- 
ployed in the charitable work of nursing the sick and wounded 
in the field, and their self-sacrificing endeavours cannot be ap- 
preciated and praised sufficiently. Their assistance would have 
been all the m'ore desirable in America, as all able-bodied men 
were required for active service. Ladies were, however, not 
permitted to attend the wounded on the field, ynd I think that 
this measure was wise and considerate, as they would have 
been exposed to hardships beyond tlieir strength. 

The convenience of ladies' assistance in hospitals has been 


Sanltiuy and Christian Coonvi'ii-islonp. 


as mnnv 
tter dis- 
:ulties in 
le noted 
tent men 

)ied with 
ply in its 

y and in 
ger than 
tes have 
^ half of 
be taken 
wns and 

and far 
It of the 
le efforts 
e Ameri- 

ns made 

by their 
rica, not 

for rea- 
d before, 

^'ere em- 
Dt be ap- 
uld have 
ied men 
ver, not 
link that 
lid have 

las been 


discussed frequently. We shall see later how it worked in the 
French war, and have to speak of its advantages and disadvan- 
tages, and say now only a few words in reference to the man- 
ner in which some of the latter were lessened ^)y the practical 
Americans. It cannot be denied that the attendance of fine 
kdies is often more embarrassing than comforting to the 
wounded soldiers, who mostly belong to the lower classes of" 
society, however much they may appreciate the gentle ways 
and the soft hands of female nurf^es. In an elaborately and 
foshionably dressed lady a wounded soldier will rarely have 
confidence ; the appearance of such a nurse makes him always 
uncomfortable. This feeling was much lessened by a rule in 
force in America. All female nurses in hospitals, paid or vol- 
untary, servant girls or ladies, had to wear the same simple 
dress, resembling very much that of the Sisters of Charity. 
This was very important. The soldiers saw in them only female 
nurses, whose duty it was to provide for their wants, and not 
ladies above them in station who condescended to interest 
themselves in their behalf. 

The two great societies which did most in supporting the 
sick and wounded soldiers were the * Sanitary Commission ' 
and the ' Christian Commission,' whose activity extended over 
the whole vast theatre of war, and whose efificacy can never be 
praised sufficiently. At every station and military port were 
to be found agents and depots of these two benevolent associ- 
ations, each of which had many millions of dollars at their dis- 
posal. No railway train, no transport steamer was to be found, 
on which were not to be seen immense piles of boxes, ad- 
dressed 'Frederick Law Olmstedt,' or 'Christian Commission.' 
Mr. Olmstedt stood for a long time at the head of the Sanitary 
Commission, and he had the merit of setting the immense ma- 
chine going. He was still a young man, but his exertion in 
behalf of humanity exhausted his strength, and when he retired 
he had grown old in these few years. He added this fresh 
merit to that by which he distinguished himself in New York, 
for that city is mostly indebted to him for its world-renowned 
Central Park. 

These commissions provided the soldiers, especially tV ; "^k 
and wounded, not only with medicines and what was reoT.rpd 
for their necessities or comfort, but even with superfluities and 
luxuries. It is true they had immense means, and could aft'ord 





Ten Years of my Life. 

to be liberal. Tliey always gave with pleasure and w itn full 
hands, and wherever there was want it was not their fault, but 
that of those persons who were too lazy or indifferent to ask. 
Very often, whei^ the provisions of the Government failed by 
some accident, these commissions opened their stores for the 
needy healthy soldiers, and when we were in Alabama, cut off 
oy the enemy from all communications, we were literally sup- 
ported by them. We had fine potted victuals of every kind 
coming fron' thousands of miles. I still remember our aston- 
ishment on opening in Alabama a tin box containing the most 
delicious asparagus, preserved in Brunswick, in Cxermany. 

The agents of these commissions did not wear fine uniforms, 
nor live in sumptuous quarters, nor drink claret and cham- 
pagne ; they did not inspect the hospitals with glass in eye, 
and perfumed handkerchief to nose ; though mostly ^ :ntlemen 
used to all the luxuries of life, they had no other thought but 
how best to fulfil their voluntary duty, and often I saw them 
with their own hands, accustomed to the finest kid-gloves, car- 
rying boxes and bales like common workmen. They did not 
do so in hope of promotion or gain, or of a decoration ; their 
names were scarcely known, and ^f known scon forgotton ; but 
seeing all this, I learnt to love and respect the Americans. 

In mentioning this I will not infer that we had no good and 
self-sacrificing men to assist us in our duty in the French war, 
and I shall do justice to them at their proper place, but not 
forget those gcrgeous drones who were sjtigmatiscd by the 
nickname of Battle Loafers. 

The American peo{)le were never satisfied of having done 
enough, and all possible means were fy.nployed in collecting 
money. Great sanitary fairs were held in all great cities ; mer- 
chants and manufacturers sent in their gifts, some ladies their 
work, and other ladies attended to the sale of these articles, 
which were paid for extravagantly, and for weeks these fairs 
were crowded to excess by visitors. One fliir in New York, 
lasting for about five weeks, brought about five millions of 
dollars, and comparatively small Washington contributed one 
million and a half. 

The Government, in justice to this spirit, showed themselves 
not less liberal and careful. Though bound by duty to save 
as much money as was possible, it was never done at the ex- 
pense of the soldiers, and especially not at that of those who 



itn full 
ult, hut 

to ask. 
ilecl by 

for the 
, cut off 
lly sup- 
■ry kind 
r aston- 
le most 

11. forms, 
\ cham- 

in eye, 
ight but 
.w them 
/es, car- 
did not 
1 ; their 
on ; but 
)od and 

ch war, 
jut not 

:>y the 


s ; mer- 
es their 
so fairs 
ons oi' 
ed one 

;o save 
the ex- 

c who 



Conveyances for th.c ]Voiindcd. 


had become sick or crippled in the service of the country. 
There were no students or other yo.maj men forming voluntary 
companies to assist on the battle-field, as we had them in 
France, for, as T Ccud before, young men wei% rare ; but not- 
withstanding this, the wounded on the battle-fields were more 
promptly attended and far better cared iox than was the case 
in the French war. Each battalion — about equal to a Prussian 
company — had a number of portable bedsteads or stretchers, 
and two conveniently and practically built ambulances ; and 
whenever a battle was imminent hundreds of these vehicles were 
brought together ready for use. The wounded were not 
thrown into rough peasant cars, and jolted to death before they 
reached the next hospital. Those that were in a state to be 
transported at all were laid in a covered ambulance, which 
rested on soft springs, wms provided with a good mattress, a 
cask of water, and one of wine, and everything else which 
might be required. Those that had to be operated on were 
placed in large hospital tents, each of which had room for 
twelve or more persons. These tents were built upon the 
battle-field itself, or, circumstances not permitting, as near as 
|)0ssible. They were airy and most convenient, and their use 
i\as been adopted in many European armies. They are pre- 
ferable to any other arrangement which possibly cou'd be made 
for severely wounded men, and especially to those low, narrow, 
and most abominable houses to be found in small German or 
French villages. The luxury of cleanliness seems to be utterly 
unknown there, and the smell of dozens of years together, with 
a stratum of filth, covers the walls and ceilings, for whitewashing 
is nev.r thought of. Country people who live much in the air 
prefer the close atmosphere of a musty room as a holiday re- 
creation, and even in the finest weather one may see them, on 
Sunday afternoon, sitting close together in some country inn 
room enveloped in a cloud of bad tobacco smoke. To sit warm 
in winter seems to be their only desire. The windows are 
generally as small as possible, and they scarcely think of ever 
opening them to let in air. The wounded, placed often on 
mouldy straw on the filthy or partly-rotten flooring, are as 
badly ofif as possible. 

In America, where there are not s "» many villages as in 
Europe, necessity compelled the sanitary authorities to provide 
lor them otherwise, and this was done extremely well in spacious 




Ten Ycava of my Life. 

tents, which gave shelter against the rain and permitted the 
perfect airing so necessary to people wounded or ill with typhoid 
fever. Though placed now and then on straw or corn husks 
on the ground, they generally lay on the portable bedsteads, 
called stretchers. In the French war we often regretted the 
absence of such tents. 

The many navigable rivers in America were also a great 
convenience, and of the greatest importance in the war. There 
are very few rivers in Germany or France which would carry 
such large transport steamers as I saw in America, even on 
streams of which the names are scarcely known in Europe. 
These rivers were highly important for the transportation of 
tT'oops and provisions, and they were so for sanitary purposes. 
Large steamers, such as run on the Mississippi, Missouri, Ohio, 
Hudson, or on the Northern Lakes, were arranged as floating 
hospitals, offering all the conveniences of a great hotel. It is 
difficult to give Germans an idea of such ships, for thousands 
of them have never seen the sea, and think a Rhine steamer a 
most wonderful concern. What would they say to ships four 
or five hundred feet long, on which stand two-storied buildings 
rerching nearly from one end to the other, surrounded with 
verandas and balconies, containing hundreds of small bed- 
rooms, and halls in which three or four hundred people can 
sit very comfortably to dinner ? Where the shipping on such 
rivers is interrupted by rapids or rocks the practical Americans 
have built canals alongside of them, as in the case for instance 
with the Upper Potomac and the buspuehannah, and many 
ot^ er rivers. 

What revolted me frequently in the French war was the 
manner in which the dead were treated on the battle-fields. 
To a philosophical mind it may seem very indifferent what is 
done with the cast-off coat of our soul ; it is, I think, without 
doubt indifferent to the dead, but the surviving are not all 
philosophers, and have a reverence for their dead, and not the 
form of their soul, but that of their body remains in their 
memory. It is true that the nations whose state of civilisation 
is still on a very low step make the most of their dead, but 
civilised as the Germans may be, I do not think that it is in- 
different to the mothers amongst them whether the bodies of 
their beloved children are treated as unceremoniously as cattle. 
Even'if it speaks unfavorably tor the civilisation of the Ameri- 


Eiiiualm l iuj Estahl ish mc ni8. 



IS the 


lat is 


ot all 

)t the 




IS in- 

es of 



cans, I prefer the manner in which they treat their soldiers, 
who shed their blood for their country. 

It is true that in the American war it occurred not rarely 
that the wounded had to be left behind, that they perislied 
miserably, that the dead could not be buried at all or only in 
haste, so that the bodies were dug out by pigs, as I have seen 
happen here and there ; but such cases are not to be avoided, 
and are excejUions ; wherever there was a possibility, the dead 
were treated with respect and love. 

After a battle the dead were collected and their names 
identified by their comrades, or from letters, &c., found upon 
them. They did not wear badges with a number round their 
neck like the Prussian soldiers, which is indeed a good means 
to recognise even much mutilated dead, but which was intended 
only to keep the military lists correct. The American soldiers 
were not thrown indiscriminately into one common pit ; they 
were buried one beside the other, and a stick with a board was 
fixed at the head end, on" which was written the name, State, 
and regiment of the soldier. These tablets were respected by 
everybody, and I have seen them a year and longer after a 
battle. They made it easy for the parents to find the bodies 
of their beloved, and give them at home a decent grave. Oh, 
how many fathers have I met on such an errand I 

Only the love of the Americans for their departed made 
such institutions possible as were established in the neighbour- 
hood of great camps. Whoever thought in the German army 
of an embalming establishment? They were, however, not 
exceptional in America, and nobody seemed surprised on see- 
ing near a large tent a signboard with the firm ' Messrs. Brown 
arid Alexander, Embalmers to the Government.' The business 
they did was very extensive, they embalmed thousands — pri- 
vates for thirty dollars, and officers for eighty. The embalmed 
bodies were placed in long boxes lined with zinc, on the lid of 
which was written the full name of the dead, and the address 
of his parents. In the box, at the si»:e of the dead, were 
placed the papers and other thmgs found upon him or known 
to belong to him, Many of these boxes were to be seen on all 
trains or fansport ships. 

But not only private piety was at work. Those who had no 
rich parents to pay for embalmipg, or relatives who cared to 
have the body home, were not forgotten either. The noble 


Ten Years of my Lij\ 

Government of tliat noble nation paid the last debt of respect 
to their dead. I think the idea came directly from good 
President Lincoln, a man than whom none belter could be 
found in the world. The dead were carefully collected from all 
battle-fields, and carried often long distances to public grave- 
yards, established in different parts of the country. These 
graveyards are large beautiful gardens, kept up most carefully 
at the expense of the Government. They are surrounded 
with walls, provided with gates and good buildings for the 
superintendent and gardeners, and with a finely-decorated 
memorial hall. The gn.ves of the soldiers d^-^ niaced in rows, 
and at the head of each stands a graves. ;.-, ■• ' which is 
inscribed each man's name, State, regiment, .'nd 'vmpany, 
together with the place where the brave soldier died lor his 
country, and underneath is written always an appropriate sen- 
tence or verse of the Bible. Of such graveyards several are 
to be seen near Washington, and on the confiscated estate of 
the rebel General Lee, Arlington Height, which has been 
allotted for this purpose, rest nearly one hundred thousand 
dead soldiers ! Thus America knows her citizens who died for 
the Union. 

Hospitals were, of course, near all cities, and the most ex- 
tensive were in the neighbourhood of Washington. The public 
hospitals in Washington were not sufficient, and between that 
city and the President's summer residence, called * Soldier's 
Home,' was to be ..'^en a whole city of neat barracks, which 
differed very much from many of the would-be imitations I 
have seen in Germany. 

This city of the sick and wounded, though standing in a 
nearly treeless plain, had not the appearance of a vale of sor- 
row, but made a rather cheerful impression. There were tents 
and houses built of wood, forming a rather extensive town 
with wide streets. The tents, which were still preferred for 
certain classes of patients, were arranged still more comforta- 
bly than those in the field, which provided only for the most 
urgent necessities ; they were half tents, half houses, having 
all the advantages of the tents without their inconveniences, 
for they were not passaqere structures like field-tents, which 
might have to be packed up for transport at a moment's notice. 
I have seen such so-called tents in the Holy Ghost Hospital 
in Frankfort, in which the essential conditions are all to be 



TJoiJd Ifo^inlaU. 







I ich 

found in coniDuiation with an elecfance and comr;)rt which noi 
only shows that that hospitn' is riciiiy endowed, but that it is 
conducted by men who combine knowledge witli real love for 
the suffering. They form indeed a pattern which deserves to 
be imitated everywhere, as does the whole magnificent hospital. 

The wooden houses were not very large, and none of them 
contained a great number of wountled. They stood on posts, 
and their flooring was raised one foot and a half or two feet 
above the ground, leaving space enough underneath to keep 
out the wet of the earth, and to permit the air to circulate 
without producing a draught, which would have been the case 
if they had been more elevated. They were all whitewashed 
and provided with windows, and gave the impression of littl-- 
frie.idly country cottages. 

Their interior corresponded with their outside. There ws 
not the chilling, half-barrack, half house-of-correclion-like 
appearance, which struck one not rarely on entering such 
places in Europe, especially if built under the direction of the 
mihtary authorities Though they were kept scrupulc 3ly 
clean, and everything went on witli military regularity and 
order, it was not exaggerated into pedantry. The wards looked 
cheerful, and made an agreeable impression on the minds of 
the wounded or sick, who all lay on beds provided with white 
light hangings (mosquito nets), protecting them against the 
importunity of the Hies. The ventilation was perfect, and so 
was the heating in cold weather. In these places the soldiers 
lelt comfortable and home-like. 

In a hot climate like that of Washington, where the ther- 
mometer shows in summer not rarely loo degrees Fahrenheit 
in the shade, strict cleanliness is most necessary, and the 
greatest attention was paid to it. The wards were whitewashed 
every four or six weeks, and the dust taken up from the floor 
every day. It was not done by swamping the floor with cold 
water and permitting the wet to entei the boards, by which, 
especially in cold or rainy weather, a chilly and damp air is 
prodiiced, but the washing of the boards was done in a more 
practical manner with hot water, which dried almost immedi- 
ately after the cloth had passed over it. 

Lady nurses were not employed in these hospitals, and I 
must confess that they were not much missed by the American 
soldiers, who generally preferred to be attended by men, 



Ten Years of my Life. 

mostly ronvalescent comrades, who fulfilled their duties in an 
excellent manner. The Americans are a very intelligent 
nation, and 1 frequently wondered at the ease with which they 
adapted themselves to all kinds of occupations. This may 
be noticed throughout the whole country, and in all branches. 
Young men, who have attended, periiaps for years, a shop, 
are made Ciovernment clerks in tiie Treasury, or the Interior 
Department, or War Office, and after a few weeks they under- 
stand their duties quite as well as men in Germany who have 
visited for six years a college, studied as long at some univer- 
sity, and served for as many years without ])ay in some public 
office before being thought fit to occupy the place of an aus- 
cultator or assessor. The proof of this is that affairs in -the 
Ministries at Washington are carried on quite as well and 
regularly as in any office in German}^ An onploye in Germany 
who loses his place considers himself, in most cases, ruined 
for life, whilst an American Government employe in such a 
case — which, in fact, occurs very frequentl}' — thinks very little 
of it, and looks out at once for some other occupation. No- 
body is lied for ever to a certain trade or branch ; in this 
respect Americans are very versatile. 

Rough as the men sometimes appeared, I found them to 
become [,oon very good and careful nurses, and I preferred 
them greatly to the coarse and selfish women I saw r.ometimes 
employed in German hospitals. 

I know very well that good discipline is most essential for 
an army, but in reference to hospitals it often acquired in 
Germany the character of pedantry. Though military sur- 
geons stood in America under the command of their colonels 
or generals, they were far more independent in their province, 
and were not annoyed or harassed by martinets, who wanted 
to enforce the strictness of the drill-ground even in the sick 
room. Nor were tliere high-born snobs interfering with the 
doctors, always hindering them by their pretentious ignorance, 
liattle-loafers were a species of bipeds not known in America. 
There did not exist any object for them. If men did not find 
a reward for their voluntary activity in themselves, they did 
not find it anywhere else. It was of no consequence whether 
it was favourably noticed by some generals, or senators, or the 
President himself; they could not give them sinecures for life, 
or a place at court, nor even a decoration, for all these things 
do not exist in that countrv. 

TraveU'uig to Nashville. 

i i 




The print Ipal causes why tlie sanitnry institutions of Ame- 
rica were so good and efkctive are — the practical good sense 
of the people, the wealth and the Hberality of both the people 
and the Ciovernment, the fact that military principles do not, 
rank there before those of humanity, and the absence of all 
objects al'uring flunkeyism. 

The 68th Regiment N.Y.V. consisted now of nearly one 
thousand men, and on the 8ih of June, iSCl, Salm was ap- 
pointed to the regiment in Nashville, Tennessee, belonging to 
the army of General Sherman. 

In July 1 travelled to Nashville, accompanied only by my 
maid and Jimmy my dog, who had become my inscpiirable 
companion. I did not find my husband, for his regiment had 
marched souih to Alabama, and it was not possible to join 
him, though 1 tried everything for that purpose. The country 
between Nashville and tlie 'I'ennessce river was in a very inse- 
cure state, bands of guerillas making raids everywhere, and 
destroying the railroad. 1 had therefore to wait patiei.lly, and 
not liking to live in an hotel in the much-crowded Nashville, I 
found lodging and board in a nice family living in a neigh- 
bouring village, where General Charles Schurz had his head- 

Salm managed to pay me an eight days' visit at Nashville, 
riding all the way on horseback, and not minding the dangers 
of the road. 1 wanted to run the risk and accompan)- him 
back on horseback also, but he would not hear of it, and I 
supi)ose he was right. 'J'he guerillas were very ferocious, and 
I really believe that my being a lady would not have protected 
me against their outrages. 

Salm desired me to return to Washington until he should 
send me word to come, and a short time after he hiad left 
Nashville I started for the capital of the Union. 






Ma'lanie von Corviii nnd I travel from \Vashiiij;ton to Biilc^t^port, Ala- 
hania — Aiuei ican railroads — I'itt>l)urg — Meeting Charles vSehurz— I low 
he was received there — Louisville, Kentucky — Nashville, 'I'enn. — 'I'lic 
St. Cloud Hotel —Travelling with a military train— -Why I stop the 
train — Arrival in IJridgeporl — The camp on the Temiessee island~-'l'he 
liospital — Traflic with the rel)els — Salt serving instead of money — Neigh- 
Ixiurs — Expecting a rehel surprise — Bridgeport — Colonel Taylor — Rev. 
Clilford and family -Dangerous roads — Fort I'rince Salm — Life on tlie 
i^land —Excursion to Chattanooga — Major-Ceneral J. Steednian— The 
Malchd)ridge at Wliiteside — Lookout Mountain — Fighting joe's rock — 
The rebels a<lvancing — Salm leaving the island alone — Cut off from 
Nashville by (General Hood — How we passed our time — Visits received 
and paid — Cienerals lirannon and Granger — Rather dangerous — Plea- 
sure trips to Stevenson — Victories — The 6Sih Regiment leaving the 
island — The deserted camp — Dangerous position — Nightly disturbances 

— Meeting Salm and Steedman in Stevenson after the victorious battles 
— Christmas in Alabama — We leave all for Nashville — Colonel and 
Madame von Corvin return to Washington, and I go with Salm to 
Bridgeport — He is coiiimander of the post — His raids against the rebels 

— (lis staff — Captain John>v';'^ nnd his wife, my sister, arrive — Difficul- 
ties in reference to promotion — To remove these 1 am sent to Wash- 

Travelling alone was in those times, for a young lady, neither 
very easy nor safe. I was therefore very much pleased wlicn 
Mrs. Corvin accepted my proposition to accompany me to 
Bridgeport, Alabama, where Salm's regiment was encamped on 
an island formed by the Tennessee river. 

We left Washington on the evening of October i, and had 
the good luck to secure a state-room in a sleeping car. Thc^e 
sleeping cars are an American peculiarity which 1 would wish 
much to see introduced in Europe. Thc^ sleeping cars are not 
wider than the usual iravellinp* On hr»th ^\(^e< of the w.iv 

I! t 1 1 

American liailruuiU. 









in tlic middle the sents are ronstrurted in siirh a ni.inncr as to 
l)e transformed for llie night into tiers of beds, each provided 
with curtains, and at least as convenient as those in an Atlan- 
tic steamer. At the end of every car is a room with lookinu;- 
glass and toilet accommodations. In each car are four or six 
so-called state-rooms, which deserve that name as much or 
little as the narrow joxes so named in ships. These state- 
rooms contain in the daytime four seats, and are separated from 
the middle way by a large door. At night-time the beds are 
arranged with wonderful celerity, and blankets, sheets, and j)il- 
lows emerge from the most unexpected hiding-places. The 
state-rooms have sleeping accommodation for four persons, the 
lowest bed on the tloor having room for two persons. For 
travelling fiimilies these state-rooms are a great convenience, 
and thej' are not expensive either, costing for a night only four 
or five dollars above the usual fare. Whoever has tossed about 
a night in a railroad car and remembers his feelings in the 
morni-ig will understand how to appreciate these slee[)ing cars, 
strange as they may appear at first sight, especially to persons 
who never have been on board an Atlantic steamer. 

I was used to travelling in America, and ac^iuuinted with all 
those things which astonished Mrs. Corvin, who was now for 
the first time in that country. The woods which we saw on our way 
commenced to show here and there those brilliant tints which 
are a peculiarity of American foilage in the flUl. Bright yellow 
and burning red are prominent, and a European artist who 
should paint such a wood would be accused of exaggeration, 
and lose all his credit. 

Railroads in Europe seem to be considered a kind of luxury. 
In the commencement not so much importance was ascribed 
to them in America as they have acquired of late ; they were 
chiefly valued as m'^ans of connection between the water 
courses, which were pi ncipally used for the transportation of 
goods. Though these ideas have experienced a change, rail- 
roads are still in America only roads, and to create them as 
fast as possible and put them in working order is the principal 
object. It only the rails are properly laid and the rolling-stock 
in good order, everything else is of liitle consequence. There- 
fore we do not see in America dejiots as we see them in 
Europe, costing millions ; not rarely a simple shed, ofLring 


Ten Years of my Life, 

fsliclier for passcnqers and goods, is thought sufficient.^ The 
buildnig of magnificent l)ridges absorbs also vast sums in 
Europe ; in America they are mostly built in the most simple 
manner, but answer their purpose as well as the most expensive 
structures. Bridges are in existence which lead over several 
miles of wide waters, consisting simply of two rows of solid 
poles on which beams are laid for the rails. TBanisters are not 
to be seen on such bridges, for they are not of the slightest 
use ; and looking out of the window of a car one sees neither 
the rails nor the poles on which they rest, and the train seems 
to be glidmg right o/er the surface of ihe water. 

A^ breiV^' ^t-dme on Sunday morning we arrived in Altona, 
Pennsylv , where we had the pleasure of meeting Major- 
General Cija'-les Schvrz, who remained our tiavelling compan- 
ion until we reached Pittsburg, where he was expecte'd to make 
a speech in favour of the re-election of President Lincoln. He 
was received at the depot by a deputation, and the hotel where 
he alighted and procured rooms for us was dressed out with 
garlands.2 In the evening he made a great speech before an 
immense crowd, whc cheered him lustily. After 'his great 
exertion he remainec more than an hour with us, entertaining 
us with playing on tne piano, which he did in a masterly man- 

The train went, leaving only at two o'clock, p m. We had 
time enough for ^ ru.y throngh Pittsburg. It is a peculiar 
city, resembling aii immense forge — everywhere high chimneys 
topped with clouds of dark and dense smoke. The view 
from the splendid chain-bridge along the river is interesting ; 
for huge steamers, resembling immense floating houses, over- 
topped by the turret on which is placed the helmsman, dart to 
and fro. Mrs. Corvin said that the appearance of Pittsburg 
reminded her of Manchester in England. 

On Monday morning we arrived in Cincinnati, a fine city, 
which we saw, however, only when crossing it in an omnibus. 
All foreigners visiting America for the first time are amazed at 

« The reader will remember that I am speakin.^ of thirteen years aq:o. 
Now I hear things have changed much, and they have in America depots 
and bridges surpassing any built in Europe, even in architectural splendour. 

A sovereign in Europe could not be received with more pomp and 
ceremony than was this renowned citi/en in Pittsburg. 



art to 

rs aq;o. 



ip and 

Narrow E^atpc. 


ihe monster steam ferries, with which I wns, however, familiar 
from New Yorl:. Mrs. Corvin was quite in ecstasies about 
them, and they are indeed very remarkable vessels. To the 
right and left are extensive halls for an immense number of 
])assengers, with all the accommodations of a ship, only on a 
larger scale, and between these passenger-halls is a free space 
large enough for several omnilnises. The whole immense 
structure is overtowered by an open kind of steeple, crowned 
with an immense gilt eagle or Columbia, or Goddess of Liberty. 
There is placed the conductor of the vessel at the wheel, his 
elevated position permitting him to overlook the whole ferry 
and everything before him. 

Louisville, the capital of Kentucky, where we arrived in the 
afternoon, is a lovely city. The streets are wide, and before 
the houses are neat gardens, most of which are laid out taste- 
fully, and ornamented with all the vegetal luxury favoured by 
a mild climate, permitting pomegranate trees to grow and bear 
fruit in the open air. 

We left Louis\'ille next morning at six o'clock. The rail- 
road passes through a very tine and romantic country, some- 
times up steep hil'.s, two locomotives dragging the train with 
great difficulty. The tints of autumn made the woods appear 
quite gorgeous, the sun heightening the orange and red to ut- 
most brilliancy. To the right and left we saw whole fields 
covered with tall blooming thistles, and between their fine red 
flowers were sparkling others of a brilliant yellow. At other 
places the ground was covered with white liovvers so densely 
that it seemed like snow. 

We had a narrow escape, for an hour after we had passed 
one of the stations the rebels stopped the train which we had 
met on our road, and burnt it. Nashville, the capital of the 
State of Tennessee, very romantically situated on the deep 
and swift Cumberland river, and a pleasant town, looked rather 
dismal on our arrival, for it rained as hard as possible. The St. 
Cloud Hotel was crammed v/ith officers, and we were the only 
ladies in it. I had been there before, and was known by the 
landlord, who managed to procure a room for us. The whole 
hotel, which in time of peace might have been nice and com- 
fortable, was in the utmost disorder, and disgustingly dirty. 

There waS nothing that could detain us in Nashville, but it 
was not so eisy to leave it. Trains were going now and then 


Ten Years of my Life. 




south to Stevenson and Bridgeport, but the road was full of 
danger. Guerillas were scouring the country, and the most 
appaling reports about their cruelty were circulated. The war 
had assumed a quite unusual ferocity ; the Southern i>eople 
were exasperated, and prisoners who fell into the hands of the 
guerillas were mutilated and murdered in the most atrocious 
manner. We were however, resolved to run the risk, and after 
having procured a pass, which was rather difficult, we went to 
the depot next afternoon, when a military train was to leave. 
We were fortunate enough to meet a captain who had been 
presented to me in the hotel, and wis on his way to Chat- 
tanooga. With his assistance we found a good place, and con- 
gratulating ourselves on our good luck, we made ourselves 
quite comfortable, when we were turned out by the guard, who 
cried, * Women must get out,' and would not listen to reason. 
Standing amongst a crowd of soldiers and lamenting women, 
who had been turned out like ourselves, we had little hope of 
finding a place, when I fortunately discovered some officers 
who knew me, and smuggled us into the last of the cars, where 
we were seated on a narrow wooden bench, the only women iri 
the train. It was the most fatiguing and disagreeable journey 
I ever made, for we had to remain full twenty-four hours m that 
situation. The weather was very disagreeable, and we felt faint 
with hunger, having nothing with us but a little cake. In the 
evening the captain, who was on his way to Chattanooga, 
brought us some coffee, which was accepted very thankfully^ 
Our journey was rather exciting, for the conversation turned 
only on the outrages the rebels had committed quite recently 
in localities which we passed, and we had to pass frequently 
through dense woods or near overhanging rocks, where guerillas 
might be concealed, meditating our destruction. The train 
stopped frequently without cause, and what we saw from the 
windows was not calculated to calm our apprehensions. Every- 
where up the road-side were half-destroyed cars or locomotives 
lying on their backs, or burnt-down houses. We became, how- 
ever, soon used to this state of affi\irs, and I managed to sleep. 
I was aroused by Mrs Corvin with the distressing news that my 
Jimmy had jumped off the train. That was a calamity worse 
than the rebels. Our carriage was the last, and from its plat- 
form I saw along the road and at a great distance a dark point 
moving ; it was poor Jimmy, striving in vam to come up with 

B ) ' uhjci )u rt, Tt' n nessce. 


full of 
e most 
'he war 
; of the 
id after 
irent to 
I leave, 
.d been 
) Chat- 
nd con- 
rd, who 
lope of 
;, where 
3men iri 
J in that 
elt faint 
In the 
e train 
om the 
e, how- 
|o sleep, 
[that my 
[its plat- 
k point 
p with 

the train. The ring to which the cord is altnclKM], running 
above all the cars to the locomotive, hung temptingly right 
over my head, and knowing the use of the cord I pulled ;ii it 
lustily. The train stopped, and the captain who was in cum- 
mand ran anxiously to ask what accident had ha{)pened. On 
liearing it he was inclined to be angry, but seeing my distress, 
and probable being a lover of dogs himself he relaxed ; the 
train stopped until my pet arrived panting from such an un- 
usual exertion, and amid the good-natured laughter of the 
soldiers the dear deserter was restored to me. 

We arrived at last at Bridgeport station, which was about a 
.mile and a half from Salm's camp. The soldiers of the port, 
on hearing my name, ])rocured at once an ambulance, and at 
the same lime a breakfast, which we needed very much. We 
arrived soon in the camp, and I was happy to be again with 
my dear husband. 

The regiment was encamped on an island in the noble 
Tennessee river. The railroad going to Chattanooga crosses 
this island by means of two bridges. That next to llridgeport 
is a remarkable structure. The banks on both sides are high, 
and connected with beams on which run the rails, and about 
thirty feet below is the rather long bridge for horse cars. 

The island was not large, but contained two or three farms, 
and was mostly covered with beautiful trees, enlivened by a 
great variety of pretty birds. The ground being rather tiat, 
the island was not rarely overflown by the river, and large tracts 
of the wood were always under water. In rainy weather it was 
by no means pleasant, but when the sun was shining a more 
delightful place could scarcely be found anywhere. Right 
opposite the camp, on the southern bank of the river, some dis- 
tance off, rose a rather high wooded ridge, the slo[)es f^( which 
were always haunted by rebels, who thence couH lOok right 
into our camp. 

This camp was extended on a meadow not far from the 
northern bank of the river, and was skirted by the wood. It 
was not laid out with much regularity, on account of the con- 
dition of the ground, and looked quite romantic. As it was 
expected that we would remain there a good while, the soldiers 
had made themselves as comfortable as possible. There was 
plenty of wood and a saw-mill in Bridgeport ; boards were 
therefore not wanting, and many shanties rose amongst the 


Ten Years of wy Life. 

tentS; servinp^ eillicr as bureaus or as qr^arters for officers. At 
a beautiful ];lace from which tl'iC camp roiild be ov^erlooked, 
Salni had built quite a sl.-fcly building. It was about thirty 
feet long, stood som'/wliat above the ground on ])oles, like a 
sanitary barrack, had ai front a verandah, and contained three 
compartments. The largest was our saloon, and to its right 
and left were two smaller apartments, one serving as a bed- 
room for me and Salm, and the other for Madame von Corvin. 
The saloon !;ad in front a glass door and tv/o windows, and 
contained also a fireplace of rather primitive constructicm, for 
when it rained hard the fire was frequently extinguished by it. 

The building had scarcely been finished when we arrived,, 
and the weather having been very bad during its construction, 
it was still extremely damp. Behind our palace was built a 
kitchen, and near to it was put up a large tent, which served 
as an officers' mess-room. F'arther bacic amongst the trees 
were some buildings for the commissariat, and a barrack serv- 
ing as an hospital. 

To visit this hospital was one of the first things I did. I 
found it in A very miserable state, for the doctor whom my 
husband found on his recent arrival with his regiment, was a 
rather careless man, and thought more of his own comfort and 
profit than of that of his patients. . The steward and nurses 
were not better, and it was found that they frequently appro- 
priated the good things furnished for the sick. These were, 
of course, not wanting in a locality such as described, most c-*"" 
them suffering from ague or malignant fevers. I was indign ,ii 
at this state of affaiis, and at once took care to remedy n. 
The next thing to be dor.e was to procure warm clothes, blan- 
kets, &c., and also wholesome food for the patients, of whom 
1 had those who needed it most transferred to the larger hoj- 
pital in Bridgeport. In that place I fouhd agents of the Chris- 
tian Commission, and on applying to them I was at once 
provided with a good supply of clothes and eatable«J, which 
were the more valuable as the provisions for the soldiers had 
at that time run very short. The war had exhausted the coun- 
try ; cattle were extremely rare, and fresh meat was not to be 
had at all. The soldiers had to be sadsfied with salt pork and 
hard tack, for bread was ijot to be had either. The (iiiicers 
were not much better off, for in th:.* commencement the inhabi- 
tants of the country were very s'iy. and did r.ot like to coun? 


TJ t ■ '■'- 

Salt instead of Moufy. 


. At 

like a 
; right 
I becl- 
' or via. 
/s, and 
on, for 
by it. 
built a 
e trees 
:k serv- 





r.' ar our ramp in order to seU their chick ;n=; or butter. S dm 
dii.ed with his officers, and if som^ fish, bird, or fresh butcher's 
'neat had been procured, it was reserved for our dinner. 

It was a fortunate circumstance that we had plenty of salt, 
for we could procure as much as we liked above our allowance 
from the commissariat at J3ridgeport for about two cents a 
pound, and that salt was the article most desired by the rebels 
around, for they required it very much for their pork, especi- 
ally in warm weather. Sefore our arrival salt had been sold 
at one dollar a pound. The news that we had a surplus of 
this precious article spread, and very soon we saw many rebel 
women arrive who were eager to exchange their produce for 
salt. Though they charged exorbitant i)rices we did not mind 
it much, as we could charge for our salt more than what we 
paid for it, and still they found it extremely cheap. 

These poor rebel families came frequently from a distance of 
ten or twenty miles in search of salt. They were generally on 
horseback, riding miserable animals, as all good horses had 
been taken for the army. These poor people looked very un- 
happy, and though we knew well enough that their feelings 
towards us were far from being friendly, we could not help 
pitying them : they were pale and thin, and covered only wilii 
rags. Even women who w^re still well-off and ladies, appeared 
in the most wonderful costumes, for the supplies of goods from 
the Northern manufactories had not arrived since the com- 
mencement of the war. 'J'hose looked best who wore homespun 
clothes. One could not see anything more melancholy than 
such a Southern family in our camp. They felt humiliated that 
necessity compelled them to apply to us, and we never heard 
one laugh, nor even saw them smile. They all behaved, how- 
ever, with a certain dignity which did not fail to produce a 
favourable effect on our soldiers, who generally treated them 
with kindness. 

Not far from our camp a man, of the name of Hill, had a 
good farm, but as Mrs. Hill had made herself suspicious by 
saving her brother from the rebel recruiting officer, their house 
had been destroyed, and the whole family, consisting of six or 
eight persons, lived in a one-roomed, most miserable log-house, 
which scarcely afforded any protection agamst the inclemency 
of the weather. They had, however, succeeded in preserving 
a few horses and cows, and Mrs. Hill, a rather pretty and 


Ten Years of iiij Life. 

I); t| 



merry 5'oiing woman, ^old us with pleasure some welcome 

'i here lived in the neighbourhood a few farmer-families, who 
suhinitled to circumstances, and entertained a more Iriendly 
intercourse with our officers. We sometimes paid them visits, 
which were not without danger, and had to be made always in 
comi)any and under arms. Guerillas were lurking about in the 
woods, and it happened not rarely that single soldiers were 
caught or even killed by them. 

Orders had been given to act with great severity against such 
houses as were reputed to serve rebels as a shelter, though it 
was only natural that the guerillas now and then ventured to 
visit their families. Salm had to burn down several rebel 
houses, though he did so with great reluctance. The inhabit- 
ants of these houses were, however, rarely to be found at home ; 
they had their' spies, and were generally warned beforehand. 
In one of such doomed houses was found only a rather fat 
jiointer, which was taken prisoner and appropriated by Salm, 
wlio christened him Geiber, which was the name of his rebel 
ma seer. 

Our position was much exposed and full of danger. The 
island and the bridges were well gunrded, but there existed 
lords which were better known to the rebels than to us, and if 
there had beer an able leader amongst them they nn'ght have 
sur[)rised us witnout much difficulty, as they from their moun- 
tains ".ould observe everything we did on the island. Before 
assistance could have arrived even from i?ndgej)ort they might 
have killed us all, and a few thousand men might even have 
taken that place, notwithstanding its fort, before succour could 
come up from Stevenson, about ten miles off, where a great 
number of troo j.'; were assembled. 

The pontoon bridge laid over the Tennessee for army pur- 
poses was guarded by a picket, and pioiected by two good 
blockhouses provided with guns ; and or, ti^e southern side of 
the river, on a commanding eminence, was built a fort called 
Fort Prince Salm. Though it was considered to be rather 
strong, it was overtopped by neighbouring hills very favourably 
situated for rebel batteries. 

Under these circumstance-, it was not to be wondered at 
that frequently reports about intended attacks were circulated 
in the camp, and that arrangements were made in case of a 

Excursions m the Woods. 



, who 

ays in 
in iht; 
J were 

St such 
3ugh it 
red to 
I rebel 
home ; 
ther fat 
f Sahn, 
is rebel 

, and if 
ht have 
r moiin- 

py might 
en have 
\x could 

a great 

fmy pur- 
;o good 
side of 
Irt called 
le rather 

Idered at 


ase of a 

surprise. We were to fly at once lo the blockhouse, com- 
manded by Captain von der (.Troeben, which was about a gun- 
shot from our quarters. Tliese alarming reports were sometimes 
so positive that they somewhat interfered with our sleep. 

Bridgeport, situated on the high northern bank of the Ten- 
nessee, consisted originally of only a few houses and a saw- 
mill standing near the river ; but in war time it had become 
much enlarged by a spacious field hospital and many other 
military wooden buildings, mostly serving as magazines for the 
provisions and as dwellings for the officers connected with the 
commissariat. In a house on the highest point the commander 
of the post. Colonel Taylor, commanding a Kentucky regi- 
ment, had established his head-quarters. 

The only family unconnected with the troops living at 
Bridgeport, was that of a clergyman of the name of Gilford. 
Their dwelling-house stood on the top of the before-mentioned 
ridge, but being there right in the midst of the rebels, and not 
feeling safe amongst them on account of his Union tendencies, 
he had left there and was living now in a wooden house, which 
he had made rather comfortable with the furniture carried over 
from his dwelling on the hill. His wife and grown-up daugh- 
ters were very agreeable persons, and we passed with them 
many pleasant evenings. They were, however, not the only 
ladies in Bridgeport, for a Captain Armstrong, of the commis- 
sariat, had his wife with him, and two other ladies were 
attached to the Christian Commission. 

Though Bridgeport was not far from our camp, a visit, and 
especially our return home, was not without danger. Roads 
scarcely existed, for what might have been called so had been 
changed by the heavy rains into an unfathomable quagmire. 
We had therefore to drive always over firmer ground ; but not- 
withstanding its being made dangerous by the many stumps of 
trees projecting, we had never an accident, though our heads 
were frequently knocked against each other. The most dan- 
gerous part of the road was, however, the descent to the 
bridge, and I still wonder that we never rolled down into the 

We had frequent visits also, attempted even to give dinners, 
and in the evenmg we had generally company. We played a 
rubber of whist, and Groeben brewed a very acceptable egg- 
nog or punch, for the wine furnished by our sutler, though 








i! ■ 

>■ ■ 



Ten Ytars of nrj Life. 

cli.'irgcd three dollars a bottle and provided with flourishing 
iabcls, was a miserable compound. 

The weather had become extremely fine, and we made many 
parties on horseback and in carriages. The rebels kept quiet, 
and none of our ajiprehensions were fulfilled. 

Now in fine weather the sojourn on the island was liighly 
agreeable. We were nearly all day in the fresh air and walk- 
ing in the woods, which were made lively by a great variety of 
birds with brilliant plumage. There were some small scarlet 
birds, which looked in the sun like a ball of hre ; others were 
beautifully blue and very tame. I noticed also several fine 
varieties of woodpeckers, one with a billiant yellow tail tipped 
with black, and another light grey with a crimson head. There 
were also partridges on the island and wild pigeons, affording 
good sport and an occasional addition to our bill of fare. The 
meadow in front of our camp swarmed with a kind of plover, 
called, from its cry, a killedie, whicn cost my husband a good 
deal of shot — rather an object, as he had to pay for it at the 
rate of a dollar - pound. 

We receive' now and then visits from the generals stationed 
at Stevenson or Chattanooga. On Sunday, October 23, Major- 
General Steedman dined with us, and invited us to come and 
see him in Chattanooga. Our party, consisting of Mrs. Cor- 
vin, Salm, Groeben, and myself, started on the Thursday fol- 
lowing for this excursion. The accommodation in the train 
was very im[)erfect. We sat m a transport waggon, the ladies 
on bottomless chairs and tiie gentlemen on some boxes. The 
road to Chattanooga is very romantic, leading through a fine 
but rather wild-looking mountainous country, and over bridges 
which make me still shudder in thinking of them. The rebels 
had destroyed the good and solid ones, and they had provi- 
sionally been replaced by others, built in the greatest haste by 
the soldiers. 

There was especially one, known under the name of the 
Match-bridge, which surpassed anything I ever saw or heard 
of. It crossed a deep and wide gorge, and was built of wood 
— trellis work — several hundred feet high, in three stories. 
When the train passed over it the whole flimsy fabric swayed 
in the most alarming manner. 

There were to be seen here and there small houses in the 
midst of a patch of cultivated land. The fields were all fallow 


General Sfcedman, 



e many 
t quiet, 

d walk- 
riety of 
. scarlet 
rs were 
ral fine 
[ tipped 

e. The 


a good 
: at the 

, Major- 
)me and 
rs. Cor- 
day fol- 
he train 
e ladies 
a fine 
I bridges 
laste by 

of the 





in the 


for want of hands, many of the poor houses empty, and only i;i 
some of them lived some wretched-looking aged men or women, 
who scarcely sustained life, having been cut otY from tlie rest 
of the world for many long months. Tlie trains were only used 
for military purposes, and where passengers were admitted tliey 
had to secure passports, which were not easily to be had. 

\Vc reipiired some eight hours to reach Chattanoga, where 
we arrived at eight o'clock in the evening, where we were 
received by General Steedman, with whom wc remained 
together in the hotel until clear. 

General Steedman had been born in Canada. He was a 
man of about fifty years, tall, with an agreeable, open, bold- 
looking fLice. He had become an ori:)han when still very youn:;, 
and gone as such through a great deal of hardship, whi( h made 
him feel very kind whenever he met children in a similar 
position. He was in general a kind and soft-hearted man, who 
liked to hide his weakness under an assum^*(l roughness, in 
which, however, he was not very successful. When still a youth 
he had taken ])art in some revolutionary movement in his 
country, which made him remove to the United btates, where 
he studied law, became an influential politician, and was even 
elected a senator. When the war commenced he made up a 
regiment, and was major-general before we in the East had 
heard anything of his military exploits. He was, however, a 
practical man, and had studied war with great advantage, and 
whenever he had an opportunity he behaved not only with 
great courage and energy, but also very judiciously from a 
military point of view. 

On Friday, 26th October, at nine o'clock, our party was 
ready for an excursion to Lookout Mountain. Madame von 
Corvin and old Groeben were in an ambulance, all the rest on 
horseback. AVe were waiting for General Steedman, when he 
sent a message, excusing himself on the ground of a bad cold 
and important business, General Sherman having telegraphed 
him orders to send off troops for the reinforcement of those 
stationed at Decatur. Colonel Mo}^ the general's first aide, 
went however with us, acting as a guide. 

The weather was wonderful, and the sky without a cloud. 
We passed through part of the camp. Everywhere we saw 
destroyed houses, and round them assembled herds of oxen 
and m.iiles, which latter did such excellent service in that war. 



Ten Years of my Life. 



■ ilH 


They followed the army in droves of several hundreds, guided 
by men ou horseback, whose skill was remarkable. It was a 
l)leasure to look at these mules, with their fme deer-like limbs. 
They endure as much and more than horses, and are far more 
fiUL;al, keeping in good condition with food which would dis- 
able their more pretentious half-brothers. 

J.ookout Mountain is an enormous rock, rising like a citadel 
from the valley of the Lookout Creek, and from it one has a 
view over Chattanooga and all the wide surrounding country. 
It had been used as a signal station, and after the battle of 
Chicamauga it was thought necessary to attack this formidable 
position, which interfered with the connection of General 
Grant's advancing army. The honourable but difficult task of 
storming that rock fell on * Fighting Joe.' He attacked it on 
the 24lh November, 1863, with ten thousand men, and though 
the rebels were protected by breastworks, and assisted by a 
dense fog enveloping the high summit, they were driven down 
the eastern slopes. The fog preventing Hooker from following 
them into the valley, he remained on the top of his stormed 
citidel, and the thunder of his guns proclaimed his glorious 
victory ' above the clouds,' as poetical reporters said. I must 
not speak of the succession of battles around Chattanooga, 
which terminated the campaign in that district in 1863, lost 
the rebel General Bragg his place, and relieved General Burn- 
side, who was in a rather awkward position in Knoxville. 

The slopes of the mountain ridge are covered with timber, 
which on a fine day shone in all the brilliancy of the American 
fall, most agreeably contrasting with the soft blue of the far- 
distant landscape After a quarter of a hour's ride we arrived 
at the foot of the steep mountain, two thousand six hundred 
feet high. The soldiers had, with a great deal of labour, made 
a road leading to the top. Many rocks had to be removed, 
trees to be felled, and the road to be carried in zigzag to the 
long stretched top, ending with Lookout rock, which fills off 
nearly perpendicularly. The platform on the highest part was 
wide enough for our small company, and we looked with 
delight on the beautiful landscape at our feet. 

During the French war I often regretted the absence of 
photographers, who geneniiiy arrived too late, v.'hen the scenes 
had already much changed. In America they were always on 
the spot, and we owe them many views taken immediately 




IlosiiiUds around Clmttamtoja. 




be far- 





Ito the 

lis off 

t was 


Ice of 

■j's on 


after a battle. Yankee industry is never asleep. There, on 
Lookout rock, we touud of course also a i)liolograi)hcr, wiio 
photoprraphed groups of visitors and sold views taken iVoni tlie 
rock. 1 still have one rei)resenting that rock itself, witii 
General Hooker sitting on it. 

After havini^ feasted our eyes to our hearts' content, we 
selected a most beautiful spot, and lay down on the moss to 
enjoy the exfjuisite breakfast whicn (ieneral Steedman had sent 
up, together with a good sui)ply of champagne, which made us 
all very merry. 

We returned to C'lattanoogaat Sf^-en o'clock p M., and f)und 
a great conii)any assembled at our hotel, but retired early. 

Though amusing myself as well as 1 could, I did not forget 
our sick people in the hospital, and ne\t morning Mrs. 
Corvin and myself paid a visit to the Sanitary Commission, 
from whom we received a great quantity of highly acceptable 
things. Though the hosi)itals around Chattanooga, which were 
mostly on the healthier hill-side, required a good deal, the pro- 
visions of the Commission seemed inexhaustible, and they 
never grew tired of giving with full hands. 

Havuig attended to this duty, we paid General Steedm m a 
farewell visit and took lunch with hun, after which wc said 
good-ljye to him and returned to the hotel, where several of the 
generals were presented to Ub. They were all rather busy, for 
we saw five thousand men passing our wmdow on their way to 
the railroad ; they were the reinforcements for Decatur. We 
left Chattanooga at four o'clock p.m., and arrived in Bridgeport 
without accident. 

Bad weather set in, and the ground around our house became 
very soft. Wa felt rather chilly, for the wet damped our clothes 
and beds, and warm punch in the evening was very acceptable. 
We had always a few guests, and the commander of the portj 
Colonel Tayior, came frequently, and we had a rubber. On 
Sunday we went to church in Bridgeport and heard rather 
prosy sermons, and on the other days we had enough to do 
with our hospital, which had already assumed quite a different 

Towards the end of November news was received of the in 
judicious move of the rebel General Hood, who wanted to at- 
tack Tennessee, and perha[)S Kentucky and Ohio, in order to 
compel General Sherman to jive up his dangerous plans. This 






u itf 12.0 

U 11.6 











(716) 87a-4»03 






^ \ Wk\ 



Ten YiAirs of my Life, 

most aMe .i-cncral Imd, In S5cptcni])cr, conquered Atlanta 
((ieorgia). and was ])rL|>aring f(jr liis l)old man li across tlic 
licart of the enemy's country towards Savannah, Gcor{j;ia. 

I'rejjarations were made to meet (len^'ral Hood, and as it 
was likely that lu; would try to take ilridj^'eport, we exi)ected 
every moment to be attackr^d by his army. Jielievinj^, however, 
the j)ositi()n too stronjj;, and fearing delay, he crossed tiieTennes- 
sce at some other place and advanced against Nashville, (iene- 
ral Steedjiian received therefore orders to join with his trooj)S 
(leneral 'J'homas in that city, and to leave only a few troojjs 
to protect the principal points between Stevenson and Chatta- 
nooga. Salm was very eager to take part in the exj)ected bat- 
tles, and on his refjuest General Steedman detailed him on his 
staff. 'I'he general telegrajjhed that he would arrive in the 
afternoon ; Salm made liimself ready, and we waited for the 
arrival of the troo])S in Colonel Taylor's cjuarters, where we 
whiled away the time with eating, and drinking Catawba cham- 
pagne, for the trains kei)t us waiting until eleven o'clock p. m. 
'J'he general, who had eleven trains with him cran)med with 
troops, was sitting with his staff in an empty baggage waggon 
on trunks and boxes. We had exi)ected that his troops would 
make the road to Nashville free, and intended to depart for 
Washington a few days later. We therefore were by no means 
agreeably sur])rised on hearing from the general that the train 
which he brought with him was the last running, and that we 
would have to wait in Bridgeport until (leneral Hood was 

With the beginning of December frost set in, which impeded 
somewhat the nulitary operations, and dL-layed the decision 
until the middle of the month. The frost was of unusual 
severity for these latitudes, and though the weather was tine i ' 
was cold, and we might even have skated on the ponds of the 
island if we had been able to procure skates. 

During this state of suspense, and whilst Hood was besieg- 
ing General Thomas in the tolerably well-fortilled city o'.' 
Nashville, we passed our time as agreeably as possible. Wi- 
received now and then visits from the generals left in Chatta 
nooga and Stevenson, and, amongst oil ers. from the Generils 
Brannon and Granger, whom we entertained as well as we 
could, and whom Corvin and Groeben astonished by the won- 
derful punch whi( h they brewed from con)missariat whisky, 

Glorious XeiL'S. 


Tviih the ln'l;) of j-jiv.on-pcc!, preserved pinc-arplc^?, Vanilla. 
L-.sscnce, and sut^ar. 

(leneral ('.ran;^'er invited us to interrupt the monotony of our 
life l)v visits to Stevenson, wliich were not without danL;er, and 
perhai)s for tliat reason more temptniL;. \Vhenever we w.inted 
lo make siicli an excursion, I telegraphed to my old friend 
Ciencral Meai^^her, commanding then in Chattanooga, to send 
me a locomotive, which he never failed to do, in spite of the 
'rmnhling of the officers in charge of the railroad (lt'p;:rtment. 
! le Lenerally sent only a locomotive with a so-called ' cahoose * 
n'tac hed, and perhaps one transport wagi<>n. Stevenson was 
•Illy ten miles distant, but the roacl passed through the woods, 
A Inch were always haunted by guerillas, who were more lively 
it that time than ever. We took, therefore, the precaution 
nf taking with us ten or twelve soldiers, who were placed on 
the top of the waggon, and who, with their guns ready, watched 
he woods as we passed them. Such a trip was always exci- 
sing, for we could never be sure whether we would not meet 
■v\[h some wild running locom >tive or get off the rails, for tiie 
'oad was in a fearful condition, and our train rattled along like 
a horse-waggon on a corduroy road. The movement became 
sometimes so violent that the iron cooking-jjots in the caboose 
were thrown out of their holes in the stove. We, however, 
no ac cident, and amused ourselves much in Stevenson, thanks 
to (leneral (hanger, who treated us with the tine music of his 
bands and most excpiisite dinners, for the (leneral was a />oh- 
7'17-iUit. Stevenson itself is an insignificant place, stretching 
along a most dreary l)are hill, but which looked then (juite 
grand, on account of the great number of nnlitary wood 

From the army we heard only vague reports, but they were 
so (oniradictory, that we did not believe in any. At last, on 
the i8th of December, news arrived of great victories achieved 
bv our aimy, wh.ich was said to have taken forty or fifty guns. 
Hood's army was reported as being in full retreat, and we 
expected them every moment to apjtear before Bridgeport. 
Tv.-o gunboats arrived for the protection of our island, and 
ColonelsTaylorantlCorvin were busy with strengthening Hridge- 
l)ort as much as i)osbiblc and in tiisijosing of the lew troops 
left in that })lace. 

TIr- glorious news was confirmed ; General Thomas had 


Toi Wars of luj Life. 

beaten Hood, on the 15th and i6ih, in two great battles near 
Nashville, and cajnured fifty guns and al)out five diousand 
])risoners. At the same time, llie 68th Regiment received 
orders to march to Stevenson, and wait their for their colonel 
and General Steedman. This order of course produced great 
excitement, fot the regiment had been on the island about nine 
months, and everything the soldiers had arranged for their 
comfort had to be left behind, but General Steedman i)romised 
to remove all necessary things to Whiteside, where the regi- 
ment was to be stationed afterwards. 

The detachments from Fort Prince Salm, Whiteside, and 
Shellmound had to be recalled, and it was rather late in the 
afternoon before all was ready. We pre])ared a farewell colla- 
tion for our officers, and saw them off with regret, and not 
without apprehension, for in Bridgejiort remained only a very 
small force, and on our island, excejjt the sick, not more than 
twenty men as a guard for the stores. T'he gunboats had dis- 
appeared also, and we were indeed at the mercy of any strag- 
gling rebel party that might take it into their heads to pay us 
a visit. 

The empty camp offered a very cheerless aspect the day 
afterwards, and the more so on account of the rain which 
poured down in torrents. Masterless dogs and cats prowled 
about the empty shanties, and we felt extremely miserable in 
our quarters. The rain extinguished the fire in the chimney, 
filling with smoke the house, in which wet clothes were hang- 
ing, for I had ordered a great washing. The night was pitch 
dark, and the rain still streaming down. Hearing some noise 
close to the house, 1 went out to listen on the verandah, when 
I £aw the shadow-like figures of some men on horseback right 
before me. One of them asked with a deep voice whether 
that was a forsaken camp ? — a rather suspicious question, 
which did not fail to give us some alarm. Colonel Corvin put 
on his india-rubber coat, and dived, revolver in hand, into the 
darkness to reconnoitre. The horsemen were no rebels, as we 
feared, but belonged to the Union army, and were on the look- 
out for some shelter for uheir sick officer. They had established 
themselves in a shanty belonging to our lieutenant-colonel. 

The rains ceased, and with their disappearance returned our 
cheerfulness. The weather 'vas indeed delightful. W^ien we 
received the news that Gcnciral Steedman with fifteen trains 

Cordial lica'pilon in Slecensoii. 


would arrive on the 23rd in Stevenson, and that ho oxperfed 
to tind us all there, 1 was exceedin^jiy glad and in the best of 
humours, for I was to see again my husl)and after a time 
full of danger. It was good that I recx'ived tlie news of the 
battles fought after they were over, and together wii!i tliat of 
Salm's safety, or I would have felt great anxiety. 

We were received in Stevenson most cordially. Steedman 
and Salm looked more like robbers than oflkers, for they h id 
gv)ne through a hard time, and had no leisure to think ot their 
toilet. Their beards were more than a week old, and their 
uniforms covered with mud and torn to rags. 
. Salm was beammg with happiness, not alone on account of 
our meeting, but Ijecause he at last had had fighting to his 
heart's content, and an opportunity of distinguishing himself. 
During the battles Steedman had given him a command, and 
could not find words 'uough to j)raise his bravery and good 
behaviour. He regretted that decorations were not distributed 
in America, for above all Salm would have deserved being 
distinguished by such a dec(jration. He said, however, that 
he would take care to place him in command of a brigade, 
and cause (General Thomas to reconunend him for j)romotion. 
We could not stay in Stevenson, and returned in the alternoon 
to liridgeport, feeling extremely ])roud and happy. 

The weather remained beautiful for several days, and it was 
as warm as in spring. To celebrate Christmas and the victo- 
ries, we dressed out our house and its verandah with holly, and 
the tame blue-birds came picking the red berries. Corvin 
with some men went into the wood for mistletoe, which was 
found there in such luxuriance as I have not seen anywhere. 
They brought home one bush that was at least four feet in 
diameter, and its berries were as large as white currants. We 
])assed a very merry Christmas Eve at Gihbrd's, in Bridgeport, 
who gave us a splendid supper. Corvin brewed several gallons 
of much appreciated whisky ])unch, and I am sure the house 
of the worthy clergyman had never before had a merrier night. 
There was a piano, and we had a good deal 01 singing and 
dancing, and games of every kind. 

On Christmas Day we arranged a similar festival in our 
quarters ; in short, we had a nice time, and were as hai)[)y as 
could be. 

The ruad being free now, Mrs. Corvin and her husband pre- 




2\n Years of inj Life. 

pnrcd to Icnve for WnshIn;;ton, and I resolved to accompany 
tlHin as far as Nasliville, or even to Washington, according to 
the news from Felix. On the 4lh of January, 1S65, (leneral 
lirannon was to go by special train to Nashville, and offered 
to take us wiih iiiin, an offer that was thankfully accepted. ^Ve 
arrived on the 51)1 at the St. Cloud Hotel, where I found many 
old arjuaintances. 

Receiving a desj^atch from rirocl)en, informing me that my 
husband would arrive on January 8th, in Ikidgeport, with his 
brigade, I decided on returning to that place next morning 
wiih a hospital train, and Colonel and Madame Corvin left for 

The Americans are an eminently practical and sensible peo- 
ple ; everytliing tiiey do is to the purpose, and economy only 
a second-rate consideration. In other countries this is the 
})rincipal object, and most institutions that are imperfect are 
no on account of stinginess, which, after all, causes the greatest 
waste of mone}'. The American hos})ital trains are perfection. 
'I'here is everything which can possibiy be desired by wounded 
men and the surgc(jns who treat them. They are si)acious and 
airy, and provided with all the comforts of a hos]>iial. The 
waggons are of course connected in such a manner as to per- 
mit a free comnumication along the whole train. There are 
two kitchens, one for the rooking of food, the other for the 
recjuirements of nursing. Those who are severely wounded lie 
in beds stanit^ng on the floor ot the waggon, and have no 
other beds above them. In other waggons two beds are 
jilaced, one above the other. They are arranged in such a 
manner that the wounded do not sufter from the movement, by 
means of si?rings and elastic bands connected with the beds. 
Should anoU)er war ever occur in Europe, the sanitary authori- 
ties would c'.o well to study and imitate the American pattern, 
and use such hospital trains more frecjucntly than has been 
done in tliC French war. In this latter war it was distressing 
to sec the manner in which poor wounded soldiers were often 
transported in common i'ailway trains, lying i ' filthy cattle- 
waggons, even without straw, on the iloor, feeling every shock, 
and remaining sometimes five or six hours at some station 
without even a drink of water. 

On my arrival in Bridgeport I was much disappointed, for 
Sahn had not arrived yet, and was sL'll some sixty miles from 

Tenut'Sfice liivcr 


irdin;.; to 
I otVcrt'd 
ted. Vv'e 
nd many 

that my 

with his 


in left for 

iible peo- 
omy only 
his is the 
crfect are 
\c greatest 
,' wounded 
acious and 
iial. The 
as to per- 
There arc 
icr for the 
iimded He 
have no 
beds are 
in such a 
ement, by 
the beds. 
Iry authori- 
\\n pattern, 
has been 
ivere often 
thy cattle- 
cry shock, 
me station 

ointed, for 
Kiiles from 

that place. An order from nencrnl Stccdman was waiiitiL' 
there, nj)pointing him commander of that post. At I'"cii\ 
arrived on the lolh of Jamiary, an 1 aftor a great deal of trouble 
everything was arranged well. 'Ihe Prince formed his statV, 
and made (Iroeben provost-mar-jhal, and Cajjtain I'.ckert in- 
spector of the po'Jt. I at once visited the hospital, which I 
found in a very neglected state, on account of the fre([uent 
changes that had taken place during the last month. 1 got 
things right as well as I could, but had to go to CiiiUtanooga 
to procure many commodities I thought necessary for the 
wounded. Salm went with m?, and Cleneral Steedman very 
readily granted everything I wanted, especially some hospital 
tents. Salm had to leave witliout me, for 1 had not fmished 
yet ; and wiien I was ready I had so many things that I could 
not find a place for all of them in the hospital train, with which 
I returned. Dr. \V()od worth was in charge of the train, and 
had with him his exceedingly pretty wife. 

We did not return to our shanty on the, but removed 
to the quarters of the post-commander, which were situated on 
the highest ]>lace in l!ri('gej)()rt. I'rom this spot we had a 
beautiful view up and down the great Tennessee river, with its 
piclures(}ue m»)untains, the lovely island, and the railroad. 
'J'wo gunboats were stationed near the bridge ; they were at 
the disposition of my husband, who had there besides five 
regiments under his command. 

The people of Tennessee had hojicd much from Hood, and 
were greatly disappointed by his defeat. 'I'hey became despe- 
rate, and guerilla bands conmiilted many dei)redations in the 
country and cruelty upon Union people. Salm, therefore, was 
very anxious to check them. For this pur])ose he undertook 
several expeditions, which he always commanded hunself, 
though he often took with him only one company. These 
raids were usually without result, for the rebels had their spies 
everywhere, and I fliiled not to tease Salm ; but on the 29th, 
at Last, an ex[)eduion had a grand ^result : he captured two 
rebel hats and frightened nine rebel women out of their wits. 
He did not nnnd my teasing, and was indefatigable. 

Towards the end of January he started for another expedition 
down the river on the transport ship ' Bridgeport,' and taking 
with him the gunboat ' Burnside.' He landed his trooj)s 
about forty-five miles from Bridgeport, and on a very dark 


Ten Years of mj Life. 

I' • 

nicjbt he surprised a rebel canip. In the ensirng fight thirteen 
rcl)cls were killed, fourteen taken prisoners, and a number of 
arms and horses fell into the Iip.nds of our troops^ who lost 
only one officer of a coloured regiment. 

On tile 13th of February, Saim returned from another suc- 
cessful raid, which he made with about three hundred men. 
He surprised, on the loth, the noted guerilla chief Witherspoon 
in his camp, captured many arms and some fine horses, 
amongst which was the celebrated charger of the rebel chief, 
whose brother, together with fifteen rebels, were taken prison- 
ers. A good number of the rebels were killed and wounded, 
whilst our troops had no casualties. This success made a 
great noise, and (General Steedman was so much satisfied that 
he once more and very urgently recommended Salm for pro- 

Whilst Salm was thus attending to his military duties, always 
commanding these raids in person, I had nf ich to do with ar- 
ranging our quarters and improving the hospital. I had to go 
several times to Chattanooga, for the people there had sent 
me rotten tents, and I had to exchange them for new ones, 
and to fetch other commodities for my sick. 

Life in Bridgeport was then quite pleasant, for onr company 
had had many agreeable additions. Several officers' wives 
had arrived, and the captains of the gunboats * Stone River '" 
and ' Burnside * were also married, and very nice people. 

In the middle of February my brother-in-law. Captain John- 
son, airived with my sister and her son Franky, for the captain 
had been attached to my husband's brigade. The proposed 
promotion of several officers and that of Salm did not pro- 
gress. There was somewhere a hitch, and some hostile influ- 
ences supposed to be at work in Washington. 

After due reflection it was thought best that J , escorted by 
old Groeben, should go to Washington and look afier the in- 
terests of Felix and his brigade. 

To Europeans, especially to Germans, this meddling of 
ladies, especially with military affairs, will appear rather strange, 
but every country has its peculiarities, and it is one of the 
peculiarities of America that ladies have there a far different 
position from that they hold in Europe. More things go 
through their hands than outsiders dream of, and officials in 
different bureaus are not in the least surprised if ladies attend 


Shirt for Washhijtoii. 


bcr of 
no lobt 

er suc- 
i men. 
I chief, 
iiade a 
ied that 
lor pro- 

;, always 
with ar- 
id to go 
lad sent 
jw ones, 

to the business of tlicir husbiinds. Tliou;;h the proniotion of 
Salin cici)ciulcd in the first place on StaiUon, as he liad t(ji i)ro- 
pose him, he had to be confirmed as a general by the Senate, 
and moreover Stanton, independently as he generally acted 
could not disregard the suggestions of inthiential governors or 
senators, wiiuse assistance he again required for other purposes. 
As I had friends amongst the governors and sena^:)rs, I h()[)ed 
they would exert their uitiuence in mv husband's interest, es- 
pecially ds they could do so with a good conscience, his claims 
being strongly supj-orted by his beluiviour and the recommen- 
dation from his chiels. (ieneral Steedman approved of my 
))lan, and I therefore started on February 24th for Washington, 
carrying with me tiie good wishes and hopes of the brigade. 

s' wives 
J River ' 


an John- 

i captain 

not pro- 

ile intlu- 

lorted by 
jr the in- 
idling of 

le of the 

[hings go 

icials in 
les attend 


f I 




On Ix^anl the 'Ccneial I.yttle ' — In Washington — Up-hill work- -Senator 
Vales — (j() with (ircjebeiito New York — Cjovernor I'ciiltiii -( loveniur 
(lihnore of New J lanipshiie Return to Washington — Victory — • 
Receive the (General's commission for Salm — Living at Corvin's in 
( iforgeto\\n — Short sketch of war events — Characteristic of (ieneral 
(Jrant — The assassination of Lincoln — Attemjit again>t Secretary 
.Seward — Ini]>ressioii made by that catastro])he — The Funeral— 
An<lrew Johnson, the new President — Mr. Field, Assistant Secretary 
of the Treasury — Returning to the war -Felix in Dallon, (leorgia — 
Arrival in Chaltancjoga — N(< trains — (jet a locomotive— Riding on the 
cow catcher — A journey from iJalton to Cleveland — A fearful ni<.ht in 
the woods— Dangers of railway travelling -A narrow escape — 1 .^et a 
haby of my sister's — Starting for Atlanta, (leorgia — State of the 
ctjuntry — Our life in Atlanta — Leaving for Savannah — Fort I'ulaski — 
An excursion to Augusta — Dangers of the Savannah rivers — Our 
steamer, the ' Fanny Lehr,' running on a snag — Sticking in the mud — 
The alligators — Assistance arriving — Continue our journey — Coming 
up with the ' Robert Lehr,' which strikes a snag and goes down — • 
Returning to Savannah— End of the war — (joing via Baltimore to 
Washington — Living in Georgetown at Corvin's — Forming new plans 
— Salm resolves to go to Mexico — (jroeben is to go with him — 1 re- 
main in Washington — Take a house in that city together with the 
Corvins — Our life — K.\cursi(jns — Colonel M^njre — Leaving for Mexico 
— Good-bye to President Johnson — Om board the ' ^lanhattan ' — ' 
Father Fisher — Arrival in llavannah — Surprise — Meetinjj Salm — 
Arrival in Vera Cruz. 

My husband accompanied me as far as Nashville, where we 
met General Steedman and Colonel von Schrader, with his 
wife. As I had to attend to some business connected with 
my hospital, I stayed over Sunday in Nashville, and went with 
General Steedman to the Sanitary Commission, from whom I 
got all I wanted. On Tuesday, February 28th, I started for 
Louisville, where I had to stay two days, feeling not well at all. 


Arr'ii'dl ill ('(DnbcrlitmL 


: — Senator 
Jorvin's in 
of ( 'iclicial 

l-'uncr^l — ■ 
t Secretary 
idiiii^on the 
ifvirni!.V.t in 
)c— I 4^t a 
;^te of the 
t I'ula^ki— 
ivers— Our 

the nnitl — 
)es down — 
.altimore to 
r new plans 
him— I re- 
er with the 
for Mexico 
nhattan' — 
xvr SaUp — 

I where ^^e 
„ with his 
•cted with 
[went with 
whom I 
tarted for 
well at all. 


I liad the pleastire of seeing Colonel Taylor, the foriiuT post- 
cominandcT ot IJridf^^'port, whose regiment had gone lH)nie. 

Still ill, 1 embarked in the steamer '(leneral Lyltle ' l\)r 
Cincinnati. She was a very large splendid shij), which some- 
time afterwards was destroyed by tire. The saloon in this shij) 
was exceedingly large. One part of it, separated from the rest 
by a moveable, heavy curtain, was allotted to the ladies, and 
j)rovided wit!i a fine jjiano and all the comforts of a drawing- 
room ; at the other end was a similar room for the gentlemen, 
who sat smoking roimd the stove. The large sj)ace between 
was tiscd as a dmiiig-hall, and several himdred persons could 
sit at dinner in it. 

The ship arrived too late for the morning train, and T had to 
stop in Cinciniuili tmtil ten o'clock I'.M. I wjs still ill all night 
ancl next day, and the jofirney was a great trial. At one station 
a bridge had been washed away, and all passengers had to 
\falk more tl in two miles in the rain, ankle-deep in the mtid, 
and loaded with their hand-baggage. (^Id droeben felt that 
exertion more than 1 tlid, for he was even worse on foot than 
on horseback. 

Arriving at Cimibcrland, Maryland, I felt so bad that I had 
to send for a doctor, and stay all Simday, I arrived at last in 
A\'ashington on 'i'liesday, March 6, at ten o'clock p.m. 

Thotigh still ill 1 received many visitors, and amongst them 
(lenerals Hooker, I'ry, and Stnjiel, MrSpeierand Dr. Strobach. 
] heard from them that the Senate would adjourn at the end of 
the week, and that 1 had not much lime to lose if I wanted to 
attend to my business. I therefore called next day on the 
Senators Harris, Wilson, and Nesmick, and the (lenerals 
Hooker and Fry, in the War Department. From the latter 1 
heard that the report of (ieneral 'I'homas liad not been sent in 
yet, and that nothing would be decided until then in reference 
to the promotions in (ieneral Thomas's army. 

Senator Vates was also ir. Washington, and he and my other 
friends also exerted themselves much in behalf of Felix. 
They communicated with the (ienerals Thomas and Steedman, 
and telegrai)hic despatches went and arrived every day. Steed- 
man once more urged the promotion of Felix, and 1 called on 
the Secretary of War, Mr. Stanton, whom I, however, did not 
find in his office, as he had gone to the Navy Yard. 

1 was quite unhappy about all these delays. Senator Yates 


Ten Ynirti (\f vnf Life, 

tlu-rcfore wrote to Slantnn, enclosing llie dcspntcli from ( 
SicL'tlin.iii about Kclix, and I called again at the War Depart- 
ment. Stanton was in, but too much occupied to sec me. I 
therefore sent in my letter and despatch, which were filed, 
liy (leneral Fry I always heard what was going on in the NVar 
Department in reference to my husband, and he tokl mc that 
vStanlon would not make him a general without having a special 
reconunendation from Oener.d Thomas himself. I'ntier the 
27th of March 1 fmd in my diary, ' 1 feel very unhappy, but 1 
7*'/// succeed, even if it kills me.' 

Senator Yates felt pity for my distress, and sent a flesjvitch 
to Cleneral Thomas, and when he had wailed in vain for an 
answer, he wrote to (ieneral Steedman. I became (]uite ill 
with anxiety and vexation, but was resolved to succeed, and 
not to have any rest until 1 had done* so. 

As the troops under the command of Felix were partly from 
New York, partly from New Hampshire, I resolved tointerest iffe 
governors of those States, whose wishes could not well be dis- 
regarded by Stanton. 1 had, moreover, to attend to the busi- 
ness of other otl'icers of the brigade, who had been recom- 
mended for promotion, but not received yet their commissions . 
from the governors. I therefore went with Groeben to New 
York, and before leaving for Albany 1 sent a despatch to good 
old Governor Gilmorc, of New Hampshire. 

Arrived in Albany, I called on Senator Harris, whom I want- 
ed to go with me to Governor Fenton of New York. I did 
not find the senator, but being too impatient to wait for his 
return, I went with Groeben to Fenton, who received me with 
great kindne'^s. He attended at once to my wishes in reference 
to the commissions for the officers, with which Groeben start- 
ed immediately to Bridgeport, whilst I returned to New York. 
I found there a despatch from Governor Gilmore, which I 
answered. Everything I could do I had done ; the governors 
promised their best, and in so flir I succeeded beyond all my 
hopes ; but I became so impatient with all these delays, 
I on my way back to Washington fell ill at Philadelphia. Dr. 
Mitchell, for whom I sent, said that I recpiired only rest, and 
with that I should be well again in a lew weeks. 

Mrs. Corvin and the Colonel had taken a house in George- 
town, a delightful place on the other side of the rocky creek, a 
kind of suburb ot VVashington, where many of the rich citizens 

Otneral Fdlx ShIiil 


h,v\ I had seen my friends very often diirin;; my stay 
in Washini^ton, and not likin;; to loin lin aloni; in the hotel, and 
my sister l>cing absent in Alabama, I accepted their offer to 
remove to their house in (ieorj;elown, and on my arrival in 
Washington the (J()l«)nel was waiting for n'.e at the dep-'t. I 
found a letter from (ieneral Fry, who had gone to Charleston, 
which, was very disagreea!)le, as I w.inted his assistance in the 
^\ar l)ei)arlment. (iovernor Vates was, however, still in 
Washington, and on calling on him, on the loth of A\n'\\, I 
heard good news ; (leneral Thomas had informed him that he 
//</// recommended I''elix for promotion. 

Now I was full of hope, and mi;ht have allowed myself 
some rest, waiting patiently : but urged by some unaccountable 
dread, and fearing that some untoward event might snatch out 
of my hands the palm nf victory, I could not rest, and wrote 
at once to Senator Yates, who answered that he would see 
Stanton on the 12th of April. 1 called on the Senator on 
Thursday, the 13th of Ai)ril, and was never happier in my lite, 
for Yates delivered into my hands the commission of general 
for Felix, signed bv Stanton ! How pnuid 1 felt when I sent a 
despatch to Hridgejxjrt addressed to General Felix Salm ! 

\Vhen I returned with my good news to (ieorgetown, I turned 
Mrs. Corvin's house topsy-turvy, and they took part in my 
hai)piness. Corvin brewed in the evening some nice punch, 
and we drank the health of the dear new general. 

Yes, 1 felt extremely happy and proud. He had given me 
his name and made me a princess, but notwithstanding his 
name and rank he would have failed a^tcr his first start, and 
remained a colonel without a regiment, involved as he was in 
the fate of poor Blenker. All his merit would have availed 
him little against the rancour of Stanton. I procured for him 
the command of the 8th, and rrJsed for him the 68th Regi- 
ment ; now he had become a general through my exertions. 

I must remind the reader once more that I am writing my 
personal experience, and not history. I must sui)pose a general 
knowledge of the American war, as even a slight sketch takes 
up too much space. I therefore shall merely touch on the 
great events which happened in the last half ot 1865 in the 
F^ast, which led to the conclusion ol the war. 

The successes in the West, especially the capture of Vicks- 
burg and the victories near Chattanooga, had made General 


Ten Years of my Life. 

(irant a favourite with t1ie Government in Wa.sliiii'^ton. He 
was aj)i)ointed Conimander-in chief of all the armies, and 
j)laced himself at the head of the Potomac army, whilst he left 
aftairs in the South and West in the hands of Sherman and 
Thomas, who had chiefly made his reputation. Grant himself 
is no great general, though he has some qualities which, 
.together with his good luck, made him appear so to the world 
looking on from afar olf He has great tenacity, an utter dis- 
regard for human life, and is no talker. His good luck and 
and his taciturnity made him president of the United States, 
not his talent. The people had been sufticiently disappointed 
l/V boasters and talkers, and were favourably disposed towards 
a generr.l who had successes to show and make no fuss about 
them. His taciturnity made him ai)pear wiser than he really 

The views of General Grant about the manner in which the 
great struggle A\as to be terminated were based on figures. He 
knew that the Union had the longest purse and far greater 
resources in men than the South ; that the treasury of the 
rebels was exhausted, and that the army they had in the field 
was the last they could raise. He could atford to lose as many 
thousands as they could hundreds ; and on tiiis brutal princi- 
ple, not on strategical skill, was built his hope of victory. 
Though the concpiest of Richmond would have been always a 
great success, it would have been more of a moral than of a 
material value, as war he knew would be carried on in other 
j)arts of the wide South as long as the^e were men left to fight. 
The Government, however, wanted next Richmond, and when 
Stanton confided to Grant the army, it was under two condi- 
tions : that he should at once move upon Richmond, and do 
it on another road than that which McClellan h-id used, whom 
Stanton hated more than the rebels. Every military man of 
sense saw that the plan of that much-abused general was still 
the best for the attack of the rebel caj)ital, and that it might 
be approached with scarcely any loss by the way of the James 
or York rivers, whilst that over land would have to be paved 
with corpses. But Stanton ordered, and Grant had promised 
to fight it out on that road. He therefore crossed the Rapidan 
river, and before he reached the point where McClellan com- 
menced his campaign, Grant had lost about So, coo men in the 
battles of the Wilderness, Spotsylvania-Court-House, and Coal 

Death oj President lAucola. 


Harbour. What was it to liiin ! His calculation was right ; 
he could afford such a loss from his 700,000, whilst the 20,000 
lost by the Southern army made useless all the skill of General 
l>ee and the hemic eftbrts of his troops. The fmal re:iult is 
known. Lee h; to capitulate ; Richmond was taken. 

When the news of the successes arrived in Washington, the 
city resembled a madhouse. All the offices were closed at 
once for that day ; the ten thousand clerks ran into the streets, 
and first into the bar-roonr., to celebrate the victory in drink. 
In a quarter of an hour scarcely one sober man was to be r.een ; 
whoever was not intoxicated by spirits was so with ])olitical 
enthusiasm. Everybody embraced everybody in the street. 

Ciood Friday, the 14th of April, 1865, came. This day is 
not kept as holy either in England or America, as it is in Pro- 
testant Europe ; the theatres are not even closed. It was, 
moreover, the anniversary of the surrender of Fort Sumter in 
1 86 1, and was to be celebrated as a day of joy, and on that 
day the Union flag was to be hoisted again on the fort witii 
great ceremonies. 

The peoi)le wanted to see Lincoln and Grant, and to satisfy 
their curiosity the President had resolved to attend the repre- 
sentation of a play — ' The American Cousin ' — in Ford's 
Theatre, 6th Street ; and the more so, as General Grant wa> 
compelled to leave for the army. How Lincoln was shot there 
by John Wilkes Booth is known. 

I intended to go next day to New YorV to order a general's 
uniform and all belonging to it for Felix, and rose early. Be- 
fore I had yet finished my toilet, Colonel Corvin knocked at 
my door in a manner tliat frightened me, and still more was I 
alarmed when, on opening the door, I looked into his ])ale, 
excited face, tears filling his eyes. He told me that President 
Lincoln and Secretary of State Seward had been murdered 
last night. A neighbour had told him so. 

I never in my life have seen or heard of such a general and 
sincere mourning. Everybody looked as if his father had 
suddenly died, and even known rebel sympathisers looked 
grave and sad, for they knew well that the death of this good 
and just man was a great loss even for the conquered. On 
tlie same morning, man\ houses in (ieorgetown and Washing- 
ton were drapcdi with black, and next day not one building, 
public or private, was to be seen widiout such lugubrious 

t ;« 


Ten Years of my Life. 

President Lincoln was carried from Ford's Theatre to the 
house of a German photo^'rapher, Mr. Henry Ulke, and died 
tarly on Saturday morning. Mr. Seward was not killed, but 
severely wounded by a man of the name of Payne. He was 
sick in bed with a fractured jaw from a fall from his carriage, 
when Payne entered the house under the pretext of bringing 
some medicine from the apothecary. As he made some noise, 
young Seward, the Assistant-Secretary of State, came out of 
his room, and was immediately felled to the ground by a blow 
on his head with the butt-end of a revolver. When liyne, 
knife in hand, jumped towards the bed of the old Secretary of 
State, a male nurse, an invalid, caught him round his waist 
from behind, and though he received several stabs he did not 
let go his hold ; and when dragged to the bed by the far 
stronger assassin, his exertions were so far successful that they 
caused the stabs to miss their aim, wounding Mr. Seward only 
in the neck. 

Tlie house was of course alarmed, but the assassin succeeded 
in making his escape, wounding some persons of the house- 
hold who met him on the staircase. When Miss Fanny Seward, 
the amiable daughter of the Secretary, rushed into her father's 
bedroom, she found him lying on the ground, entangled in his 
bloody sheets. The sight of her bleeding brother and father 
made such a frightful impression on her, that she ailed from 
that lime, and died after her father and brother had recovered 
from tlieir wounds. When Mr. Seward was asked afterwards 
wliat were his thoughts on seeing the knife of the assassin over 
him, he said, ' I looked into his face, and thought, *' What a 
handsome man ! " ' 

There were many reports afloat accusing well-known persons 
of having taken part in the conspiracy, and neither the Vice* 
President, Mr. Johnson, nor high military commanders escaped 

John Wilkes Booth was tracked, and defending himself when 
surrounded in a barn, was shot by a corporal. Payne was 
caught and hanged with three others, amongst whom was Mrs. 
Surrat, the first woman, I was cold, who ever suliered this pun- 
ishment in the United States. 

Though I mourned very much the death of the good and 
kind President, war had hardened me somewhat against the 
impression of such scenes and news, and 1 left the same even- 

The Prcs'uloirs Funeral. 


same even- 

ing for New York to attend to my private business. I found 
there great excitement, and that the sympathy of the peoi)le in 
New York was the same as in Washington, as, in fact, was tlic 
case throughout the whole Union. 

I had ahghted in the Everett House, where Governor Gil- 
more, of New Hampshire, called on me, and returned to 
Georgetown on April 19, at noon, when I found all Washing- 
ton in the streets, for the funeral of Mr. Lincoln was to take 
I)lace at one o'clock. His remains had been laid out in be- 
coming pomp in the green-room of the President's residence. 

The funeral has been described in all papers, and will still 
be remembered. Whoever saw it will never forget it, not on 
account of its magnificence, but on account of the rarer sight 
of so many '.housand sad and tearful faces. The coffin was 
brouglit to the great Rotunda in the Capitol, and remained 
there open in state until nine o'clock next day. From far and 
near still many thousands more came to have a last look at this 
victim of political fanaticism. 

It was intended to carry the remains of the President as 
speedily as convenient to Springfield, Illinois, but this could 
not be carried out, for everybody wanted once more to see the 
face of the beloved President, and every city and village 
through which the procession passed wanted to' pay him their 
last respects. 

The cities of Baltitriore, Philadelphia, New York, Albany, 
Chicago, vied with each other. From hundreds of miles the 
people flocked near the road only to see the sombre corteiie 
pass, and honour it at least by uncovering. This kind of tri- 
umphant march lasted until May 3, when the cortege arrived in 
Springfield, Illinois. 

Though I wished very much to return to my husband, I was 
detained by different circumstances longer than I intended in 
Georgetown. According to the constitution, the Vice-Presi 
dent, Mr. Andrevv Johnson, had become President of the 
United States. I had made his acquaintance in Nashville, 
when he was still Governor of Tennessee, in which State he 
always had particular connections and influence, which might 
have been usai in favour of my husband. I wished therefore 
to secure his acquaintance, and called on him. He was mucii 
occupied, and I could not see him, but he sent word that he 
would receive me on April 24, at ten o'clock. 




i , 

Ten Ycavii of my Life, 

On that day I went to the White House, accompanied by 
Madame von Corvin. We had an audience, and were received 
very courteously ; but, as many people were waiting to see him, 
and I had no time to speak of things to which I wanted to 
draw his attention, he invited me to call on him in the evening 
after business hours the same day. I followed this invitation 
accompanied by Mr. Field, the Assistant-Secretary of the 
Treasury, whose acquaintance I had made recently. I presented 
the President with a bouquet, which he received very graciously. 

On April 30 I said good-bye to Georgetown, and started for 
New Yoik, where I had still to attend to sonie business for 
Felix, which detained me over a week. 

In Cincinnati I was again detained, but at last left, on May 
13, for Louisville, where I found two des))atches from my 
husband, who had meanwhile removed to Dalton, in Georgia. 
Telegrams which I found in Nashville made me stop in that 
city another day, and I did not arrive in Chattanooga before 
May 17, where I found Captain von Groeben to escort me to 

The railroad was all torn up and no regular trains nmning, 
but being impatient to reach Felix, I managed to get an extra 
train — that is, only a locomotive — though everybody advised 
me not to rim the risk. I had my way however, and poor 
Groeben had to risk his limbs with me. I was in such good 
spirits that I played all kinds of tricks only to have a laugh at 
Groeben, who was horrified when I insisted on riding on the 
cow-catclier, which I did. It was glorious fun, but more like 
riding on a high trotting-horse than on a locomotive, for our 
whole journey, which lasted three hours, was more like a jump- 
ing, procession. 

Dalton is a small town in Georgia, and in consequence of 
General Sherman's war policy had been destroyed almost en- 
tirely ; only half a dozen houses had been spared, and it was 
extremely difficult to procure quarters fol» us. At last we 
succeeded in securing a small cottage overgrown with ivy and 
wild vine which pleased me much. 

My sister Delia was with her husband in Cleveland, Tenn. 
She expected her confinement, and I felt very envious, for I had 
no child which made me quite unhappy. Seeing this, my sister 
proniised iu let me have the expected one, if it should be a boy, 
and 1 awaited the news with great impatience. When I at la^t 


-^l Ride in an Ambulance. 


received the tcle[:;rni)hic despatch I could not get an extra train, 
and resolved to ride over in an ambulance, for the (li.uance was 
only twenty-nine nii'es. This would have been a irille any- 
where else but in (jeorgia at that time. The driver, however, 
])retended to know the road, and 1 was not afraid, though we 
had to cross dense woods. It was evening when we entered 
them, and the driver lost his way. We were wandering about 
until the middle of the night, and it became so dark that we 
could not see our horses. But on a sudden there broke loose 
a thunderstorm, such as you have only in southern countries. 
The hurricane rushed through the trees, and made them creak 
or break down with a crash. Flash after flash of lightning 
followed, lighting up the fearful scene for moments, and the 
thunder made a noise as if hundreds of guns were fired at once. 
Then the rain poured down in torrents, and everywhere 
gurgled and rushed water preparing new unseen dangers. 
It was indeed a desj)erate situation, and it may be imagined 
how glad we were on discovering at last, at about two o'clock 
A.M., a farm before us. Though not knowing whether we 
should meet a friend or a foe, necessity was stronger than fear, 
and we roused the owner. He was a Mr. Price, who received 
us with kindness, and I stayed with him until morning. 

When I arrived at about noon in Cleveland, my sister had 
had a fine boy, who therefore was to be mine, and whom I at 
once called Felix. I returned after a day or two to Dalton, 
again in my ambulance, as the hope of getting a train failed. 
The road, torn up by the storm, was extremely bad, and our 
horses became so exhausted that we once more had to apply 
to the hospitality of Mr. Price. In the night I was awakened 
by the arrival of my husband, who came to fetch me. 

Some time afterwards, on July 3, I received a despatch tell- 
ing me that my poor sister was very ill. I applied for a loco- 
motive to General Steedman, who had his he-d-quarters in 
Atlanta, and was promised one for next morning. I preferred 
waiting, remembering my first journey in an ambulance, but 
nearly got out of the frymg-pan in.o the fire. The service on 
the railway had not been regulated yet, and locomotives were 
always running to and fro at haphazard. When our locomo- 
tive was just on a dangerous curve and swaying round, we .saw, 
TO our horror, another coming full speed towards us. Without 
the presence of mind of our engineer, a smash would have 



i > 



Ten Years of my Life. 

occurred the next second ; but he was a brave and cool-headed 
man ; instead of leaping off the locomotive and leaving me to 
my fate, as many others would perhaps have done, he ni once 
backed to a safe distance. There was only one hne o( rails, 
and General Judah, who was on the locomotive meeting us, 
was polite enough to return with us to Cleveland. I found 
my sistci better, but it was resolved that she should engage a 
negro nurse, and that I should take her and the baby v,ith me 
to Dalton. 

I was extremely happy to have at last a baby, and it bt;":ame 
the centre around which everything turned — even my pet 
Jimmy was neglected. Little Felix was a most beautiful child, 
and the black nurse felt very proud, as black nurses of white 
children always do. It was quite amusing to hear her breaking 
out in ecstasies about her nursling, and preferring him much 
to her own child, which she contemptuously called a black 

When I returned "home I found that Felix had received 
marching orders. His brigade had to advance to Atlanta, 
whilst General Steedman went to / ugusta. 

The country was in a fearful state. There was nothing to 
be had, and it had been extremely difficult for me to procure 
even the most necessary articles or household things in Dalton. 
In Atlanta I knew it was still worse, and when we started on 
July 7 for that city, I took with me everything col'ected with 
so much trouble. 

Twelve miles before Atlanta our train ran off the track, and 
it required much time and work to set things right. We ar- 
rived at last at the city of Atlanta, or rather at a place where 
it once had been. 

Before the war, Atlanta had been only an "insignificant place, 
not being older than about twenty years, but during this war 
it had become of very great importance, not only on account 
of the several railroad jnnctions there, but still more because 
there had been established the most important mills, factories, 
and Government stores, providing the Southern army with all 
requirements. Sherman wanted to finish the war, and calcu- 
lated that this might be done best by unstringing or cutting 
the sinews of war. After having destroyed all the factories 
along the Chattahooche river and its neighbourhood, he deci- 
ded on taking Atlanta, which he therefore besieged. The 

Fedend Barhar'dies. 


town was only fortified with fitld-works, but to storm them 
would cost loo many nien, and Sherman thought it more secure 
to compel the Richmond of the West to surrender hy starva- 
tion. He succeeded, and the Confederate army defci.ding it 
had to leave the town to its fate. 'J'his fate was very hard, 
for Sherman acted only on mere military principles, which 
always are directly opposed to humanity. He wanted the 
place for military purposes, and insisted that all its inhabitants 
should leave it, going either south or being conveyed to the 
Northern States, where they could not harm the interest of the 
army. All petitions were in vain ; everybody, even sick 
women and children, had to leave ; and taking with them such 
of their goods as they could transport, they were escorted by 
Federal officers to the army of General Mood. 

This was indeed a very cruel tate after having endured all 
the horrors of a long siege. 

Poor Atlanta, it was doomed to utter destruction when 
Sherman started on his celebrated march to Savannah. After 
having concentrated around Atlanta about 70,000 men, and 
given up all connections with Chattanooga, he destroyed all 
railroads and places between, and burnt Atlanta itself on the 
14th of November. He would leave behind him a wilderness, 
in order that no Southern army might be able to follow him. 
Before the Southern chiefs even became aware of his inten- 
tions, which had been kept wonderfully secret, he had already 
a start of nearly three hundred miles — thrt'e hundred miles, in 
which scarcely a house and no food either for cattle or man 
was to be found. 

The instructions given by Sherman to the army were 
extremely severe, and even barbarous, but they became still 
more so by the manner in which they were executed by the 
Federal soldiers. Every bit of lood was taken by them, or, if 
they had too much to transport, destroyed, and nobody cared 
whether the poor Southern families were left to starve. 
Jewellery, plate, and valuables, which were transportable, were 
appropriated under pretext that they might be sold and furnish 
means to the rebels. In houses from which the inhabitants 
had tied before the cruelties of the Federals, which on i)urpose 
had been exaggerated by the Southern papers, every piece of 
furniture was destroyed or the whole concern burnt ; and if 
some Door wretches were discovered hid in the woods, even 











; ; 


! U 



Ten Years of my Life, 

unarnu'd, tlicy were hanged or shot. For c nturies war had 
r.ot l)ccn (arried on in .such a manner, but it was successful. 
'Jhe North, infatuated by jjoh'tical fanaticism, a])plauded, and 
Sherman was the great liero of the war. I do not envy such 
glory, great general as he may be. 

All public buildings in Atlanta were burnt and destroyed by 
means of gunpowder. Of the once elegant private houses 
nothing remained but the blackc-ied chimneys. Only a few 
old houses in the suburbs had been spared, because they w^rc 
used by Federals, and some new light ones had been built 
since then. Jt was a sad sight, and on looking on it one ccdld 
scarcely believe that the remaining inhabitants of that country 
would ever become reconciled to their Northern conquerors. 

General Sherman had promised to make my husband com- 
mander of the whole district. This was a very honourable 
position, but at the same time a very difficult one, requiring 
much energy and tact. 

Salm and I could not at once find a house, ana we stayed a 
few days in that of a relative of a la.'y who had come over 
\vith us from Dalton, and who was anxious to secure the good 
graces of the new commander. On the loth of July, however, 
we found a very nice little cottage, in which Salm established 
his head-quarters after. General Winslow had surrendered to 
him the command of the place. 

We remained in Atlanta until October, and time passed 
very agreeably with us. My brother-in-law had become Pro- 
vost-Marshal of the post, and therefore came over with my 
sister Delia. As little P'elix did not get ok very well with his 
nurse, and the doctors thought that he would be better with 
his mother, I with great regret gave him up again. 

We had almost always visitors passing through, mostly 
officers going from one part of the army to the other, and as 
there was no hotel in Atlanta their consrades in the town had 
to accommodate them as best they coul 1. In regard to pro- 
visions, we were at first very badly oO, for the few country 
people in the district who had something to sell did not venture 
to bring their products to market for fear of being badly treated 
by the soldiers, as happened now and then. The Union 
soldiers were supercilious, and the southern people full of 
hatred towards them, and though prudence advised them to 
be cautious in their expressions, they often gave way to their 

Poor White People. 


feelings, and riots ensued. Sensible men tried to restore peace 
but that was sometimes a very tliankless business. Judge Ikut, 
an acquaintance of ours, and a well meaning man, who once 
tried to pacify the quarrelling parties, was badly wounded by 
one of our cavalry men. 

My husband tried his best to restore confidence in the dis- 
trict, and to check the insolence of the soldiery. His endea- 
vours wer'i not without success, and after some time huts sprang 
up amongst the ruins, and country peo])le came to the market. 

The distress of the poor white people in Georgia had found 
sympathy 'n the North, and one day, in August, Judge Root 
and his wife arrived with an immense train loaded with all 
kinds of clothing and other things, which he confided to me 
for distribution. When I advertised the arrival of these 
benevolent gifts, hundreds of poor women from the district 
flocked to our house, and I was several days occupied with 
this good work. To look on those poor wretched creatures 
was a very sad sight. They looked all yellow and starved, 
and were scarcely covered by rags. 

• There were of course many sick and wounded, and the 
hospitals wer^ crowded We had, however, good doctors, and 
I supported them to my best ability, passing every day a few 
hours in the hospitals, and going now and then to Augusta, or 
even to Nashville, to fetch provisions and other commodities 
from the Sanitary or Christian Commission. 

Our endeavours to do everything that possibly could be done 
for the poor Southerners were kindly appreciated by the Atlanta 
people, who once surprised us with a serenade ; though we 
laughed much at the great variety of musical instruments, and 
the queer music produced by them, we felt highly gratified at 
the kind feeling expressed by it. 

I do not know whether in the military law all the different 
punishments are allowed which I saw in the army, but I can 
scarcely believe it, for they were exceedingly barbarous, and 
not at all in accordance with the rpirit of the American law. 
I am rather inclined to believe that there were more sanctioned 
by army tradition, deriving their origin from 'what once was 
thought necessary in the British army. Whipping has been 
abolished, I think, by the law, but what had been substituted 
for it was far worse. 

Soldiers who had committed a breach of discipline, or had 



I fi 



Ten Year a of my Life. 

been found dnink repeatedly, were tied to a tree with a horse's 
bit or bayonet fixed in their mouths ; or they were suspended 
by theii" thumbs in such a manner as just to reach the ground 
witli the tips of their toes. Others were exhibited as drunkards 
for hours, standing on tubs in the middle of the camp, and 
laughed at and teased ^ passers-by, as used to be done 

when people were put i.. the stocks or exhibited on the 

Once when Salm had gone to Marietta, I heard cries of pain 
coming from the garden behind my house. A poor fellow, 
with a bayonet in his mouth, was tied there against a tree and 
exposed to the glaring sun. I sent for Captain Steurnagel, my 
husband's Assistant Adjutant-Cieneral, and heard from him 
that this man was punished in this manner for disobedience 
against Salm. He was a Oerman who had enlisted recently, 
and who '•efused obstinately to cut off his long elf locks. Salm 
had sent for him, but the German insisted on his right to wear 
his hair as he liked, making a long speech about tyranny being 
unworthy of a free country. In things concerning discipline 
Salm did not understand any joke, and he condemned the man 
to the above-mentioned punishment. 

I insisted on his immediate release, but Captain Steuernagel 
refused to comply with my demand, as was his duty. At this 
I became angry, and as the captain would not take upon him- 
self the responsibility, I untied the poor fellow with my own 
hands, poor Steuernagel not daring to hinder me, though he was 
much afraid of the consequences. 

I took the rather crazy German into my kitchen, and gave 
him something to eat and drink, for he was utterly exhausted, 
hi examining him I heard that he was a learned apothecary, 
and as 1 became interested I resolved to find for him a place . 
where he could be of more use than in the ranks. 

The man was not insensible to kindness, and on my advice 
he cut off his hair, went to Salm and begged his forgiveness. 
Salm never heard that I had liberated him, for the captain of 
course did not care *o tell ; and believing that he had suffered 
his punishment it was not difficult for me to interest my kind 
husband in his favour, who made him doctor in a coloured 

A great but pleasurable excitement was produced in Atlanta 
by the arrival of the paymaster. In consequence of the in- 

Sdlm (jocs to Scrannah. 


se( urily of the roads, this rare bird liad not appeared in our 
camp tor nearly eight niontiis, and i)enury was the prevailing 
ei)idemic. I think I sjwke before about the evil conscHjuences 
of this niiinner of paying soldiers in the American army. It 
eompelled the officers to sell their pay-rolls in advance to 
agents, uho took enormous interest. 'Hie ])rivates were still 
worse off, for they took tickets, representing a certain sum, 
from the sutlers, who made inunense i)rofils. The commanders 
tried to regu.late this trade as much as possible, but their 
])owers in this respect were limited, and moreover, they had 
only too fre(|uently good reasons to wink at the doings of the 
sutlers and their agents. 

On October 3, Salm received orders to go witli his old regi- 
ment to Savannah, which had been evacuated by the rel)els 
already, about Christmas. 1 went with Salm as far as Augusta, 
where 1 intended to stay, together with Mrs. Steedman, until 
further orders. My sister came also to Augusta, for her hus- 
band had been api)ointed assistant provost-marshal of the de- 
parlnient. I occu[)ied myself as usual in the hospitals and 
their affairs. 1 freijuently visited Atlanta, Macon, and Nash- 
ville, to which latter place I went on October 16 with Dr. 
Simon, riding again, as I find in my diary, on the ' cow- 
catcher.' This manner of trav<*Ming is not at all dis.tgreeable, 
for one has fresh air, and is ftv e from dust and heat of the 

1 could not leave Augusta before October 28. The journey 
was very unpleasant and fatiguing, for we had to travel nearly 
sixty miles in a stage-coach until we reached station ' Four 
one-half,' where we had to remain until October 30. \Ve 
arrived at last in Savannah and stopped at the Pulaski House, 
where I was niiich disappointed in not finding Felix, who had 
gone to Fort P.ilaski ; but I soon received a letter from him 
informing me that he would be obliged to stay a fev/ days at 
Fort Pulaski, but would come and fetch me as soon as dis- 

The Prince arrived amidst a great thunderstorm. He stayed 
in the city until tiie 4th, when I was to accompany him to 
Pulaski . but as it was raining very hard, and the ambulance 

ordered to bring me to the wharf did not arrive in time, he had 
'"o go without me, and I followed him in the afternoon, in a tug, 
•■Accompanied by Colonel Carlton, the quarter-master of the 




Ten Yeavfi of my Life. 

I'ort Pul.iskl, situated on a narrow peninsula and washed by the 
sea, was then a most liorrid place. Having sustained a siege 
and being partly in ruins, the accommodation for the garrison 
was very bad, and the place not having been cleaned for a very 
long time, was filthy beyond description. In consc(|uencc of 
this, sickness among the soldiers was prevalent, and a great 
many of them suffered fronrakindofcholeia or dysentery, with 


'I'hc smell and the damp in the casements in which we were 
to live was horrid, especially on days when the weather was 
cold and the rain pouring down. Moreover, there was no 
furniture, and the whole place looked extremely dismal. 1 did 
not wonder that Colonel Carlton was (pi'te disgusted, and re- 
turned to Savannah on the 6th. We followed him next day, 
to fetch many things in order to make our abode more cheer- 
ful, and to ])rovide medicines, provisions and other comforts 
for our j)oor sick soldiers. 

Felix got leave to go to Augusta, and we started from 
Pulaski on the i6th in a small sailing-boat, but were too late 
in Savannah for the steamer 'Ciibbons.' We therefore took 
])laces in the steamer ' Fanny Lehr,' which left for Augusta at 
four o'clocic p M. I had a very nice state-room on the boat, 
but she had scarcely proceeded forty miles up the river when 
she struck on a snag, which entered her hulk, making a big 
leak through which the water came in very fast. The captain 
at once sent off a messenger to Savannah to fetch assistance, 
and we meanwhile succeeded in getting off the snag, and pad- 
dling out of the stream nearer to the bank of the river. The 
water rose very alarmingly, and soon extinguished the engine 
fires. The fore part of the ship sank to the muddy bottom, 
and the captain was afraid she would break right in the middle. 

The weather was fortunately very fine, and while waiting for 
assistance we amused ourselves with watching the alligators 
crawling in the muddy water around the ship. Salm regretted 
he had no gun to give them battle. He became quite excited 
when he saw a very big fellow crawl on shore, and wanted to 
get off the ship to pursue and kill him ; biit he had to give up 
such an idea, as the ground was everywhere an unfathomable 

The ship did not break, and on the 21st the steamer ' Min- 
nie Brand ' came from Savannah to assist us. She had been 

Disbandlvg the CSth lltylmcnt. 


ft gunboat I'lying on the James river, tlie same as llie * Fanny 

We were glad to be afloat again, and steamed rather fast up 
the river, where we overtook tlie ' Kobert i.ehr,' a ship i)e!()ng- 
ing to the company, heavily loatled with all kinds of ))ro isions. 
When we were just alongside of her slie ran on the sunken 
wreck of a ship. It was a trementlous shock. She trembled 
like a i)erson in great fear, and went down as if slie had been 
lead. It was a i)ity to see all the boxes with hne wine.-> and 
baskets of champagne tumble into the water, and sink after a 
few moments. The crocodiles nuist have had a nice time that 
day, for there was wine enough on board to make them all 
drunk. We succeeded in saving not only the captain and crew, 
but also a box of fine claret and a basket of cham|)agne. As 
the captain of the wrecked ship had no objection, we had cer- 
tainly none, to make acquaintance with the contents of box 
and basket. 

These accidents happening to the ' Fanny ' and the * Robert 
T,ehr ' were entirely owing to their captains neglecting to take 
pilots from Savannah, who were accpiainted with every old 
snag and other unsafe places in that treacherous river. 

We arrived in Augusta on the 25th, in the afternoon, and 
heard from Oeneral Steedman that the order to disband the 
68th Regiment had arrived from the War Department already 
two days ago. The regiment had suffered much by sickness, 
especially at Fort Pulaski, and was therefore sent home before 
the end of its time. 

Salm had to go to Wainsbury, where the luggage of the 
regiment waa still being kept, and I. remained meanwhile with 
Mrs. General Steedman and my sister. My husband returned 
soon, and on the 29th November we embarked on board the 
steamer ' Gibbons ' for Savannah. She was a most uncomfor- 
table old tub, and it was well we went down the river and nut 

When we arrived on the 20th in Savannah we found there 
many officers of the CSth Regiment, all very much excited, and 
glad to return home. 

Salm was inclined to go with the 68th Regiment to New 
York, where it was to be disbanded, but as nothing but unplea- 
sant things awaited him there, I persuaded him to accompany 
me to Baltimore and Washington. The resimcnt left there- 




, i 







i 1 



'. ! 




!7c')i Yaws of my Life, 

fore without him in a transport steamer for New York, on the 
6th December, while we remained in Savannah until Sunday 
the loth, finishing our preparations and taking leave of our 
many kind friends. 

On that cTay we went on board the steamer ' North Point/ 
bound for Baltimore. Salm had prepared nice boxes for our 
horses, which proved all good sailors, with the exception of a 
piebald, which became horribly sea-sick, to the great astonish- 
ment of Captain Smith, who had never seen such a case. I was, 
however, still more sea-sick than the piebald, and felt ex- 
tremely miserable until the i2th December, when we were 
detained in Chesapeake Bay by a dense fog. 

We arrived, however, safely in Baltimore, and went by rail 
to Washington, where we were received at the depot by Colo- 
nel Corvin, to whose home in Georgetown we went soon after- 
wards, to hve there until we could decide upon our future. 

The war was over. All the volunteer generals and colonels 
returned to their former avocations, and in due time Salm was 
dismissed also. There were many of our friends in Washing- 
ton, generals and senators, and several of them tried to per- 
suade Salm to enter the regular aimy. Many senators pro- 
mised to use their influence to procure him a commission as 
colonel, and President Johnson, who was very favourably dis- 
posed towards him, approved also of that plan. Salm, however, 
did not like to serve in the regular army of the United States 
during peace. 

Though he had succeeded very well in that country, he 
could not fully be reconciled to the idea of living there for ever, 
and had always in view his final return to Europe and his 
family, to which he was very much attached. 

Having, however, spent his fortune, and losing his pay as 
a general with his being dismissed, necessity urged him to 
deside soon what course to take. 

At that time a great many former officers were in a position 
similar to his, and some of them took steps to enter the Liberal 
army of Mexico. The sympatliies of Salm were, however, 
with the Emperor Maximilian, and though many friends warned 
him against linking his fate to that of this prince, they did not 
succeed in dissuading him from his purpose. It was in vain 
that they predicted a speedy end to the Mexican empire, say- 
ing that the Government of the United States could not and 

StUm and the Mexican Army. 


would not permit the establishment of a monarchy so close to 
their frontiers. Salm, who had served in the Austrian army, 
had a personal love for the Emperor Maximilian, and did not 
doubt that he, having been a general during the war in the 
United States, would be received by him favourably. 

He communicated his intentions to the German minister, 
Baron von Gcrolt, and also to the French ambassador, Mar- 
quis de Montholon, and the Austrian minister. Baron von 
Wydenbruck, who all approved of his plan, and promised him 
strong recommendations. Even President Johnson, though he 
could not give him letters of introduction, did not disapprove 
of it, and on his request gave hiii; a very flattering testimony, 
in which his services were fully and favourably acknowledged. 

Captain von Groeben, who had become much attached to 
my husband, would not part with him, and resolved to accom- 
pany him and try his luck also in Mexico, I was to remain 
with the Corvins until I should hear of Salm's success. 

In the middle of February all his preparations for the voyage 
were made. Baron Gerolt had given him letters of introduc- 
tion to the German minister in Mexico, Baron von Magnus ; 
Marquis de Montholon gave him a letter to Marshal Bazaine, 
and the Austrian minister one to the Emperor, to be delivered, 
by Count Thun. • 

I had gone with Groeben to New York to secure a berth on 
board the * Manhattan,' which was to sail for Vera Cruz on 
Saturday, the 24th February, 1866. Salm arrived in the morn- 
ing in Everett House, New York, where he met me and Groe- 
ben and many friends who came to take leave of him, perhaps 

I went with Salm and Groeben on board the * Manhattan,' 
which was to start at half-past three in the afternoon. I shall 
not dwell on our leave-taking. I felt very sad and lonely 
when I returned to the hotel, and soon afterwards to George- 

The Corvins had to give up their house to its returning pro- 
prietors, and we rented another in Massachusetts Avenue, 
Washington. Time passed there very qui^ily.and pleasantly. 
Though we did not entertain much company, we received now 
and then visits from some friends, and amongt them was Colo- 
nel Moore, who had charge of tlie military cemeteries around 
Washington and in Virginia. Pie was an agreeable man, and. 



Ten Years of my Life. 

5 ; 

















we made many excursions, either on horseback or in a carriage, 
and still more frequently in a boat on the beautiful Potomac. 
The valleys of this river above Washington, in the neighbour- 
hood of the chain bridge, are beautiful, and we passed there 
sometimes a whole day, taking with us provisions of every kind, 
and plenty of ice to cool our wine and water, or to preserve 
our meat, which even when roasted becomes alive in a few 
hours if that precaution is neglected. There, on the bank of 
some clear rivulet, bubbling over rocks, lying in luxuriant grass 
under the shade of dense bushes, we jxassed many pleasant 
hours, Mr. and Mrs. Corvin sketching, and I looking on. 

The walks near the Potomac, in the cooler evenings, are 
delightful. Whole clouds of fire-flies hang, now higher, now 
lower, over the meadows, studded with larger and more bril- 
liant glowworms, which were imprisoned sometimes in our 
hair, so that they formed round our head a circle of stars. 

The loud cicades, which in the daytime scarcely ever inter- 
rupt their shrill monotonous song, are asleep, and relieved by 
the frogs, whose song is far different from the discordant cries 
of their European cousins, for they seem to come from tiny 
well-tuned silver bells. Between this pleasant dreamy music is 
heard at intervals a single sound, as if produced by the cord 
of a base-viol pinchtd up between the thumb and index. Then 
again one is astonished by the mewing of a little cat, coming, 
however, from some catbirds, awakened by us from their sleep, 
whilst in the distance is heard occasionally the ' whip-poor- 

On the 4th of July, the greatest festival in the United States, 
we escaped the noise in the streets, produced by hundreds of 
thousands of crackers and other fireworks, by making a party 
to the great Falls of the Potomac, about ten or twelve miles 
from Washington. It is astonishing that these most pictu- 
resque Falls are not visited m8re frequently by the Washington 
people. Were they situated near a great European city, thou- 
sands of tourists would constantly make them the aim of their 
excursions, for they are indeed most wonderful. It is as if the 
hands of immensely strong giants had played there with peb- 
bles, as big as four-story houses, and left them in wild confu- 
sipn^ Amongst these stupendous black, sharp-edged rocks 
rushes down the wide Potomac. One may look for hours on 
this spectacle and not get tired of it. 

Death of Grocben. 


)urs on 

Salm had safely arrived with Groeben in Mexico, but ^^ "''et 
there with quite unexpected difliculties, created by the jc^dousy 
of officers who also wanted places, and the intrigues "f the 
Austrian minister, Count Thun, who did not even deliver the 
letter of Baron Wydenbruck to the Emperor recommending 
Salm. He was quite in despair, as I fm4 in his diary and let- 
ters, and he was made still more unhappy by the death of poor 
Groeben, who died in his arms on June i8. 

At last, in July, Salm was appointed colonel- on the staff of 
the Emperor, and looked forward to my joining him with great 
impatience. He expected me to depart on July 9, but 1 was' 
detained by many circumstances until August. 

I was ready at last, and started from Washington on August 
10. Driving with Colonel Corvin to the depot and passing 
the White House, I stopped to say good-bye to the President. 
He had been very kind to me, and 1 had seen him frequently. 
We were admitted at once. Asking him point-blank what he 
thought of affairs in Mexico, he said that the reign of the Em- 
peror would last still a little while, but he was afraid the United 
States would have to interfere, though he personally sympa- 
thised with Maximilian. He wished me, however, good suc- 
cess, and said that he would always remember me kindly. 

Presenting to him Colonel Corvin, whom he had, however, 
seen before, I said jokingly that the colonel was a great Cop- 
perhead, on which Herr von Corvin laughingly answered he 
did not care, as the President himself was called still worse 
names for his moderation in reference to the conquered. 

I embarked at New York on board the * Marhattan,' the 
same ship in which Salm sailed in February. Amongst the 
passengers was a most important and consequential-looking 
personage, who was called ' Monsignor,' and was treated with 
the utmost reverence whenever he favoured the deck with his 
appearance, which was however rarely, as he preferred the 
company of a lady friend travelling with him, a spi.'tual Sister, 
I suppose ; for the six-foot-high, broad-shouldered, pordy, and 
haughty-looking dignitary of the Roman Church was the well- 
known Father Fischer, entrusted with a mission, it was said, 
to the Emperor Maximilian of Mexico. 

When we, on August 13, arrived in Havannah, we were very 
disagreeably surprised on hearing that we should have to re- 
main rn quarantine, I do not know for what alleged reasons. 





Ten Years of my Life. 

As there was no sickness on board our ship, which did not 
come from an objectionable port, we were very indignant, and 
signed a protest against such an annoying and superfluous 
measure, which we sent to the American consul. 

I had signed my name also, and it was very fortunate I did, 
for without it I would have missed Salm, and arrived in Vera 
Cruz whilst he looked for me in vain in New York. 

Impatient as he was. and imagining all kinds of evil happen- 
ing to me, he requested leave of absence from the Emperor in 
order to fetch me from New York, which was graciously granted 
by the kind and noble Maximilian. 

Salm, who had arrived in the middle of July in Vera Cruz, 
fell ill at that place with the yellow fever, from which he recov- 
ered, however, unexpectedly soon, so that he was able to em- 
bark for Havannah on August 6. 

He happened to be with the American consul when our pro- 
test arrived, and on reading the signatures Salm saw my name, 
procured permission to go on board the * Manhattan,' where 
he, however, had to remain until the i8th, when the ship was 
released from quarantine. 

We were very happy at this unexpected meeting, and started 
once more reunited for Vera Cruz. On the 22nd we landed at 
Susal in Yukatan, a provmce belonging to the Mexican empire, 
where we passed very agreeable hours in exploring this inter- 
esting little place. It is inhabited by a very fine, noble-looking 
Indian tribe, differing considerably from all Indians I have 
seen either in North America or in Mexico. Their white dress 
is very tasteful and picturesque. Over a white petticoat, of 
which the edges are ornamented with embroidery of the most 
lively colours, representing flowers and arabesques, they wear 
a loose skirt embroidered in the same manner. 

We left at five o'clock p.m., and withoujt any incidrnt worth 
mentioning we arrived at Vera Cruz, on P^iiday, August 24, 
end alighted in the Diligencias Hotel. 


did not 
ant, and 

te I did, 
in Vera 

peror in 

ra Cruz, 
e recov- 
; to em- 

our pro- 
y name, 
,' where 
hip was 

[ started 
nded at 
is inter- 
I have 
:e dress 
:oat, of 
le most 
:y wear 

: worth 
List 24, 

BOOK 11. 




VeraCruz — Great graveyard — A Mexican diligence — Robbing the diligence 
— A gentlemanly sport — Paper dresses — Terra Templada — ' (jct out 
if you can' — Pulque — In an Indian hut— Orizava — Puebla — The 
plateau of Mexico — General Zerman — Baron Magnus. 

The entrance to Mexico is not inviting, but rather reptilsive. 
Though glad to feel again firm ground under your feet, your 
sea-tired eyes are longing in vain for some refreshing green, 
for the sandy, sun-baked coast is a.' bare of vegetation as the 
palm of your hand. 

On approaching the regularly-built town of Vera Cruz, with 
its whitewashed tombstone-like houses, you feel a shuddering 
creep over your whole body, for you are entering an atmos- 
phere reminding you of the catacombs, coming from the sur- 
rounding swamps from which a tropical sun distils poison. No 
wonder that the yellow fever called Yellow Jack by the sailors, 
is master of the place about nine months in the year. It is 
the most deadly place to Europeans, of whom thousands are 
buried around it. 

On entering the town tms uneafsy feeling is still increased 
on seeing almost more vultures than people. These most dis- 
gusting scavenger-birds, callea there Zapilotes, are as impu- 
dent as sparrows in European cities , tney are protected by the 
law, because the carelessness and indifference of the inhabi- 
tants to sanitary matters makes them a necessity. 

There was nothing either in the Diligencias Hotel or in the 
town to retain us, and ve left for Mexico next day at two 
o'clock P.M. 

Though the railroad built by the French was by no means 
goou, it was a blessing, for it otfered the means of passing 
quickly through a most dreary country. 


Ten Years of ray Life. 


I < 

The heat was overpowerinfr, but the cars were tolerably airy, 
and the seats were not provided with cushions, which would 
liave been quite intolerable. We had with us an escort of 
French soldiers, and how much they were required was proved 
by the appearance of some guerillas, who fled, however, after 
a few shots. 

The country became more attractive towards the end of our 
journey, and we arrived without further accident in Paso del 
JMacho, where the railroad reached its end. 

Next morning we continued our journey per diligence, and 
started at five o'clock. The coachman objected to the admit- 
tance of my dog Jimmy in the diligence, but the almighty dol- 
lar softened his heart, and on paying the fare for a two-legged 
passenger my inseparable four-legged companion was allowed 
a seat. A French lady was not so fortunate, for her splendid 
Newfoundland dog was too large, and she had, with much re- 
gret, to leave it behind under the care of an attendant. A 
Mexican diligence is a most wonderful vehicle, only surpassed 
by the wonderful roads. It is dragged along by eight mules, 
first two abreast, then four, and then again two. The skill of 
the coachman with a confusion of reins in his hand is admir- 
able. His place is indeed no sinecure, for he has to keep on 
a perpetual conversation with his mules, which he calls by 
their names, animating them by all imaginable kinds of sounds. 
He would, however, scarcely succeed in persuading them to 
do their duty alone by means of his eloquence, if not sup- 
ported by an aide-de-camp, a boy as active as a monkey. Now 
he runs along the road collecting stones, now climbs up with 
his load at the side of the coachman, throwing with unerring 
aim a stone at some offending mule, uniting his voice to that 
of his chief 

This man is a very important personage, and his pay is very 
high — I believe nearly three hundred gilders a month — besides 
free board and lodging. He looks very picturesque with his 
leather jacket, large gold ornamented sombrero and shaggy 
zapateros, or short trousers made of goat-skin, from which the 
hair has not been removed. 

It occurs very frequently that the diligence is attacked and 
plundered by robbers, and many horrible adventures of that 
kind are recorded, furnishing the passengers no very reassuring 
matter for conversation, and keeping them in a continual 

Paper Dresses. 


To rob a diligence seems not to be disgrncefiil in Mexico, 
for though it is committed l)y commc»n rutlians and tliieves, 
even people of a hiijilier class look upon it as a chci\ilcresque 
sport. There are many well-to-do rancheros or farmers, living 
quite respectably and otherwise in good repute, of whom it 
is said that they indulge in this harmless amusement ! The 
robbers take care to conceal their faces, either by blackening 
them or in some other manner, and if not resisted, or not in 
danger of being recognised, they rarely commit murder. They 
generally ride splendid horses, and are most richly dressed. 

At some favourable place, and there are plenty on that road, 
the mules are suddenly stopped. The coachman does not 
even attempt to escape or resist ; it is h'.. policy to remain neu- 
tral, for if he acted otherwise it would be not only in vain, but 
cost him his life — a bullet from behind some bush would end 
his career at his next journey. He therefore in most aises is 
not molested, remaining a passive spectator of the scene, which 
is enacted with incredible celerity. Though the escort now 
and then furnished by the authorities is mostly absent when 
needed, it sometimes happens that they are at hand; and to 
escape such danger the robbers are compelled to act without 
any ceremony. Whilst one of them takes care of the team, 
two others, cocked pistol in hand, invite the passengers to 
descend and to undress, as it is well known that they try to 
conceal their valuables in their clothes. The terror and con- 
fusion created by such an order may be imagined especially if 
there are ladies amongst the passengers. 

An American lady, the wife of a Southern general, who had 
to travel to Vera Cruz with her daughter, was very much afraid 
of being subjected "» such treatment, which would have des- 
troyed many illusious created by Parisian toilet art. She 
therefore, being a very practical lady, provided against such 
horrible emergency by having made for herself and daughter 
paper dresses, which being without value would not tempt the 
cupidity of robbers. She had, however, no opportunity of 
making use of her ingenious expedient. 

On this journey, as on aH others I made later in Mexico, . 
was fortunate enough never to encounter any of these way- 
laying gentry. 

The road and the landscape scene from it became more and 
more interesting, but scarcely for the poor mules, which did 


Ten Years of my Life, 

their utmost to surmount incredible difficulties, and we des- 
cended fre(]uently, ])artly to lessen their ioad, hut still more to 
escape for a while the severe shaking and bumi)ing which was 
too much even for us, though used to bad roads in the Ameri- 
can war. 

The weather was, however, beautiful and not too hot, tor we 
had entered the region called Terra Templada. The woods 
which we passed were beautiful, for all the trees were garlanded 
up to their tops with a great variety of creepers with splendid 
flowers of the most brilliant colours, vying with those of large 
butterflies. It was a most charming wilderness, untouched by 
the hand of man. To our right and our left we saw deep 
valleys and gullies overgrown with a confusion of luxuriant 
trees and plants, concealing torrents of the foaming waters of 
which we only now and then had a glimpse. 

One place on this road is called Salsi Puedes — * Get out if 
you can.' It was either here «r at a similar place that our 
diligence broke down about noon. In the neighbourhood we 
saw the hut of an Indian flimily. Though only built of reeds 
and covered with aloe-leaves, having no windows but only a 
door, it appeared to us far more inviting than any Mexican 
pulqueria or even hotel, for it was shaded by beautiful trees 
and overgrown with beautiful flowers, of which the Indians are 
very fond. They are always to be found in great profusion 
around their dwellings. 

The hut, which we entered, had moreover the extremely 
rare advantage of scrupulous cleanliness, and the Indian couple 
inhabiting it received us with great hospitality. They served 
us tortillas, a kind of flat corn-cake, used everywhere in 
Mexico instead of bread — several kinds of fruit and pulque, 
the national drink of the Mexicans. It is made from the 
maguey plant (Agave Americana), in Europe generally called 
aloe, which with the different species of cacti, growing ever}'- 
where, give a Mexican landscape its quite pecuHar character, 
differing from that of any other country. 

The maguey seems to be expressly made for a lazy people 
as all Mexicans are, either of Indfan or European descent, for 
it requires very little culture, and furnishes a great many things 
for common use. There are to be seen very large fields of this 
plant everywhere, protected by natural fences of cactus plants 
with most dangerous thorns, making them quite impenetrable. 

The Maguey. 


The mi^iiey often reaches the heip;ht of ci,Q;ht or nine feet, but 
grows rather slow, for it rerjuires about ten years to arrive at 
maturity. Then s[)rings forth from its c:entre a very high-stem- 
med flower, more admired in luiropean hothouses tlian in 
Mexico, where it is not permitted to blooui. In the period 
when the plant is preparing for it, a milky juice is collecting in 
its centre, or heart. This is cut out and a cavity made, which 
is filled several times a day during three months and longer. 
A healthy, strong plant will yield in all not rarely one hundred 
gallons of pukjutS. After having given its heart's-blood to man 
the plant dies, but from its roots spring up a great many baby 
l)lants, which, removed in time and transplanted, grow up with 
out any care. 

The leaves of the maguey or aloe are used for many pur 
poses : the huts are roofed wit:i them, and of their tendrils are 
made the most excellent cords and ropes ; they are also beaten 
to a pulp from which paper is fabricated. 

The cactus is rather a nuisance on account ot ..ts nncklv 
character, but after all, when in bloom, its jieciiliar shape and 
the brilliancy of its yellow or burning-red beautiful flowers, 
makes it a very original ornament, which I would not niiss in 
a Mexican landscape. Some species bear an eatable fruit, 
similar to a small fig, and one kind serves for the breeding oi 
a very useful insect, the cochineal. I have not seen such a 
])lantation, nor do I know ih what part of Mexico this branch 
of industry is carried on. 

The Indian couple who treated us with such hospitality liaa 
the submissive manner and melancholic look of resignation 
always to be noticed in nations that have been subjugated and 
ill-treated by barbarians for centuries. I think I am not fi'r 
wrong in calling thus the Christian Spaniards who conquered 
Mexico. I shall speak of the Indians afterwards more at length, 
for they are more interesting to me than the descendants of 
their conquerors, and 1 am sure that they will recover from 
their present state of subjection and misery when an enlight- 
ened and strong government is established in Mexico. This 
can never be done by the white or Indian Mexicans them- 
selves^ and therefore I hope the United States will find it advi- 
sable to unite this rich country with their republic. The In- 
dians of Mexico are different from the savages of California 
and the more Northern States, and I am sure that with proper 


Ten Years oj my Life 

cncourngcmcnt it would scarcely require fifty years to revive in 
them the industrial instincts ot their forefathers. 

Our friendly Indians were ciuite enraptured when we gave 
them some broad pieces, for they are not used lo kind treat- 
ment from the ruling race. 

Our diligence was repaired sooner than we expected, and we 
continued our journey. We entered in the afternoon a very 
well cultivatefl beautiful country, studded with country houses 
and farms, where we saw large fields of Indian corn, sugar- 
cane, and coffee and cacao plantations, fine gardens with dif- 
ferent strange-looking fruit trees and many palm trees. 

Towards evening we approached the narrow out beautiful 
valley in which is situated the town ot Orizava, where we were 
to stop for the night. It is traversed by the rivers ot Orizava, 
Puerco, and de los Aguacates, and a rather large place with 
some fine churches ; but most of the private houses are only 
one-storied, and the streets are irregular. I d'd not see much 
of the town, for I was rather fatigued, and though we were 
badly lodged I was glad to rest my sorely shaken body. 

Salm heard here that General Negre, to whose staft' he was 
attached, had been transferred from Mexico to Puebla, and 
that he in consequence would also have to stay there, which 
he did not like at all. 

We left Orizava next morning at five o'clock. Though the 
weather in this latitude and at that time ot the year is very 
changeable, we were fortunate in this respect and could enjoy' 
the beauty of the country. Our journey was up-hill work, for 
we ascended the Cordilleiiis (there called Cumbres), and the 
road made ni olden times by the Spaniards was very much out 
of repair. At last we reached its highest point. La Canada, 
and arrived soon at an ugly village, Palmar, situated in a very 
ugly volcanic country, not much beautified by large maguey 
fields with cactus inclosures. The frame of this dreary pic- 
ture was, however, surpassingly beautiful, for it was formed by 
snow covered mountains, amongst which are most prominent 
the Popocatapetl, the Ixtaccihuatl, &c., compared to which 
even the Swiss mountains appear dwarfish. 

It was evening when we reached the plateau of Puebla, 
nearly seven thousand feet above the sea, and ane of the rich- 
est parts of Mexico, where not only magueys and cactus and 
Indian corn are to be seen, but even wheat-fields. I was 



revive in 

we gave 
im' treat- 

d, and we 
on a very 
ry houses 
rn, sugar- 
; with dif- 

i we were 
\ Orizava, 
lace with 

are only 
see much 
I we were 


ft he was 
febla, and 
re, which 

ough the 
r is very 
Lild enjoy 
work, for 

and the 
nuch out 

in a very 

sary pic- 
rmed by 

o which 

the rich- 
:tus and 
I was 

extremely glad when we arrived in the city of Pjcbla at nine 
o'clock r.M. We alighted in the II(jtel de Diligencias, where 
we were lodged comtbrtably in a large room with three beds. 
Jimmy, whose night toilet reriuired no preparations, took at 
once possession of the best of them, and I followed hisexam- 
])Ie as fast as possible, for I never was more tired in all my 

Next morning Salm reported himself to his general, and re- 
quested leave of absence tor Mexico. lie visited (iencral 
Count Thiim, the brother of the Austrian minister, whom he 
had known in Austria when captain in a regiment of Uhlans. 
He met here also a former Pmssian otlicer, Count Nostiz, whom 
we had known in the United States. 

Piiebla once rivalled Mexico, and is still the second city of 
tlie empire. It is traversed by the river St. Francisco, and the 
rivers Atoya and Alzezeca flow near it. This abundance of 
water otters tiie means of keeping the streets cleaner than is 
usually the case in Mexican cities. In the middle of each 
street runs a stone-covered canal, sweeping away all impurities 
which otherwise would be thrown into the street. 

The city is regularly built ; the streets are all paved and pro- 
vided with side-walks. There are more than twenty sqtiares, 
large and small, and an immense number of churches — I be- 
lieve al)out seventy, the chapels included. I have never seen 
a city with so many steeples and towers, which are the more 
Ijrominent on account of the flat roofs of the houses. There 
are also many other very fine buildings, for instance, monas- 
teries and nunneries, hospitals, and three theatres. 

The principal place of the city is surrounded with wide and 
lofty portales or arcades, where the Indians exhibit their pro- 
duce lor sale in the daytime, while they sleep there at night, 
oflci ing the most curious and strange domestic pictures. 

The city had then only seventy thousand inhabitants, for its 
number had been diminished in former times by epidemics. 
The eighteenth century was especially fatal in this respect, for 
the plague appeared three times, and once it came in connec- 
tion with famine. The civil wars have also diminished its 
population and done great harm to its industry. It had Ibr- 
merly highly-reputed manufactories of fine cloth, glass, china, 
soap, and cutlery, and even now it is in this respect in advance 
of Mexico. Everything seems in Puebla more orderly and 



Ten Years of iny Life. 


I ^ 

more civilized than in the capital, and "^ne docs not see so 
many poor people either. 

The view of the city is fine from all sides, and is rendered 
still more so by the great mountain forming the background. 
Whether the fortifications are very strong I do not know ; the 
city was, however, taken in 1847 by the Americans, and in 
1863 by the French, after a siege of two months. 

We le'"t Puebla on the 30th of August, at three o'clock a.m., 
tor Mexico. We had to pass a mountain lying between the 
plateau of Puebla and that still higher ot Anatruac. This road 
is not only very bad, but also in very bad repute on account of 
the many robbers frequenting the neighbourhood of Rio Frio. - 

In an hour or two we reached the region of fir trees, and 
passed through splendid woods of cedars and fir species of 
which I do not know the name, but which look extremely pretty, 
their very long light-green needle ioilage hanging down in 
bundles from the branches. Very soon we saw before us the 
plateau ot Mexico, which is eighteen leagues in length and 
twelve and a half leagues in width. It is surrounded by the 
most picturesque range of mountains, among which are seen 
towcrin.s: towards the pure blue sky the stupendous snow- 
covcrcd volcanoes. 

The ]}annrama presenting itself to the eye is one of the finest 
and most i)lcasing in the world. The vast plain is studded 
with fine ijrms and gardens, and here and there w-th sheets of 
water. Here and there, abruptly rising from the green plain, 
are to be seen hills which 1 was told were extinct volcanoes. 
It is said that the Spaniards have done much harm by their 
reckless destruction of woods, which before their arrival cover- 
ed to a great extent the plaf.caii of Anahuac, and that in con- 
sequence of this the fine lakes have diminished very much, the 
springs which once led them being dried up by the sun, against 
".vhich they were ^■)rmerly protected by the trees. 

The view ol the city of Mexico is splendid. That is all I 
will say, tor though I have it vividly before my eye, and could 
perhaps paint it if i had the mechanical skill, I cannot describe 
it in words in £uci\ a manner as to give the reader a fair idea. 
I always lound even the finest and most skilful descriptions of 
views and lan<hcapcs insufficient, and never succeeded in 
forming a distinct ])icture from them, if I had not seen the 
landscapes myselt before. 


Gciicral Zenndn. 


not see so 

s rendered 
enow ; the 
IS, and in 

:lock A.M., 
ctween the 
This road 
account of 
• Rio Frio, 
trees, and 
species of 
lely pretty, 
f down in 
-QVQ us the 
length and 
ied by the 
1 are seen 
ous snow- 

the finest 
s studded 

|i sheets of 
een plain, 

1 by their 
val cover- 
at in con- 
uuch, the 
n, against 

liat is all I 

.nd could 

\t describe 

iair idea. 

[iptions of 

:eeded in 

seen the 

We arrived in Mexico at eight o'clock in the evening, and 
drove directly for my husband's lodging in the Tuente de San 
Francisco. 1 considered it a lucky omen that we entered 
Mexico on that day, which was the fourth anniversary of my 
wedding, and we celebrated it next day at a dinner given to us 
by an ac<iuaintance of Felix, General Zerman. 

This gentleman had been a General in the United States 
during the war. 1 do not exactly know what business brougiu 
him to Mexico, nor do 1 believe he really had any, though he 
v.'as always very fussy and busy, and talked much about enor- 
mous claims he had against the United States Government. 
\Vithout being able to state an exact reason for it, one was in- 
clined to suspect him of being somewhat of a humbug. lie 
was a great dandy, and had the peculiar fancy of wearing 
always a grass-green suit. 

Next day Baron Magnus, the Prussian minister, paid me a 
visit. Felix on first arriving in Mexico had a letter of intro- 
duction to him from kind Ikiron Gerolt, and Baron Magnus 
had indeed done all he could to assist him. He behaved also 
in a very friendly manner towards me, and though I might have 
wished him to act with more energy and decision under circum- 
stances where weak diplomatic tactics were of no avail, a too 
sharp criticism would grate upon my feelings, for towards my 
husband and myself he acted to the end with great kindness, 
and it would be ungrateful not to acknowledge it with thank- 
fulness. Moreover, I overrated perhaps his power and in- 
fluence in Mexico, and my eagerness to assist the Fmperor, 
and to extricate him if possible from his dangerous position, 
made me perhaps too exacting and eager for a course of action 
which was not allowed to a Prussian minister. I am no diplo- 
matist, and if I follow my impulse, as I generally do, 1 am not 
responsib' ; to any king or prime minister it I commit a politi- 
cal blunder; therefore 1 am perhaps no good judge about the 
actions of diplomatists. If his Government were batisfied with 
his behaviour in Mexico, he may smile at my unreasonable 

The Baron frequently took me out in his carriage to show 
me the city, with which I became well acquainted, as I had to 
stay there several months. 

Though Mexico has not been described so frequently by 
tourists as London and Paris, and a detail.-d account of its 

13 i 

Ten years 0/ my Life. 

beauties, antiquities, &c., might be enteresting to European 
readers, such a description would overstep the limits of this 
work, even if I were able to give a satisfactory one, which is 
by no means the case. I therefore shall only touch superfici- 
ally on one or the other subject, and give my individual im- 
l)ressions, or what I learnt occasionally. 

v\ v.; 


I 'I. 


lits of this 
'., which is 
vidual im- 



Origin of the City of Mexico — The Alameda — The Paseo Nuevo- A 
Mexican gentleman on horseback — Promenade de la Viga — The float- 
ing islands — Theatres— Place d'Armes — The Cathedral — The Sangva- 
rio — Disputacion Iturbide — Aqueducts — The National Museum — The 
Sanctuario de Guadalupe — Its wonderful origin — The Creole Virgin — 
Chapultepec — Humming-birds — Mexican houses and life — Mexican 
ladies — The Indians — A Ranchero — Mexican market. 

There exist, of course, many traditions in reference to the 
early inhabitants of Mexico. We should know more of the 
history of the country if the fanatic first Spanish Archbishop 
had not carefully collected throughout the whole country all 
written records of the Indians, and burnt them as heathenish 
abominations in the principal square of Mexico. 

About a thousand years ago the country was inhabited by a 
very industrious, highly civilized, and good-natured people, the 
Toltekes, They disappeared, however, and were replaced by 
the Chichimekes, a barbarous people of hunters, whose de- 
scendants are to be found still in several provinces of Mexico. 

In the twelfth century seven tribes of the Nahuatlakes came 
from the north and occupied the country. One of these 
tribes was that of the Aztekes. These wandered for a long 
period from one place to the other without deciding on a final 
settlement, on account of an old oracle ordering them to con- 
tinue their peregrinations until they should find a cactus (nopal) 
growing from a rock and an eagel sitting on it. Arrived on the 
plateau of Anahuac and on the banks of a lake, their priests 
really saw an eagle sitting on a nopal plant growing from a 
rocky mould. They now decided on remaining here, and 
called their cown Tenochtitlan, which means, ' nopal on a rock.' 
From this the Mexican arms derive their origin. 


Ten Years of my Life. 

11 M 



The town was later called Mexico, which either comes from 
an Indian word signifying a fountain, or more probably from 
Mexitli, the name of one of their principal idols. As the date 
of the fountain of Tenochtitlan is given the liSth July, 1327. 

At the time' when Cortez arrived in Mexico the city had 
300,000 inhabitants. 1 shall not speak of its past splendour, 
for it is described in hundreds of books containing the history 
of the Conquest. But all this splendour, all the magnificent 
buildings, have been destroyed, for Cortez, furious at the resis- 
tance of the Aztekes, destroyed their city on the 13th of 
August, 1 521, and very soon commenced to rebuild it after a 
new plan. 

Thus originated the present city of Mexico, which is now 
inhabited by 200,000 people. It is six leagues in circumfer- 
ence, and has four hundred and eighty-two streets, which are 
mostly straight, paved, and provided with side-walks. There 
are sixty large and smaller squares, fifteen monasteries, twenty- 
iwo nunneries, seventy-eight churches and chapels, three great 
theatres, two arenas for bull-fights, three principal promenades, 
Len hospiials, &c. 

The streets of Mexico are extremely long and mostly wide. 
The houses have never moJ-e than two storeys, and on the out- 
side look extremely plain and monotonous. They have all the 
appearance of huge cubes, on account of their flat roofs. 
These flat roofs form a kind of yard, and are always surrounded 
with a breast-high wall. 

like all Spanish cities, Mexico has its Alameda. Don Luis 
Ve^asco, one of the earliest viceroys, commenced it in 1593. 
It closed then the Quemadero, the place where the Inquisition 
Imrnt more poor Indians than the priests of the Aztekes slaugh- 
tered in honour of Vitzliputzli. The establishment of a pleasure- 
ground near this horrid place was at that time not thought 
improper, for the burning of heretics and wretches who could 
not understand the mysteries of the Christian religion was then 
a very fashionable, and at the same time religious, recreation. 
At the end of the eighteenth century, religion had become less 
ferocious, and the Viceroy, Count de Revillagigedo, who orna- 
mented and enlarged the Alameda to its present extent, reinoved 
this disgraceful abomination. 

The w hole Alameda forms an oblong square of five hundred 
yards by two hundred and sixty, and is enclosed by a wall, 


ProineiKidc de BacartUl. 

along which are stone benclics. The whole place is traverseJ 
by numerous walks, formed by different shady trees, and em- 
bellished with flower-beds and a number of fountains, amongst 
which are two ornamented with statues, and othcTwise in a taste- 
ful manner. 

Though the grounds looked somewhat nef^lected, the Alam- 
eda is a very agreeable place, of which tlie Mexicans are rather 
proud. It is especially interesting in the morning, when the 
ladies returning from church, and the gentlemen from their 
promenades on horseback, meet in the shady avenues, talking 
and flirting, or sitting on the benches to listen to the music of 
the French band, which played several days in the week from 
eight until ten o'clock. Mr -t of the i)opular festivals, for iust- 
ance, Independence Day — September 13— are celebrated in 
the Alameda 

Another fashionable promenade '" carriages and equestrians, 
the Rotton Row of Mexico, is the Promenade d^^ IkicareUi, so 
called because it was inaugurated by the Viceroy, Antonio 
Maria Bucarelh, in 1778 ; now it is more frequently called II 
Paseo Nuevo. It is a very long avenue, formed b> four rows 
of ugly, crippled trees. The carriage-road in the middle, and 
those at each side of it for equestrians, are badly kept. There 
are some fountains with rather ugly statues, and also a huge 
equestrian bronze statue of Charles IV. of Spain, made by tiie 
sculptor, Don Manule Tolsa. The Mexicans imagine it 
is the most perfect statue in the world, and it is indeed a credit- 
able work. It is more than five yards high, and stands on a 
pedestal of stone, and within an iron railing. It was at first 
placed on the great square, but lest it might be destroyed by 
the people it was removed by the Government to a less exposed 
place and finally transported, in 1852, to the Paseo Nuevo. 

Not far from this statute we find the Plaza de Toros, a cir- 
cular wooden building of seventy yards diameter, with two 
tiers of boxes and seven rows of benches, where ten thousand 
persons may find room. The building looks quite elegant 
with its many columns. The first bull-fight in jNIexico was 
held in the time of Fernando Cortez. 

The beau-monde of Mexico drive there in the afternoon, at 
six o'clock. It is indeed a caricature of Hyde Park, for 
scarcely any decent carriages are to be seen, and many of them 
look as if they had been buiU at the time of the CoJiquest. 


Ten Years of my L'tfe, 

The animals drawing these vehicles are suited to them, for the 
horses of that country do not easily submit to this service, and 
mules are almost always preferred. Thougli the turn-outs may 
not bear comparison with those of Hyde Park or the Bois de 
Boulogne, the ladies sitting in these closed boxes may vie in 
beauty with any in the world. They appear on the Paseo 
always in evening toilet — that is, low dresses and flowers in 
the hair. 

The gentlemen are there on their finest horses and in their 
richest riding costumes. When walking in the street they look 
like European gentlemen, but for riding on horseback they 
always wear a peculiar rich and becoming costume. All of 
them have a large brimmed sombreros more or less gorgeously 
ornamented with gold tassels and cords. Their short jackets 
of cloth are set with arabesques in braid, and with a great 
quantity of srni 11 silver buttons. Over their ordinary trousers 
they wtar others, which reach only from the foot to the knee ; 
they are very wide, < ver the whole foot, and are richly em- 
broidered with gold and silver. They look indeed very elegant 
on horseback, and when dismounting they always reminded 
me of that peculiar kind of pigeons which have their 
covered with long feathers. The silver spurs they use are 
remarkably large, with wheels like saucers. 

The Mexican horses are extremely fine, intelligent and 
strong, but rather small. They are as much covered with 
finery as their masters, and even more. The saddles are, I 
might say, the opposite of English saddles, for they are more 
like a chair with large pommels and high backs, covered with 
silver ornaments. Behind the saddle is always fastened the 
serape of the rider, a kind of long plaid used by both sexes. 
The silver-studded bridle seems to me the most cruel thing 
imaginable, for the curb, a very large iron ring, is so sharp that 
the jaw of a horse might easily- be broken by it. The reins 
are a many coloured silk cord. Behind the saddle hang from 
both sides shaggy goat-skins, which serve as covers for the 
pistol-cases. A lasso is also attached to the saddle. 

Mexican gentlemen appear accoutred in this manner as well 
on the promenade as on a journey •. and I must say that they 
look extremely picturesque. 

From the statup of Charles IV., the barrier at the end ot 
the promenade, the distance is nearly twelve hundred yards. 



The principal fountain is about in the middle. To the right 
and left of the avenue are rather wet meadows, serving; as a 
pasture for cattle. It is a y)ity that they are rot planted with 
tiees and shrubs, and laid out as a park. No finer place 
in the whole world could be found, for nowhere is to be had 
a more charming view wherever the eye may look. 

Towards the east, beyond a beautiful plain covered with fine 
clusters of trees and studded with villas, is seen, on rocks, the 
old palace of Chapultcpec, from whence comes the excellent 
drinking water, brought there by splendid aqueducts, which 
unfortunately are much out of repair in consequence of the 
civil wars. 

Looking towards the south-west, we see on the bluish back- 
ground of the mountains several fine villages, as Mixcoai, 
* florido,' Padierno and Churubusko, ' ensangrentados,' San 
Angel, and Coyoacom ; whilst turning to the south-east we 
admire the mountain giants, Popocateptl and Ixtaccihuatl, 
whose snowy heads seem to pass through the blue of the sky. 

Turning towards the west we see the hundred towers of 

The Promenade de la Viga is that of the people, and who- 
ever wants to become acquainted with the habits, tastes, and 
peculiarities of the middle and lower classes of Mexicans will 
find here the best opportunity. 

The Canal de la Viga serves as a means of communication 
between the two lakes of the plain of Mexico, called Texcoco 
and Chalco. The ancient Tenochtitlan resembled Venice, for 
it was crossed by an immense number of canals, which in re- 
ality formed its streets. 7'he Canal de la Viga is the only one 
remaining. The promenade runs along it, and is most fre- 
quented in the months of April and May, especially at the hour 
between six and seven p.m. It is much enlivened by the 
many people who embark here to visit neighbouring villages, 
for which purposes there are always a great many pirogues 
ready, conducted by Indians. 

The two favourite villages are Santa Anita and Ixtacalco, 
situate on the Canal de la Viga, and about a league from 
Mexico. They are inhabited orly by Indians, and probably 
have not changed since the Conquest. There are still to be 
seen the old Mexican ' chinampas,' or floating islands, in which 
are grown the most beautiful flowers and vegetables. Similar 


len icars oj mij ijtjti. 

I ' 

establijihnicnts, I heard from a traveller friend, are to be found 
also in the neii^hbourhood of Canton in China. 

All the inhabitants of these villages have such little gardcwis, 
from which they earn their living. They make more than 
twelve thousand piastres a year by selling flowers in Mexico, 
'i'he construction of these fertile floating islands is very simple. 
The foundation is a sufficiently thick float made of rushes, and 
on this is laid good garden soil. In spring esjiecially these 
floating gardens offer a most charming and original sight, 
although they are, on account of their humidity, all the year 
round covered with flowers and vegetables. It is quite surpris- 
ing to see the manner in which they are occasionally trans- 
ported from one place to another, which is very simply done 
by attaching them to a pirogue directed by two Indians. 

From the first Sunday after Ash Wednesday until Whit-Sun- 
day the pirogues at the Promenade de la Viga are always 
crowded, each containing sometimes fifty people sitting on the 
board, whilst in the centre thiee or four musicians make a 
musical noise, not very sweet to the ear, but satisflictory to one 
or two couples of female dancers, executing the Jarabe, Pala- 
ma, or other popular dances. All these people amuse them- 
selves amongst the Indians with eating and drinking pulque 
until sunset, when they return to the city crowned with roses 
or other flowers, and loaded with bouquets. 

Mexico has four or five theatres, of which two are excellent. 
The Theatre Iturbide is a very fine building, and would be an 
ornament to any European city. Its interior is not only very 
elegant and tasteful, but also very convenient and spacious. 
There are several tiers of boxes witli fine white columns orna- 
mented with golden garlands of flowers, :^nd behind them 
everywhere great saloons and other rooms, provided with all 
comforts required for the toilet, for the ladies appear always in 
full dress, and the excellent light from a splendid crystal lustre 
permits them to be seen and admired. 

Amongst the many squares of the Mexican capital, the Place 
d'Armes is the largest and finest, for it is surrounded by the 
most remarkable buildings of the city. It is a large parallelo- 
gram with a candelabra in its centre, within a square walk 
shaded by two rows of trees. It is entirely paved and kept 
tolerably clean. 

On its north side stands the Cathedral of Mexico, on the 

AMcic Science. 



identical place where once stood the * Teocalli,' or Temple of 
Vilxli|Hitzli, or, rather, Iluilzilopotchli, the god of war of the 
Azlekes. It was commenced in 1573 by onler of Pliilip II., 
and finished only in 1657. It is built of large cubes of por- 
jjhyry, and stands on an estrade, and is surrounded by a walk 
formed by columns of two yirds in height, and connected by 
chains. At a distance from these columns are planted pine- 
trees. At each of two corners of the ' cadenas,' or chain-closed 
walk, stand on a pedestal of five yards in height four death's- 
heads, and a cross with a serpent around its foot. 

I cannot give a minute description of this imposing building, 
as I do not understand much of architecture. The style in 
which the cathedral is built seems to me a mixed one. Doric 
and Ionic columns are alternately used in the two square 
towers, which are seventy-three yards high, and have bell- 
shaped tops with a cross on them. 

The principal front looking towards the south, had three 
entrances, whicii are ornamented with statutes and alto relievos. 

At the side of one of the towers is a very curious relic of 
Azetekic science, a gigantic kind of almanac, which is about 
fourteen yards in circumference. It is made of solid stone, 
and on it are many symbolic figures. This interesting anti- 
quity was found, in 1790, buried in the ground. 

In the towers are forty-eight bells, of which the largest is six 
yards high, and called Santa Maria de Guadalupe. 

The interior of the cathedral consists of five naves, of which 
two are closed and three open. The lofty and boldly-arched 
vaults rest on large clusters of Ionic columns. There are in 
the church fourteen closed chapels and six altars, besides the 
prmcipal, which stands in tjie centre. It may be approached 
from all four sides by seven large steps, and is enclosed by a 
balustrade made of tombac, on which stand sixty-two statutes 
of the same metal, each holding in his' hands a candelabra 
filled with wax candles. This balustrade and similar work in 
this cathedral were made in Macao, in China. This chief altar 
reaches nearly to the ceiling. 

It is a pity that the fine proportions of thi.^, cathedral are 
spoilt by so many little chapels and compartments, and also 
by painted wooden statues of saints, &c., and other fiimsy 

The oniciir/jnts of the principal alcar are, however, no^ 


Ten Years of wy Life. 


fliniRcy at all ; most of them are made of solid gold, and some 
set with diamtjnds, rubies, sapphires, Ike. One golden cibor- 
ium is embellished by 1,676 diamonds. One of tliese vessels 
— I really do not know how it is called — which is a yard high, 
and weighs eighty-eight marks in gold, has on one of its sides 
5.872 diamonds, and another 2,653 emeralds, forty-four rubies, 
eight sapi)hires, Xx. Tlie value of this altar must be enormous, 
and I only wonder that the different Revolutionary (Govern- 
ments, which frecjuently were in want of money, did not 
borrow from the church. One golden statute, weighing 6,984 
golden castellanos (an old coin), and set with precious stones, 
has, however, found its way to the crucible. 

Close to the cathedral, and spoiling somewhat its effect, is 
the parish church of Mexico, called the Sangrario. On that 
place stood the oldest church in Mexico, which was burned 
down, and was rebuilt at the end of the seventeenth century 
in rococo style — which in Germany is sometimes called pigtail 
style. The facade is, hqwever, very neatly and elaborately 
made, but spoilt by some statutes of extremely ugly saints. 

Opposite the cathedral, forming the southern side of the 
Place d'Armes, is the town liall, or I,)isputacion. The old 
building was destroyed in a riot caused by a famine. The 
Viceroy had bought all the Indian corn to be had everywhere, 
it is said, to distribute it to the people ; but, the people said, 
to sell it at high prices for his own benefit. The damage done 
at this riot was estimated at three million piastres. The new 
L'lilding is a fine substantial structure of two stories, with 
arcades on the ground floor and balconies to each window of 
the first floor. 

One of the two other sides of die square is occupied by the 
National Palace, the official dwelling of the Viceroys, as also 
of the Emperor I turbid e. It is no particular ornament to the 

At the opposite side we find the most elegant shops of 
Mexico, and also coftee-houses and restaurants. 

One of the finest buildings in Mexico is the Mining School 
— II Colegio de Mineria — built of green porphyry. Mexicans 
also much admire the house o^ Iturbide, so called because this 
general lived here, when one fine night — 18th May, 1822 — a 
sergeant had the idea of proclaiming General Iturbide Em- 
peror of Mexico. The people caught up this cry, and the 

General Santa Anna. 

1 v^ 


general had no objection to ascend the old throne of Monte- 
zuma. On July 2 1, he was crowned as Mmperor Auijustin I. 
Several F.uropean princes, to whom this dangerous crown had 
been offered, had refused. 

General Santa Anna, a very ambitious and intrijjjuinf; man, 
who had been a great favourite of Iturbide, fell off from him, 
and headed an insurrection, in consequence of which the new 
Emperor had to lly, in 1820, with his family to Europe. Re- 
lying on his popularity, he returned to Mexico in the summer 
of 1824, was taken prisoner, and shot. His name is, however, 
still popular, and many places and establishments in Mexico 
bear his name. 

The house in which he lived, and which is built in rococo 
style, is now an hotel, and called by its industrious owner 
* Hotel Iturbide.' 

I have mentioned already theaqueducts, which convey good 
water from two dititerent directions. For drinking it is always 
iced, as in the United States, and the Mexican mountains, 
especially the Popocatopetl, furnish plenty of this absolutely 
necessary commodity. Great quantities are also imported from 
North America. 

At the end of the aqueduct of Belen, which comes from the 
inexhaustible basin of Chapultepec, has been built in rococo 
style a fountain, called Sal to del Agua. It is more curious 
than pretty, and by no means embellished by two ugly sitting 
female figures. In the centre there is an alto relievo, repre- 
senting the arms of Mexico as the Spanish kings wanted it. It 
is a European eagle, with a cross on its breast, holding a shield 
with arms around it. The Republic has accepted the old 
Azteke eagle, sitting on a. cactus. More interesting than the 
structure of this fountain is the life around it, and amongst the 
people crowding there the aguadores, or water carriers, occupy 
the mt st prominent place. They fill with this water large bui- 
let-shaped earthen vessels with handles, which they carry by 
means of leather straps fastened over their shoulders, or some 
times their heads. Their cries of * Agua ' are heard all day. 
They pour the water into the large stone filters, which are every- 

I shall menti 3n here that bath-rooms are in almost every 
house, and there are also many public baths. The Mexican 
ladies generally take their baths after returnin^j from their 


Ten Years of my Life. 



morninc; j^romcnndc in the Alameda, and afterwards they are 
to be seen walkinj,^ on t!ic terraces of their houses drying their 
mostly very rich long hair, hanging around them like a cloak. 

Some of the convents would perliaps deserve a descrijjtion ; 
but I am tired of architecture. 

Interesting is a visit to the National Museum, on account 
of the Indian antiquitic^s 1 shall not venture on an exi)lana- 
tion and dcscrii)tion of all the very curious ugly idols collected 
there. Most of the statues remind me of those of the Egypt- 
ians, as seen in the Museum in London and in the Louvre ; 
whilst other things one remembers having seen amongst the 
Chinese curiosities. These anticjuities make us acquainted 
with many customs and the domestic life of the Aztekes, and I 
am sure, if some able persons would examine the ground half 
as carefully as it has been done in Italy and Greece, many 
things would be found which might give ample information in 
reference to the history of the country, which now, as stated 
before, is very imperfect, thanks to the imbecile act of the first 

On seeing the many things collected in this museum, and 
admiring the workmanship and the high polish of extremely 
hard substances, one wonders in what manner they could have 
done it, since the Aztekes had neither steel nor iron, though 
plenty of copper, silver, gold, pewter, and lead. The silver 
and golden jewellery of the Aztekes is indeed wonderful. They 
understood also the art of enamelling. 

Amongst the many interesting trilies I noticed a kind of or- 
nament, shaped like a little sombrero, and made of obsidian, 
and was rather astonished on learning that it was a military de- 
coration. It called tentetl (lip-stone) because it was worn in 
the under-lip ; I suppose in the same manner as I have seen 
it in pictures representing some Indian tribe of South America. 
This decoration was awarded to warriors, not those who killed 
enemies, but those who made them prisoners, leaving the kill- 
ing probably for the priests. In some of these tentls were 
fastened small bunches of the brilliant feathers of humming- 
birds, and I suppose this was a higher class of the order, like 
the bows, leaves, swords, <S:c., attached as a distinction to 
several Prussian orders. All the servants of the Mexican Em- 
|)cror had the privilege of wearing such tentetls made of rock 




tlicy are 
ing their 
ii- <:loak. 
njjtion ; 

oJ Ice ted 
ouvre ; the 
and I 
nd half 
■, many 
Uion in 
5 stated 
he first 

m, and 
d iiave 



of or- 
ry de- 
3rn in 
i seen 
^ kill- 
, like 
n to 

S'tnctiutrlo ile Gaadalupe. 



As I hnve not described any of the convents of the city, I 
s!i.ill make iii) f«)r this negligence hy spcikitig more at length 
of the most holy place in the whole empire, only one league 
from Mexico ; it is the Sanctuario de Ouadalupe. Before 
describing it, i must first state the miracle from which it origi- 

What effective means the conquistadorcs cnploycd in con- 
vincing the Indian heathens of the truth of Cmistianity 1 have 
mentioned already, and many Indians, though not very well 
understanding all the mysteries of the religion, found it not 
hard to change their ugly idols for the Holy Virgin and the 
saints, whose images looked far more attractive. 

It was ten years after the Conquest, in the year 1531, when 
there iived in the village of Tolpetlac a recently-converted 
liulian, who had received in bai)tism the name of Juan Diego. 
He was a good man, and frec^uently went to Santiago Tlulti- 
luclo, where the Franciscans taught the Christian religion. 
Once, when crossing a mountain ridge, which ended near the 
lake of Texcoco, in a point called the * Nose of the hill,' — in 
Spanish ' Nariz del cerro,' and in Indian 'Tepetlyecaczol,' — 
he heard some extremely sweet music, of a kind that he had 
never heard either amongst the Spaniards or his own people. 
Looking wondcringly around he saw a rainbow, far more bril- 
liant than he had ever seen, and, framed by it, and in the mid- 
dle of a white transparent cloud, a very sweet-looking hand- 
some lady, dressed like one ot the court ladies of his late 
heathenish Emperor. The poor ignorant man did not guess 
who she was, but was not afraid, and ajjproaching her, she told 
liim that she was * the Mother of God,' and wanted the erec- 
tion of a temple in her honour on that very spot, promising 
protection to all those who would pray there, and ordering 
Juan Diego to tell the Bishop what he had seen and heard. 

Fray Don Juan de Zumarraga, a Franciscan, and Bishop of 
Merico, would not believe in the story, and sent the Indian 
away. The Holy Virgin, however, was not satisfied with this 
and appeared to him three times again. Troubled in his 
mind, and not daring to go again to the Bishop, he resolved 
to confide in a confessor, whom he would consult also about 
his uncle, Juan Bernardino, jvho was very dangerously ill. 
Afraid of encountering again ' the Mother of God,' he took 
another road ; but at a place, which is still to be recognised, 


^SlV l; . 


Ten Years of my Life. 

which seems rather strange, by a smell of brimstone, and a 
spring of which the water has the taste of that suspicious min- 
eral, she appeared for the fifth time, told him that his uncle 
was perfectly well again, and ordered him to gather roses on 
the sumit of the mountain, which he should bring to the 
Bishop as a token that all he had told was true. 

Now, on that mountain had never before grown anything 
but thistles .I'ld thorns ; but when the Indian went there, he 
found the most beautiful and most odoriferous flowers, which 
he put in his Mima, and went to the Bishop. 

This gentkiiian, on being informed of the errand of the 
Indian, came, with some priests running eagerly 
after him. Juan Diego told his adventure in all his simplicity, 
and when untying the two ends of his tilma, to produce the 
roses, lo ! Cwq Bishop and all the priests fell on their knees as 
if struck by lightening, for on theayateof the fortunate Indian 
was impressed the image of the Holy Virgin, as the face of our 
Saviour was impressed on the handkerchief of St. Veronica. 

Now of course all doubts were removed : the miracle was 
evident It happened on the 12th of December, 1531, ten 
years and four months after the Conquest, under the pontifi- 
cate of Clevent VII., and during the reign of the Emperor 
Charles V,. 

\\ hat app'^ars ^ / me especially wonderful is, that on the 
celestial picture the Holy Virgin is not only represented in an 
Indian dress, but also a: i Indian face and complexion ; though 
I ought not to .wonder, knowing that she appeared in Africa 
like a negress, and having seen in Rome a picture of the 
Mother of God with a black face. 

When the Bishop recovered from his stupefaction he over- 
whelmed the blessed Indian with compliments, and went out 
to visit the places sanctified by the apparations. He took the 
miraculous picture first to his house, and transferred it a few 
days later to the Cathedral. 

This picture is painted, probably by some angel, on a cloth 
woven from the fibres of some Mexican plant, and made by 
Indians. The Holy Virgin wears a tunic of woollen stuff, 
descending from the neck to the feet, and her head is covered 
by a manto , in a word, the cj)stume of a noble and rich 
Azteke lady. Her complexion is brown, her hair black, htr 
expression amiable, humble and open. This image is called 
the Creole Virgin. , 

Del Ccrrito. 


e, and a 
3US min- 
is uncle 
roses oil 
to the 

here, he 
3, which 

1 of the 
uce the 
:nees as 
; of our 
cle was 
3i» ten 

on the 

i in an 



of the 

e over- 
mt out 
ok the 
t a few 

I cloth 
ide by 
. stuff, 
d rich 
k, htr 





Obedient to the order of the Mother of God, the Bishop 
erected first a hermitage of adobes — air-dried unbunit bricks — , 
where the miraculous picture was transjiorted in ICS53. Juan 
Diciro built for himself a little house close bv, and died there 
after seventeen years, at the age of seventy-four. liis uncle, 
eighty-six years old, died, and was buried in the chapel. 

■This chapel was, in the year 1663, replaced by a more 
worthy building, which cost 800,000 piastres, and the many 
worshippers behaved so liberally, that the sanctuary could soon 
be ornamented with sacred vessels richer than even those in 
the Cathedral. Many, however, had to go to the crucible 
during the war. The Cathedral, standing now at the foot of 
the still sterile and bare hills, is a very extensive building, with 
six towers. Higher up the hill, at the place where the Virgin 
appeared for the first time, has been built also a chapel called 
Del Cerrito, and around the sanctuary has sprung uj) a place, 
which, since the declaration of independence, has been created 
a town. 

The people of the highet classes worship there every 12th of 
each month, but on the 12th of December tak^s place the great 
festival, in which partake the Chief of the Government and all 
the authorities. It is celebrated with a splendour which is 
scarcely surpassed in Rome. The Indians have still another 
festival, at which they dance old Indian dances, and much dis- 
order takes place. 

In 182 1, the Emperor Iturbide instituted here the Mexican 
order of Guadalupe, which was abolished for a time, but re- 
established again in 1853 by Santa Anna. It is the highest 
Mexican order, and Salm was very proud when he received it 
from the Emperor Maximilian, in Queretaro. 

There are connected with Guadalupe several historical remi- 
niscences, but I cannot exactly remember them, and will only 
mention that here the peace with the United States was con 
eluded on Frebruary 2, 1848. 

Having seen from the new promenade Chapultepec, my 
curiosity was roused, and the more so as the Emperer Maxi- 
milian and Empress Carlotta seemed to have a particular liking 
for that place, which was once the residence of the Viceroys. 
The blood-sucking Viceroys had disappeared from there but it 
seems that they left behind a legion of not less blood-thirsty 
though small substitutes, which even dared attack the Imperial 


Ten Ytars of my Life. 


blood of the Hapsburgs in such a ferocious manner that on the 
.first night which the Imperial couple passed in Chapultepec 
they had to fly before them, and pitch their beds on the open 

The palace is a long, narrow, ugly building, standing on a 
bare hill, which is enclosed by fortifications, thrcjgh which leads 
a very low and miserable staircase. The Emperor established 
himself, however, in a pavilion standing on the utmost edge of 
the rock, and containing only a few rooms, but whence the 
view is enrapturing. The whole valley of Mexico is before us, 
and every house in the city is to be seen distinctly, for Cha- 
pultepec is only half an hour's drive from it. The Cathedral of 
Guadalupe, leaning against the ridge of Tepeyayac, is also 
before us in all its splendour. 

The bare hill on which the vice-royal palace is built is sur- 
rounded by a natural park, such as is not to be found any- 
where in this wide world. What are the Central Park in New 
York, Regent's Park in London, the Bois de Boulogne in 
Paris, the Bieberich Park on the Rhine, the Prater in Vienna 
— nay, even the. pride of Berlin, the Thiergarten — what are 
they all in comparison to this venerable and delightful spot, 
with its Ahuehuetes trees, which were there already in the 
golden age of Mexico, when still the benevolent Quatzalcoatl, 
the god of the air, lived amongst the gentle people of the 
Toltekes? Under the shade of these green vaults, even the 
bloody conqueror Cortez's heart felt softened at the side of 
his enchantress, Malitzin. There are still the basins where 
bathed the many pretty Indian wives of Montezuma. On 
entering this natural temple, a delicious shudder creeps over 
your whole body, and you dare scarcely speak aloud. 

From the emerald green ground rise the gigantic Ahuehuetes 
trees, a kiiid of cypress, of wliich the enormous branches 
stretch widely out, and hang down like those of European firs. 
They stand on a pedestal formed by the curiously twisted and 
interlaced roots, from which spring forth their cord-like stems, 
wound around each other as in a cable, but more irregular, 
and forming thus the strange-looking trunks which have a cir- 
cumference of at least twelve or fifteen yards. As if the green 
of their foliage was not thought becoming to their venerable 
age, the trees are covered up to their tops with a silk-like 
silvery-grey parasite plant, hanging down in rich, slightly 
curling locks. 



llamii hig-Birds. 


lat on th^ 
the open 

ing on a 
ich leads 
t edge of 
mce the 
efore us, 
for Cha- 
ledral of 
, is also 

t is sur- 

ind any- 

in New 

ogne in 


hat are 

Lil spot, 

in the 


of the 

'en the 

side of 


.. On 

s over 

n firs, 
d and 
a cir- 



The monotony of this uniform green and grey colour is 
relieved now and then by trees of a liglUer green with yellow 
drooping tlowers and grape-like pink fruits, and beautiful 
coloured butterflies and birds, amongst them the gem of the 
winged tribe, the sweet humming-bird. 

It occurs also in North America, and even as far north as 
New York. I never had, however, a better opportunity of 
observing and admiring this graceful little creature than in 
Washington. There stands in the Capitol garden, close to one 
of tlic principal walks, a red-blooming, peculiar kind of chest- 
nut tree, which has quite a reputation amongst ornithologists, 
and I heard that a celebrated English naturalist declared this 
tree alone to be worth a voyage to America. 

The juice of the red chestnut flower must have a peculiar 
sweetness and attraction, for when the tree is in blossom 
humming-birds are swarming around it like bees. Sitting on 
a bench opposite that tree I have observed them for hours. 
Wlien drinking the nectar from a flower with their long tongue, 
they behave just in the same manner as those butterflies or 
moths do which are to be seen in summer evenings before 
some flower as if fixed in the air. The movement of the little 
wings is so quick that they cannot be seen, and one wonders 
how that little sparkling body is thus suspended in the air. 
Having robbed the flower of its sweetness, they whisk away 
like lightning to kiss another. I like them best when they are 
resting on a branch smoothing their little feathers. They are 
so tame and so little afraid of .man that it would be very 
to catch them with a butterfly-net, which I fortunately never 
saw in all America, for young gentlemen there of ten or twelve 
years have more serious occupations than catching butterflies ! 
They commence already to flirt and learn to chew tobacco. 
The negro boys sometimes entrap the poor humming-birds 
when they venture into the deep calix of some large flower, by 
stealing near and closing the entrance with their hands. I 
shall not describe now all the fine places near Mexico, but do 
so occasionally. 

The interior of Mexican houses is more agreeable and 
pleasing than the exterior. A staircase leads to an open 
gallery surrounding the yard. It is ornamented with flowers, 
and the floor is covered with mats and provided with benches. 
From this gallery the rooms are entered. The parlours in the 


Ten Years of my Life. 


■ i 

houses of the richer classes are often brilliantly furnished, 
though not always in good taste. The Mexicans are very 
fond of gilding, and they have frequently gilded tables and 
other furniture. In the bedrooms the bed is the only thing 
recomniendable, for it is very large and mostly made of iron, 
which is necessary on account of insects ; all the other accom- 
modations are very primitive, and the luxury of cleanliness is 
not much appreciated. Sheets are almost always made of 
cotton, and so are tablecloths and napkins, and their miserable 
state very frequently forms a strange contrast with the rich 
furniture and plat«\ 

Though the Mexicans are a lazy people, they rise early. 
The gentlemen have their morning ride and the ladies go to 
church, and from there to the Alameda. ^ This is the only oc- 
casion on which they appear in the street on foot. Returned 
home, they take a bath and make their toilet. i'hey Ijnch 
between twelve and one. 

The Mexicans are very frugal, and that is one good quality 
at least to praise, even in the gentlemen. They do not drink 
much, either spirits or wine or beer, though pulque appears 
everywhere on the table. They live mostly very regularly and 
decently, but gambling is the besetting sin of many of them. 

The men are generally rather little and delicate-looking, but 
very well formed, with extremely small hands and feet. They 
are very polite and reserved and courteous, as if always on 
their guard' against being imposed upon. They have good 
reason for it ; for Mexicans are not reliable. They promise 
readily, and are always at your service with words, but are not 
to be trusted. Fifty years of civil war would demoralise better 
nations than the descendants of Cortez's rapacious crew. 
They love money, and have no scruples whatever in reference 
to the means of getting it, and to rob the Republic as much as 
possible is considered more a merit than a sin. AVhoever gets 
a high position uses it for this purpose. Though avaricious 
and grasping in this sense, they are sometimes liberal and reck- 
less of expense, as is usual with gamblers. In general they 
are very hospitable, and at their dinner-table are always laid 
covers for guests who may drop in. Frugal as they usually are, 
the tables are loaded with everything when they give parties. 

The ladies are very pretty, and generally excel in the rich- 
ness of tlieir black hair, there large black and melancholy 


Fdmily Life in Mexico. 


ire very 
bles and 
ily thing 
of iron, 
r accom- 
iliness is 
nade of 
the rich 

3e early, 
s go to 
only 00- 
y Ijnch 

t drinic 
irly and 
f them, 
ays on 
e good 
are not 
luch as 
er gets 
d reck- 
.1 they 
ys laid 
Ily are, 
i rich- 


' 5 ■ 


eyes, and small feet and hands. They are very graceful in 
their movements, but mostly very delicate. They marry very 
eaily, sometimes at fourteen or fifteen years, and have gener- 
ally many children. It is no rare case to see a mother with a 
dozen or more. The children are very delicate, and a great 
many die young. They are very quiet and well-behaved ; and 
I never saw them romping or quarrellmg as healthy children 
do in other countries. The mothers mostly nurse them them- 
selves, and are very fond of them, but bring them up in a very 
injudicious manner. They treat them like dolls, and to dress 
them nicely seems their principal care. The children are very 
intelligent, and progress very fast, but only up to their tenth 
or twelfth year. After that they do not advance in their 
intellectual developement. 

The family life in Mexico is rather pleasing, Husband and 
wife are always seen together, and they live mostly at home 
and within the circle of their relations. Parents do not like 
to part with their daughters, and if they marry, it is by no 
means rare for their husbands to establish themselves in the 
houses of their fathers or mothers-in-law, living at their expense. 

The ladies are extremely ignorant. They do not read any- 
thing else but their prayer-book, and are scarcely able to write 
their necessary letters. They do not know any language but 
Spanish, and of geography or history they have no idea. 
That Paris was the capital of France they knew even before 
the arrival of the French, and about London they had heard 
also, for from these cities they received their dresses and furni- 
ture and other luxuries. Of Rome they would not know any- 
thing if the Pope did not reside there, and that fact is the only 
thing they know. They are, however, fond of music and 
singing, and have talent for it, and also good voices. There 
are many who play the piano very well. 

There is no regular dinner in their houses. If hungry, they 
eat a simple dish or take a cup of chocolate, which is very 
good, but much mixed with cinnamon. Coffee is grown in 
Mexico, and ic is excellent, but they do not understand how 
to prepare it. 

At six o'clock the ladies drive to the promenade, and after 
it to the opera, where they take their young daughters dressed 
up to their best. If there is no o|)era, they pass the evening 
at home, and amuse themselves with playing at cards, or with 


Ten Years of ray Life. 

music and singing. The young folks come also together for a 
hop, or a tertulla, as such a dancing party is called in Mexico. 

Though there are about half a million of negroes amongst 
the eight millions of inhabitants in Mexico, there are scarcely 
any in the city of Mexico. The house sesvants are Indians, 
mostly young girls, who are very kindly and familiarly treated. 
They are very clever with their hands, and there are many 
amongst them who embroider extremely well. 

More than half the population of the country are Indians. 
Those living in the plateau of Mexico and neighbourhood are 
the descendants of the Aztekes, who three hundred years ago 
astonished the Spaniards by their civilisation, which many say 
was more advanced than even that of the ancient Egyptians. 
The conquerors, ''ho expected to encounter savages, saw in 
their sumptuous city splendid buildings, ornamented with ob- 
jects of art, and a highly developed industry. Though not 
acquainted with iron or steel, they understood how to cut the 
hardest stones, and to work in gold and silver, in a manner 
which is still admired. Their clothes were fine, and in many 
sciences they were at least as far advanced as most of the rude 
Spaniards who came to betray their hospitality. 

What has become of this intelligent, industrious people? 
The manner in which the English treated the North American 
Indians, bad and unjust as it was, may find at least some ex 
cuse in the stubbornness of these savages, with which they 
refused all attempts to civilise them ; but the Aztekes were no 
savages, and if their priests were cruel, they were really not 
more so than the fanatical Christian priests, who, instead of 
teaching them the religion of love, punished them for the mis- 
fortune of their religious errors by burning them wholesale, 
and treating them worse than wild animals. 

Tyranny and slavery have everywhere the same debasing 
efifect, of which history furnishes so many instances that it 
would he superfluous to mention any, whilst liberty is every- 
where the mother of industry and progress. 

Persecuted and oppressed as the Indians were, they fled to 
the woods, where they were not molested by the conquering 
race, but were deprived of all means of education. Their 
children grew up in ignonmce, and even their mechanical skill 
vanished almost entirely in the course of time. They were 
satisfied to live, and as bountiful Nature let them find easily 



Indian Traders, 


the means of existence, they sank lower and lower. No won- 
der that they are shy and suspicious, especially towards the 
masters of their country ; for whenever they are treated with 
kindness they show that they have very kind hearts, are faith- 
ful and loving, and are desirous of learning. 

This desire is very rarely satisfied, for the Europeans, igno- 
rant themselves, were satisfied with using them as working 
animals. They never looked upon them as entitled to any 
rights, and still less as brethren, as their religion urged them 
to do. Not even the priests who lived amongst them took 
the trouble to educate them and to enlighten their minds ; 
they were satisfied with teaching them the mechanical part oi 
their religion, to make them Christians by name. 

When the conquerors spread all over the country, the In- 
dians could not keep themselves altogether apart from them, 
especially in the neighbourhood of cities. By this contact a 
new kind of civilisation was created amongst them. Becom- 
ing soon aWjare of the value of money, and seeing that they 
could get some by selling their services or the products of their 
soil to their lazy masters, they availed themselves of this oppor- 
tunity, and we see them in Mexico everywhere engaged in all 
kinds of inferior trades. They are indeed the purveyors of 
Mexico, and come there from many miles to sell their fruit 
or fowls, or other products of their little industry. 

The women work more than the men, and with their chil- 
dren on their back, together with a heavy load, always running 
at a short trot, they may be seen on all roads. Their dress is 
very simple. A piece of blue cotton stuff is rolled around 
their waist, falling down to their feet. Their shoulders and 
breast are covered by a cotton cloth of some other colour, 
with a hole in the centre through which passes their head. In 
the Tyrol I have seen pieces of carpet used in a similar manner. 

The dress of the men is still more imperfect. Round the 
waist they have fastened a leather, which they tie in such a 
manner as to form a kind of breeches. Their shoulders are 
covered in the same manner as those of the women, and on 
their head they wear a straw hat. 

The women have large fine eyes, somewhat obliquely plac^J, 
and are very well made ; many amongst them are pretty, but 
amongst some of the tribes they are rather ugly. Tiie men do 
not look so strong as they are, to judge from the loads which 






ll. * 



Ten Years of my Life. 

they can carry with apparent ease. The skin of the Indians 
is brown, but not more so than that of gipsies ; their hair is 
black, their teeth very fine, and the beard is with the men not 
much developed. 

Not a few amongst the followers of Cortez married rich 
Azt'jke girls, and from such unions, which became more and 
more frequent in time, sprung up a bastard race — Creoles. 
Many of them are rancheros or farmers, and these are con- 
sidered as the best part of the nation. Amongst them are 
very rich people, and as they have not much opportunity of 
getting rid of their money — gambling excepted — they love to 
wear very rich dresses. I have described the riding costume 
of a Mexican gentleman. That of the rich ranchero is similar, 
but differs in some trifles. He wears white drawers reaching 
to the knee, and these are fastened by fine garters to the 
leathern zepateros, embroidered in different colours. Under 
the garters hangs by a steel chain a sharp knife, to cut the lasso 
if required. Over his drawers he wears trousers^ open at one 
side from the knee down, and set with large fine buttons, 
mostly of solid silver, but not rarely of gold, each consisting 
of the largest gold coin of the country. Such a pair of ' cal- 
zoneras ' are worth a whole fortune. His jacket is made of 
coffee-coloured leather, and set with silver cords on the shoulders 
and its back part. His large hat — ' jarano * — with wide gold- 
laced rims, is ornamented with silver and gold, and from his 
belt of crimson silk harg down behind golden tassels. Of 
course, saddle and bridle are richly studded with silver and 
gold. The hind-part of the horse is covered by a brilliant 
anguera ; the lasso is behind the saddle, and a sword is fastened 
to the latter. Round his neck the ranchero generally wears a 
crimson silk neckerchief. He looks extremely picturesque/ 
and would make a prominent figure in any circus. 

The amusements and sports of these people are rather rude. 
Their greatest pleasure is to show their skill and strength 
against the bull. One of their amusements seems to be very 
diflicult to the performer and rather disagreeable to the bull. 
The poor fellow is frightened in some manner or another, and 
when running away he is followed by a crowd of rancheros on 
horseback. AVhoever approaches him first catches hold of his 
tail with his right hand, draws up his right knee to use it 3s a 
support for the elbow, and with a skilful strong twist the bull 
is knocked off his legs, after which the rider runs on. 



]\1 ex tea a Markets. 




Even more flifficult and far more danGjcrous is what tliey 
call * barbearal beccrro.' The bold ranchcro a;)i)roacht's the 
bull on foot, and not from behind, but in front ; seizes with 
cne hand one of its cars, with the other its snout, and then 
twisting its neck with a sudden jerk brings the bull to the 

The class of people in Afexico between the rich classes and 
the Indians do not dress in the French style, nor in the simple 
style of the Indians. The lowest class of them, the ' k'lKros,' 
dress as they can afford it, the climate of the country ])ermit- 
tir^ them to wear very little; a pair of coarse tiousers, a 
similar shirt, and a sombrero of palm-leaves are suffK:ient. 
The women of what I may call the lower middle class invari- 
ably wear a more or less elegant petticoat, covering them from 
the waist to their feet. Tor their bust a loose shirt is thought 
sufficient, and generally a neckerchief ■, added to it. The 
characteristic part of their dress is, however, the rebozo, which 
serves them for all ])assible purposes, and with this they under- 
stand how to dress themselves in a rather becoming and often 
coquettish manner. The rebozo is a kind of shawl either of 
cotton or silk, plain or interwoven with gold or silver thread, 
two and a half or three metres long and one v/ide, with an 
open fringe at both ends. 

Though it is very unusual for ladies to walk in the street, 
except on going to church and coming from (he Alameda, I 
sometimes took the liberty of looking about, and found always 
Hv w and interesting things to see, especially on the markets, 
where so many articles were sold which I had never seen be- 
fore. I was especially attracted by the great quantity of very 
fine flowers coming from the floating gardens, where they bloom 
even in winter. Stawberries are to be had all the year round, 
and a great variety of fruit, in their season, are heaped up in 
large pyramids. Covent Garden market in L.ondon looks in 
this respect poor in comparison with the most common Mexi- 
can market. 

The fruit to be seen everywhere is the banana, which is 
called in Mexico platano. It is a smooth yellow pod, sometimes 
with dark spots, of about five inches long and thick in propor- 
tion, which contains a soft, gold-coloured, somewhat mealy but 
extremely aromatic fiesh. These pods grow together in clus- 
ters of not rarely more than a hund.'-ed. The bananas grow 


Ten Years of my Life. 

without any culture and arc extremely cheap. They are 
broiij^^lU fretiueiuly to the United States, and I have seen theni 
even in London, but there the Wait is not so good as in Mex- 
ico, I sup;;ose because they are gathered before they are per- 
fectly ripe. It is the same with pine-apples, which are far 
superior to those which are sold in the United States or in the 
streets of London. The frnits of the cactus plants, called 
tunas, are of course plentiful. The zapote, mimey, granadil- 
las, papayas, aguacates, the fruit of the melon-tree, the gu;iy- 
aves, the excellent anona, the bitates, tomatoes, ground pista- 
chios, &c., (fee, it would take too long to describe. People 
who travel only to write books about what they see may do 
that ; I am writing my personal adventures, ar;d think it is time 
to return to them. 





Marshal Bazaine— Madame la Mardchale — Princess TturLicle—TacuiJayn — 
San Au^ustin — A prujected imjwrtant mission — How it ended — We 
go on an expedition — Meetinij; the enemy — Result — Arrival in Tulan- 
cingo — Order to evacuate — Jimmy — Carabajal, the robber-general - 
March to Vuebla — Meeting the iimperor Maximilian — The ' woman 
in white ' — I fall ill— General panic — Returning to Mexico — The 
family Hube — Departure of the French — The Emperor leaving for 
Queretaro — Salm going after him — I am left behind — General Mar- 
que/, — General Vidaurri — Good news-:7The battle of San Lorenzo — 
Marqucz a coward — Porlirio Dia/ before Mexico. 

The fate of Marshal Bazaine would not fail to call for our 
sympathy if he had done only what a rather prejudiced court 
found him guilty of, but he his forfeited all claims to sympathy 
by the manner in which he behaved when in Mexico. Though 
our religion teaches us that all bad actions are recorded and 
will find theii punishment after death, it is always satisfactory 
if fate overtakes bad men in this life, and I regret that my poor 
husband did not live to see how Mexico and its noble Empe- 
ror were revenged on this bad, cruel, brutal, and mean man, 
and his crafty master. 

History informs us that in every country where the French 
entered as conquerors they made themselves haled by their 
overbearing rapacity and cruelty, but scarcely anywhere did 
they dishonour their country in a more barefaced manner than 
they did in Mexico, for they had rarely a chief who encouraged 
them so openly by his own example as was done by Bazaine. 

The French officers treated the Mexicans with the utmost 
arrogance and contempt. Gentlemen who met them in the 
street were insulted and kicked off the side-walks without hav- 
ing given any offence. Ladies dared not venture going in the 





Ten Years of unj Life. 

KtR'ct f(»r fear of being nnnoycd hy their low importunities. 
'I'hcir cupidity was insatiable, and tiieir behaviour in the coun- 
try when on some military e.\|)edilion surpasses anythinij; which 
we read in old books. Wholesale slaughter and execution of 
innocent i)eople, Inirning of houses and robberies, were not 
even the most atro( i(jus of their crimes ; they committed ac- 
tions of such cruelty and shamelessness against poor women, 
before the very eyes of their parents, that the pen refuses to 
describe them. Their name will be hated Ibrever in Mexico, 
and their humiliation and i)unishment by the brave Germans 
will without doubt have been heard with rejoicing in that 

Bazaine behaved there as if he was the Emperor and Maxi- 
milian his subordinate. Everybody trembled before him, and 
even the French, thougli they feared him, did not love and 
respect, but rather despised him. So at least did all honour- 
able men amongst them. 

He was not only arrogant, brutal, and cruel, he was also 
rapacious and mean, and employed the lowest artifices to en- 
rich himself. It was well known in Mexico, not only amongst 
the inhabitants but also by the French officers, that he owned 
in the city two shops, a grocery and another, in which French 
goods, as dresses, lace, silks, &c., were sold. He became ex- 
tremely rich by this trade, for he found v^ery cheap means of 
transportation, and did not pay any duty. His goods were 
conveyed as arms, ammunition, and the like, at the expense of 
the Government. 

To screen his fast-growing fortune it was said that he mar- 
ried an enormously rich Mexican lady. This is utterly flilse, 
for the girl he married was poor. 

Salm, when coming to Mexico, had a letter to Bazaine from 
the French Ambassador in Washington, and was received tol- 
erably well. Not knowing him sufficiently, and not daring to 
neglect him, I of course had to pay a visit to JMadame la 


She was a charming, rather childlike, and naive little person, 
who made on me a quite agreeable impression. 

An oflker who had great influence with Bazaine was Colonel 
Vicomte de la None. We paid him a visit and became ac- 
quainted with his wife, who was a North American. She was 
extremely fond of admiration, like all American ladies, and. 

PrlnccNS Itarbide. 





le la 







as most of them do in forei^'n countries, she also loved to show 
off her American pecuharilies antl exaggerate them, even as 
we may observe with American ladies in Drestlen, Vienna, 
Italy, and especially in German wateringi)laces, where they 
behave in a manner whicli they would not dare in tlieir own 
country. The parties in the Vicomte's liouse had a certain 
rej)Utation on account of their gaiety. 

Under such extraordinary circumstances as prevailed in 
Mexico at that time, there often apj)ear in society all sorts of 
dubious characters ; and having no time to examine and select, 
one is brought in contact with rather ([ueer ])eople. Tliere 
were in Mexico a great number of adventurers, especially 
French, who, bearing a well-sounding name, were to be met in 
all societies. One of this sort was a French Count, who had 
a very handsome wife, whom he had married to the horror of 
his father, who disinherited him for his disobedience. I suj)- 
l)ose he came to Mexico to take part in the spoils, but it seems 
that he did not succeed well, for his ])retty wife ran about 
everywhere trying to borrow three hundred dollars ; but even 
this, for Mexico, small sum she could not get, notwithstanding 
her prettiness. There are too many handsome ladies in Mex- 
ico. I suppose she might have succeeded better had she been 
ugly, but as she was, all her Parisian vivacity and co([uetry, 
which formed a great contrast with the cpiiet manner of Mex- 
ican beauties, left the native gentlemen very cokl, to her great 
astonishment and regret. 

Amongst the officers who commanded the Austrian and 
Belgian troops which were engaged in the cause of the 
Emperor Maxiuiilian, were many noblemen of high families, 
and very worthy ar.d amiable men. The position which Salm 
occupied made it natural that we associated much with them, 
though they seemed at first somewhat jealous of my husband. 

There lived also in Mexico a daughter of the unfortunate 
Emperor Iturbide, who was called Princess Iturbide and 
Imperial Highness, and 1 paid her a visit. As I only saw 
her now and then in society, and she had nothing to do with 
the events happening later, I need not say more of her. For 
the benefit of Prussian readers, I may, however^ mention that 
Princess Iturbide was strikingly like, both in exterior and 
manners, to Countess Haake, the ' Pallast Dame' of her 
^Majesty the Empress of Germany. 




Ten Years of my Life. 

The most considerable place near Mexico is the town of 
Tacuba}a. It is extremely old, and existed before the Chichi- 
niecas came to the plateau of Anahuac, under the Indian name 
of Atlacoloayan, which means, ' place where the brook makes 
a turning.' It had once 15,000 inhabitants, now is has 5,000, 
and in summer about 1,500 more. The huts of the Indians, 
with their aloe-fields, have mostly disappeared, and rich Mexi- 
cans and foreigners have built in this, the finest spot of the 
lovely Mexican valley, beautiful villas with s{)lendid gardens. 
It is to Mexico what Charlottenburg is to Berlin, and will soon 
become one of its suburbs. 

In this place a Mr. Hube, the former Consul-General of 
Hamburg, had a villa, and we were introduced by Baron Mag- 
nus to him, his most excellent and kind wife, and her amiable 
family. As I became more intimate with them later, and lived 
with them when Salm was in the war, I shall speak of the 
Hube family more at length afterwards. 

Another considerable, very charming place, near Mexico, is 
San Augustin de los Cunvas. Before the Conquest it was 
called Tlalpam, and is connected with the capital by splendid 
roads and canals. It is most picturesquely situated on the 
slope of the high mountain of Ajusco. Though it has still 
four thousand inhabitants it is not a town, and no kind of 
suburb like Tacubaya, but has remained a genuine village. 
There are to be found yet Indian homesteads as they were 
before the Conquest, though new streets have sprung up als<s 
formed of fine villas. In this charming place the green seems 
iresher and greener than anywhere else. Many trees growing 
everywhere, and rocks appearing between the houses, make 
the interior of the place picturesque, and the neighbourhood, 
abounds in beautiuil spots. 

Every year, at Whitsuntide, San Augustin is crowded during 
three or four days with Mexicans, for there is held then a most 
celebrated fair. This fair is not renowned on account ot its 
mercantile importance, but for the gambling carried on there. 
All Mexicans seem to be crazy about that time, and every- 
body is seized with the gambling fever. Gambling houses are 
opened invitingly, and many leave there considerable sums, 
lost at ' Monte,* the favorite card game of the Mexicans. 

During the rainy season many people go there for a change 
of air — what is called ' mudar temperamente.' At other times 

San Augustin. 


town of 
an name 
k makes 
■s 5,000, 
:h Mexi- 
>t of the 
v'ill soon 

neral of 
on Mag- 
nd lived 
i of the 

exico, is 

St it was 


on the 

has still 

kind of 


ley were 

up also, 

m seems 


IS, make 


i during 
a most 
nt ot its 
n there, 
uses are 
le sums, 


er times 



San Augustin is a quiet country place, and a visit there is 
a highly refreshing and agreeable change from the noise of the 

At the end of September we arranged a great ' irty to San 
Augustin, consisting of seven ladies and about ten or twelve 
gentlemen. We were all on horseback^ and two donkeys, 
loaded with all kinds of provision, followed us. The distance 
from Mexico is about three and a half leagues. We established 
ourselves at a most beautiful spot, where we breakfasted with 
good appetites, and having procured some Indian musicians, 
we had a dance on the green sward. 

One day Baron Magnus called on me requesting a con- 
fidential conversation. His manner was excited and mysterious, 
and the proposition he made to me was indeed rather exciting 
and of great importance. He came from an audience with 
the Emperor Maximilian, whose position threatened to become 
alarming, for the French were on the point of leaving the 

Though the American Government had at tliat time done 
nothing hostile to Maximilian, they had not recognized him, 
and it was well-known that they were opposed to the establish- 
ment of a monarchy so near their frontier. There was, how- 
ever, a party in the United States who did not look quite un- 
favourably on such a plan, for they thought it better for the 
interest of their country that order should be restored in 
Mexico, as its troubled state interfered not only with the 
security of the many American citizens living there, but also 
with the general mercantile transactions between the two 
countries. President Johnson himself was rather favourably 
inclined in reference to the civilizing mission of the young 
Emperor, and it seemed therefore not im[)ossible to turn the 
scale in Congress in favour of the cause of Maximilian, and to 
win a majority for his recognition by the United States. This 
would have been of the highest importance, and increased the 
chance of Maximilian's success more than the ambiguous and 
humiliating patronage of the French Emperor. U only the 
United States remained neutral it would have been much 
gained, for if they declared themselves positively against the 
Emperor his downfall would have been only a question of time.. 

As I was well acquainted not only with President Johnson 
and most of the influential persons in t^ , United States, but 



Ten Years of my Life. 

' \ 



also with the best ways and means in which to work upon 
them, Baron Magnus had suggested to the Emperor the idea 
of sending me to Washington on a secret diplomatic mission, 
accompanied by a most powerfully ally — two millions of dollars 
in gold. 

The proposition pleased me very much, 1 ;r success seemed 
by no means improbable, and the importance of the mission 
and the confidence placed in me flattered my ambition. I 
therefore placed myself at the disposition of the Emperor, but 
Salm opposed my going alone to the United States, and 
insisted on going with me. He had very little diplomatic 
talent, and did not understand how to deal with Americans as 
I did. I knew that he would rather render my task more 
difficult, but as he obstinately insisted I could not refuse him. 

It was arranged that we should dine with the Emperor on 
Tuesday, the 23rd of October, in Chapultepec, where our 
transactions would be less observed than in Mexico. 

I had not yet been presented to the Emperor, for as the 
Empress had left he did not receive any ladies at court. 

Our dinner-party, and afterwards the whole scheme, was, 
however, frustrated by a most unexpected event, which created 
confusion and consternation everywhere. On Sunday, the 
2ist October, the Emperor suddenly left Mexico, and went to 
Orizava, with the intention of returning at once to Europe. 
He had received the news of the distressing illness of the 

After the first effects of this news were over, Maximilian 
remembered what he owed, not only to his position, but also 
to all those who had embarked in his cause. He could not 
run away as it were from the battle-field, and if he really 
resolved on giving up his high-flying and noble plans, he saw 
that he must abdicate in a manner becoming an Archduke of 
Austria. This abdication was the great desire of the French, 
and they did all they eould to bring him into such a position 
as to make any other decision almost impossible. In this 
endeavour Bazaine was assisted by the Austrian and Belgian 
Ministers, while, on the other hand, Miramon, Marquez, and 
Father Fischer hurried to Orizava, to entreat the Emperor to 
refwain, and to rely on the Mexican people, promising that 
everything would go well if only the haled French would leave 
the country. 

War's Alarms. 


as the 

AVliilst all tiK\se negotiations were ^oing on we amused our- 
selves in the usual way in Mexico. The life we were leadinj; 
was pleasant enough, but my HotsiKir Felix panted for war. 
Though as kind-hearted as could be, and as gentle as a 
lamb, he had the pugnacious instincts of a fighting cock. War 
was his very element. That he once, when still a boy, was 
left with seven wounds on the battle-field, did not cure him. 
Through the American war he escaped without a hurt. 'A 
shot in his right arm, which was rather dangerous, received in 
a duel, did not cure him either. When any one looked askance 
at him, or too admiringly at me, his eye became vicious and 
the colour of his face heightened. He was like a cocked pistol, 
every moment ready to go off. 

Tlie Belgian Corps, under Colonel van der Smissen, was 
ordered on an expedition into the interior. Salm could not 
bear the idea of staying in Mexico idling away his time. He 
urgently applied to the Secretary of War for pernaission to join 
the expedition as a volunteer, and was quite crazy with plea- 
sure when it was granted. I, who had been always with him, 
could not realise the idea of being left behind, but he would 
not listen to my going with him. At last, after a hard battle 
of six hours, he had to surrender. I and Jimmy were to ac- 
company him. 

We left Mexico on the 8th of November, at eight o'clock in 
the morning, only with one company, but met the rest of the 
Belgian Legion on the road. Passing through St. Christoval, 
we arrived on the 9th in Tipaguca, where we had scarcely 
pitched our tents when an alarm was beaten. Columns of the 
enemy were reported before us. Salm and Van der Smissen 
reconnoitred, and they advanced towards Tipaguca, and it 
was decided on attacking the enemy at once. Salm snorted 
battle, and I caught thf^ excitement. I wouldn't be leftbel iid. 
I declared I would rather brave the dangers of battle than 
those awaiting me, perhaps, if I was left behind. Van der 
Smissen smiled, advised me not to fire my revolver at a dis- 
tance, but to save my six shots for a hand-to-hand fight. Salm 
mad' an angry face and dropped his lorgnette, but I joyously 
pressed my hor ' ^tveen both of theirs at the head of the 
troops, and we aa ancvl at a quick pace. 

The enemy for a good while were not aware of our presence, 
but when they *:aw us, and understood unmistakeably that wa 


' ; 


Ten Years of my Life. 

meant fight, they turned tail and ran like partridges, and we 
on seeing that ran still faster after them. The result was that 
we soon came near enough to discover that the enemies were 
no enemies after all, but good Austrians, who, however, on 
their part could not recognise us for what we really were, 
because Austrians have still less eyes behind than other 
nations, and therefore kept on running. To cut the question 
short, I spurred my horse, and when I reached them and told 
them that we did not want to kill them at all, they were 
extremely glad, and I <io not wonder that some very frightened 
Catholics mistook me for the Holy Virgin or some angel on 
horseback, despatched expressly by their patron saint to save 

These Austrians, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Pollack, 
had had an enc. unter with the Liberals just before they r,aw 
us, had lost about forty killed, and had not yet recovered from 
their fright. *'• 

We marched together to Pachuca, a rather ugly place, where 
we were lodged in the house of Mr. Auld, a very rich gentle- 

man, who was director of an 


minmg company, that 

had rented the silver mines in the neighbourhood. Mr. Auld 
and his wife were extremely kind and amiable people. The 
Empress and her ladies had once been their guests, and were 
delighted with their hospitality. Mrs. Auld sliowed me a very 
rich bracelet which the Empress had presented to her as a 

We had not much time to examine the mines, which are very 
considerable, for there work more than a thousand Indians, ami 
nearly two thousand mules. We saw, however, oome of the 
solid silver ingots, each worth fifteen hundred dollars, of which 
twelve millions' worth of dollars are produced every year. 

Next day we had only a short march, leaving the Austrians 
behind. We passed the place where they had been beaten by 
the Liberals, of whom we, however, saw nothing that day. 
The country through Which we marched was very romantic, 
but rather rough. It looked very much like some parts of 
Switzerland, and nothing reminded us that we were in a trop- 
ical country. There were no aloes, no palm-trees, nothing but 
pines, cedars, cypresses, and ever-green oaks. No wonder, for 
Kial del Monte, a little town, which we reached after three 
hours, and which is situated in a ravine, is tAi thousand feet 



and we 
as that 
js were 
^er, on 
/ were, 
I other 
nd told 
y were 
ngel on 
to save 

ley saw 
id from 

, where 
ly, that 
r. All Id 
. The 
id were 
a very 
Her as a 

re very 

ns, and 

of the 



iten by 
It day. 
arts of 
a trop- 
ing but 
ier, for 
id feet 

above the sea ! We were quartered there in the house of a 
Dr. Griffin. 

On the 1 2th of November we came to Huasca, which the 
Liberals had left only an hour before our arrival. The wea- 
ther was splendid, and we all were in a very good humour, fur 
our quarters were pleasant, 

Next day we arrived at the end of our march, at Tulancin- 
go, where the Austrian detachment ot Colonel Pollack's corps 
came to meet us, for we were to relieve them, and they marched 
off towards Pachuca. 

Tulancingo is quite a considerable town, and the seat of a 
bishop, who has there a palace. The whole garnson consisted 
of only sixteen hundred men, of whom one half were unreliable 
Mexicans As we expected to be attacked every day by very 
superior forces, Colonel van der Smissen sent to Lieutenant- 
Colonel Pollack, requesting him to remforce the garrison by 
his Austrians, but all our officers were very indignant when 
that worthy refused to come. He had had enough of fighting, 
and wanted to go home. As the garrison was too weak to 
undertake anything outside against the Liberals, who were in 
force in the neighbourhood, Salm was very busy with fortifying 
the open place, and taking all kinds of precautions, not only 
against an attack from outside, but also against treachery in- 
side, for the Mexican troops were not to be trusted at all. 

We were very agreeably quartered in the house of Mr. Gayon, 
the Spanish Vice-Consul, a very wealthy man, with a pretty 
well-educated wife, who had been in Europe, and to whom I be- 
came quite attached. 

The country is very fine, and the mountain near tempted us 
to make excursions ; but as the Liberals were always on the 
look-out we did not venture far, and amused ourselves as well 
as we could in the town, which had a nice theatre. 

As it is the fashion there to dance every night during the 
two weeks preceding Christmas, we had quite a lively time. 
These tertullas always take place at tl;^e same private house, 
designated that year for that purpose. The entertainment of 
the guests falls, however, to the charges of all the ladies, taking 
part alternately, so that every night a different lady performs 
the duties of hostess. 

Carpets are not usual in private houses, but people tnere 
imagine that they cannot dance on the bare floor, and for js, 
ball or tertulla carpets are hired. 


T(m Years of miy Life. 

Not liking to accept, without return, the hospitality of the 
people of the town, Colonel van der Smissen and Felix gave a 
great ball at some public hall, to which a great many persons 
were invited, and which was a great success. 

As a large Liberal force was assembled not far from the 
town, as said before, we expected to be attacked every day, 
but instead ot that there arrived, soon after Christmas, an order 
from General Bazaine to surrender Tulancingo to the Liberal 
General Martinez, the chief of whose staff was sent und^r a 
flag of truce to arrange that afifiiir. Our officers were very 
much astonished to hear from that officer that Bazaine and the 
Liberals were on quite friendly terms, but they had to obey 
orders, and we were ready to leave Tulancingo on the 28th of 

Our situation was by no means reassuring, for we had heard 
of the arrival of a noted guerilla chief, of the name of Caraba- 
ial, with about a thousand men, who were no better than rob- 
bers, and who ,did not care for any treaties or capitulations. 
Moreover, our expectations in reference to the treachery of our 
Mexican troops were fulfilled on the morning of the surrender. 
The rascal who commanded them, a Colonel Peralta, went 
over with his whole regiment of cavalry to the enemy. 

When we were assembled in the market-place, ready to 
evacuate the town, I was there also with Jimmy. Now, that 
dog is a very intelligent dog. Having accompanied me through 
the whole American war, he had learnt that guns are dangerous 
engines, and that when shots are fired from them mischief is 
done. He therefore has a most sensible dread of guns and 
shots, because he is very fond of life, and of roast veal, and 
beefsteak, and cutlets, and other things which make the exist-' 
ence of a dog agreeable, and which he is desirous of enjoyinsj 
as long as possible. When he saw in the market-place so 
many shooting engines, the poor darling became frightened, 
and ran home to his old quarters, hiding himself in the bed, 
I am sure many sensible men would like to do the same be- 
fore a battle, if they only could muster courage enough to 
run away like Jimmy, who has no prejudices. 

When I noticed the absence of my pet 1 was in despair, and 
as the dog would not have trusted anybody else, dear, kind 
Salm went back himself to fetch him. When he came out of 
the house he met some of the enemy, who had entered already, 

Caailous Jimniij. 


against the agreement, but seeing the colonel of the Imperial 
forces with such a fine dog under his arms, they were awe- 
struck, and saluted him respectfully. 

Now, had Jimmy not been so cautious, he would have been 
killed long ago, instead of sitting now demurely at my side, 
having reached in its thirteenth year a reputation few dogs can 
boast of. His beautiful head has been caressed by three em- 
perors, and his four-legged soul has been sanctified by the 
touch of most holy cardinals and archbishops, not to speak of 
presidents, senator^, simple highnesses or generals. It he 
should die before me, I will have his life-size statue made in 
black marble, and order in my last will that it be placed over 
my grave — or on the top of my ash-urn, if I should be burned, 
as I hope I shall. 

We had scarcely left Tulancingo half an hour, when Caraba- 
jal's rascals attacked our rearguard. Van der Smissen would 
not engage with them, and thought it best to gallop out of their 
way. We tore away at a nice rate, but it was a somewhat dif- 
ficult job, for Jimmy was sitting before me on my saddle, and 
he became somewhat unsettled when the Mexicans fired. But 
under such aggravating circumstances I collared him tightly, 
not minding his whine, for in general he is a very good horse- 
man, following the movements of the horse like an 

The Carabajal robbers had not much courage, however, and 
after having received a few shots from our Belgians they re- 
tired, and left us unmolested. 

The Belgian Legion had received already in Tulancingo an 
order by which it was disbanded, and General Bazaine had 
offered free passage to those of the men who preferred return- 
ing to Europe, which offer was gladly accepted by most ot 
♦hem. We were now on our march to Puebla. 

We remained the night in Texcoco in very bad quarters, 
and arrived on January 2, in the afternoon, at Buena Vista. 
Salm, who was a great sportsman, was tempted by the many 
wild duck in the neighbourhood, and went after them ; but he 
shot nothing, and returned rather disappointed. 

We received orders to halt at Buena Vista, and at the same 
time the news that the Emperor would pass that place on his 
way from Orizava to Mexico. He arrived next morning, 
escorted by some Austrian cavalry, and accompanied by many 



Ten Years of my Life. 

' ;i 

officers. He drove in a carriage drawn by four white mules., 
We saw him pass, but the whole procession made on all of us 
a rather sad impression. Van der Smissen, who took a rather 
dark view of the situation of Maximilian, said, * It looked to 
him as it the Emperor were being led to his execution.' He 
had expected him to abdicate, which was the joint wish of 
Bazaine and ot General Castelneau, whom Napolean HI. had 
sent especially to advise this course, in order to facilitate the 
arrangements with the Liberals. As I, however, said before, 
Maximili^m listened to the promises of Miramon, Marquez, 
ar;A.i Tather Fischer, and resolved to remain, and was now on 
his " .y ..\ m Orizava to Mexico. 

The Em;, '.-or stopped four leagues from Buena Vista, at 
Ayotola, and Salm had there an audience, and also an inter- 
view with Father Fischer, receiving from them authorisation 
to raise a regiment of cavalry, which he hoped to recruit from 
the disbanded legions. Therefore, not to lose sight of them, 
we accompanied the Belgians on their march to Puebla, where 
we arrived on January 9. 

Travelling in this manner I enjoyed the beauty of the 
country far more than had been the case on my passing it in 
the diligence. We had always the beautiful mountain giants 
before us, the Sierra Nevada, the Popocatapetl, and the peak 
of Orizava. 

Popocatapetl means in Indian language a * woman in white,' 
and the Mexicans have a legend about it. One of these 
mountains, which were once mighty giants, killed for some 
reason or other — I suppose jealousy — his wife, and laid her on 
the Sierra Nevada, where she is still plainly to be seen. On pas- 
sing not too far from it in very clear weather, I was much 
struck by the appearance of that mountain, which showed as 
plainly as if chiselled in while marble the gigantic form of a 
reclining woman. The whole figure, shape, arms, and even 
her dishevelled hair, are to be seen with wonderful distinct- 

On our arrival in Puebla I fell ill, and the uncertainty in re- 
ference to our future made ^ie still more so. Everybody was 
seized, as it were, by a moral panic. Reports of the most 
contradictory character, but all distressing were circulated, and 
the desire to leave Mexico and go to Europe became general. 
Nobodv knew what the Emperor intended to do, but the 

An Indian Doctor. 




French and also tlie Austrians asserted that he would still alv 
dicate and return to Europe also. 

When the Belgians and Colonel van der Smissen left us for 
Vera Cru/, Salrn was also taken with the pre\';''ling fever ; and 
to come to a decision he went to Mexico, 3 .d after having 
spoken to Baron Magnus he called on the 181 ■» on P'ather Fis- 
cher and gave in his resignation, which, however, was refused. 

Meanwhile I remained ill at Fuebla, in a very fine building 
— I believe the Town Hall — which General Bazaine had 
changed into a private hotel or casino, where higher officers 
passing the city found better and cheaper accommodation than 
at the hotels. I owed a good room in that house to the kind- 
ness of General Douay. 

1 was indeed very ill v Ji diphtheria, and sent for an Indinn 
doctor who had been recc 'mended to me. His cure was 
eftective but disagreeable, for he gave me nothing but emetics. 

Salm returned to Paebla, but still hoping to retain some of 
the Belgian and Austrioa troops for his regiment he went to 
Vera Cruz, where he ^ound, however, that Van der Smissen 
and his men had left. 

When my husband returned I was better, and we resolved 
to go to Mexico, where we arrived on the 25th, and alighted 
at the Hotel Iturbide. We saw of course Baron Magnus, and 
were frequently in Tacubaya, at Hube, who gave very fine par- 
ties. Salm, however, was much dissatirfied, for he had nothing 
particular to do, and wanted employmcnc. He called every 
day on Father Fischer, who was now in the confidence ot the 
Emperor ; the priest was very liberal with promises, but would 
or could not keep them, or wanted only to gain time until the 
French should have left Mexico. 

This happy day at last came ; it was the 5th of February. 
All Mexico was in a fever of excitement — a kind of sullen, in- 
ward excitement ; for there were no cries of farewell or other- 
wise to be heard, except by some French people who waved 
their handkerchiefs, whilst the French soldiers cried, ' A Ber- 
lin, a Berlin ! ' Salm and I witnessed this departure from a 
balcony of the Hotel Iturbide. 

When the hated and despised allies had left the city, it was 
as if a nightmare were taken from the breast of everyone ; and 
if the people did not rejoice too lojidly, it was because they 
could not realise yet their happiness, and still feared Bazaine 
and his insolent soldiers mi2;ht return. 



h n 


I'en Years of my L'ife. 

Madame Bazaine, who was in a far-advanced interesting 
state, made the journey in a splendid palancjuin, built for the 
purpose, which was carried by Indians and under a strong 
escort to Vera Cruz. 

We heard for some days absoUitely nothing pos'iive about 
the plans of the Emperor, until on the 12th of February the 
report ran through Mexico that he would place himself at the 
head of the army and join Miramon in Queretaro, in order to 
hinder the enemy from concentrating his troops and marching 
against Mexico. This report was true, and the Emperor was 
to march next morning, leaving all German troops and oflicers 
behind, as Marquez and the other Mexicans Had persuaded 
Maximilian to rely entirely and solely on his new subjects. 

Salm was beside himself when he heard that he should be 
left behind. It was an idea he could not realise, that there 
should at last be serious fighting and he idling away his time 
in Mexico. He ran at once tt Baron Magnus, and prevailed 
upon him to take some steps with the Emperor in order to pro- 
cure for my husband permission to accompany the army. 
Magnus's endeavours were, however, in vain, but he found 
some other means to satisfy the pugnacious longings of my 
impetuous Felix. It was arranged with General Don Santiago 
Vidaurri, a highly respectable and most influential man, that he 
should enter his staff, the Secretary ^'^. War permitting. This 
permission was granted, and Salm jumped nearly out of his 
skin for pleasure. The General, who had to take with him 
money, was to join the Emperor at Quincliclan, and left with 
Salm on the 13th of February in the afternoon. 

I of course expected to go with Salm as usual, but for once 
he refused in a most determined manner and remained deaf to all 
my entreaties. Now it was my turn to become mad. I cried 
and screamed so as to be heard two blocks off; and Jimmy, 
who felt foe his mistress, howled and barked ; but Salm stole 
away and took a street where he could not hear me and I not 
see him. I believe I hated him at that moment, and felt very 
unhappy, for I knew he would come to grief, having never any 
luck without me. 

All my anger and grief, however, availed nothing. I had to 
become reconciled to my situation. After all I think he was 
right, and, moreover, he hAd taken care that I shoul-' be left 
well protecied and in an agreeable position. 

The I lube Family. 


Wc had become rather intimate with Hiibe's, and Sahii had 
nrranged that 1 sliould stay with them in Tacubaya during his 

Mr. Fred Hube had been formerly Mexican ConsubCicncral 
of Hamburg, and was engaged in some manufacturing business, 
and a rich man. .He was a very kind and respectable old gen- 
tleman, and Mrs. Hube was the dearest, sweetest, and kindest 
old lady in the world. I cannot find words strong enough to 
express my feelings of gratitude towards her, for she did not 
receive me in her house as a stranger, but could not have 
treated me more carefully and lovingly had 1 been her 
daughter. % 

She had, however, besides a grown-up and very agreeable son, 
a daughter of my age, with whom 1 made friends very soon, and 
as we lived in the same room we became very intimate. He- 
lena Hube was a dear good girl, and her only f^iult, for which 
she was, however, not responsible, was that there was too much 
of her, for she stood above six feet in her stockings. She was 
not taller than usual before she fell ill with a fever ; but after 
having recovered from that she shot up like asparagus, and be- 
came quite a f^iantess. When she was sitting on a chair we 
were of the same height. 

As I am writing my own memoirs and not those of my hus- 
band, nor history either, 1 shall not say much about the siege 
of Queretaro, and the less as my husband has done so him- 

For many weeks we heard nothing from Queretaro but vague 
reports, and of a very contradictory unreliable kind. At last, 
in March, we received news that Genera^ Marquez had arrived 
from Queretaro with three thousand men, and all Mexico was 
in a flutter of excitement. As I was extremely anxious to hear 
news of my husband, I requested Mr. Hube to accompany i)ie 
to the General, to which he readily consented. 

General Don Leonardo Marquez received us very graciously. 
He was a little lively man, with black hair and black keen eyes. 
He was now a great personage, and liked to show his impor- 
tance. The Emperor had made him Luogoteniente of the 
Empire, but he behaved and spoke as though the Emperor 



I ' My Diary in Mexico,' &c., by P'elix Salm-Salm, General, &c., 2 vols. 
London : Richard Beiilly, l8bS. 


2'cn Years of my Life, 

i :g 

were only his pupil, and lie himself the principal personage in 
all Mexico. 'I'o me, however, he was very condescending, and 
his sinister swarthy face was all friendly wrinkles. He had cut 
off his beard, which generally concealed the scar from a shot in 
his face, and he did not look the better for it. 

He spoke however, of the Prince in the highest terms, said 
that he was one of the bravest officers in Queretaro, and that 
he had very recently distinguished himself by taking six guns 
from the Liberals at the head of a handful of men. For his 
l)rave behaviour on this occasion /le had decorated him, and /u 
had appointed him General, the very day before he left. 

We went also to visit General Vidaurri, wIm) came with 
Marquez. He confirmed what Marquez had tola us about the 
state of affairs in the besieged city, that all was going on ex- 
tremely well there, and that my husband had greatly distin- 
guished himself. The worthy old General spoke of him with 
great warmth, and said that he loved him like his own son. 

The good news which Marquez brought to Mexico about the 
state of affairs in Queretaro gladdened all our hearts, and festi- 
vals, balls, fire-works, &c., followed each other in rapid succes- 
sion in Mexico during the next two days ; whilst at the same 
time preparations were being made to march against Porfiric 
Diaz, who was advancing on Peubla. To attack him, and 
annihilate his army, were, said Marquez, the instiuctionsof the 

Everything was at last ready, and Marquez marched from 
Mexico with all the foreign troops, leaving only a very small 
garrison of Mexicans in that city, which were not even suffi- 
cient to prevent the Liberal guerillas from coming within the 
garitas (gates), and fighting was going on all the time around , 

After Marquez and the army had left us three days, reports 
of a great victory reached Mexico. Porfirio Diaz was beaten, 
and his whole army dispersed. That report, however, did not 
last long. On the fourth day after his absence, Marquez, 
accompanied only by twelve horsemen, returned a fugitive, 
twelve hours in advance of his whole army, which had been 
totally defeated at San Lorenzo on the 8th of April, and lost all 
its guns. 

Had Porfirio Di.iz been able to follow up his victory fast 
enough to reach Mexico within two dav^ after the return of our 

Hidc-aiul'Scek War fa re. 


utterly demoralized army, he might have ocru[)ied that city 
without any diTticuity. He, liowever, only readied the neigh- 
bourhood of the capital on the third day, when the Impori il 
troops had recovered a little from their defeat. Manjuez luul 
long before lost all courage and hope, and as his fate could not 
be doubtful if he fell into the hands of the Liberals, he had 
prepared everything to go to Vera Cruz, and to leave Mexico 
and the German troops to do what they could for themselves. 
I suppose he was prevented from carrying out this |)lan by the 
fear of falling from the frying-pan into the fire if he left Mexico, 
for the road to Vera Cruz was barred by Porfino Diaz's army. 

The advanced guard of the Liberal army passed our house 
in Tacubaya, and I admired their fine horses and uniforms, the 
greater part of which they had taken from the Imperii' -.ts. 

Before their arrival, fighting between the Imperialists and 
Liberal guerillas was going on in the very streets of Tacubaya, 
and frequently right before our house. Though we had closed 
the blind my curiosity prevailed, and I and Helena Hube 
peeped out to see what was going on, to the dismay of old Mr. 
Hube, who was afraid a bullet might kill or wound us. The 
spectacle, was, however, too attractive, and we could not stay 
away. It was curious and almost ridiculous to see how the 
skirmishers of both parties played hide-and-seek, running now 
around corners, and popping suddenly out to fire a few shots, 
by which, however no real harm was do^ie. It looked more 
like play than war. 

Tacubaya was occupied, and also Chapultepec, without any 
resistance from tlie Imperialists, and the siege of Mexic 

17 fc 



Fe;iiful dreams — My escape from Tacuhaya — Goinj^ t(i Mexico— Colonel 
J.eon — My jiropositions to the German Colonels — Negotiations — 
Madame l?az — A sad mistake rewarded by a bullet — At the head- 
quarters of rorfirio Diaz — Mr. Ilube my interpreter — Return to 
Mexico — Two volleys fired at me — No harm done — A thunderstorm 
as a peace-maker — Baron Magnus retains me in Mexico — What re- 
sulted from it — Confusion in Taculjaya — A kind invitation to go to 
Jericho, or elsewhere beyond the sea — Will not go — Female general- 
ship against Mexican strategy — General Baz — Permission to go to 
Escobedo- -Thirty-seven letters of recommendation — My journey to 
Querelaro — M xican justice. 

During the following night I dreamt that I saw my husband 
dying. The Emperor leant over him, held his hand, and said 
with deep emotion, ' Oh, my dear friend, you must not leave 
me alone now ! ' My husband called out my name. Fighting 
was going on all around, and everywhere I saw blood and all 
the horrors of battle. 

The same dream was repeated during the next night. 
Again I saw my husband dying-, and heard him loudly call my 
name. Battle was raging again, all was dark, and from the 
'sombre clouds lightning was flashing every instant. The 
third night I had again the same dream, my husband calling 
out for me louder than ever. 

It was natural that such a dream, three times repeated, 
should make me extremely uneasy, and the more so as I am 
a believer in dreams. I made up my mind therefore to go to 
Mexico, and to have an interview with Baron Magnus and the 
commanders of the foreign troops, and try what I could do to 
save the Emperor and my husband, who, it seemed to me, 
were in tlie greatest danger. 

Golmj to Mexico. 



iations — 
be head- 
stuni to 
What re- 
to go to 
gen era 1- 
to go to 
urney to 

id said 
t leave 
and all 

:all my 
)m the 

I am 
go to 

nd the 
do to 

o me, 


When I told old Mr. Hube that I intended to go to Mexico, 
he opposed my purpose very much, and became (luile excited 
about it. He said he would do all in his power to prevent 
me from doing such a rash thing. He was responsible for me, 
he said ; I had been placed in his house by my husband, and 
he would not suffer me to commit any such absurdity. 

Now I had been received into his family with the utmost 
kindness, both Mr. Hube and his wife had treated me as their 
child, and I therefore felt grieved to be obliged to do anything 
which displeased them so much. However, there are certain 
impulses which it is impossible to resist, and against which all 
reasons are powerless. On this occasion I felt as if urged on 
by invisible hands to follow the voice of my heart. Although 
I feigned to be convinced by Mr. Hube, yet I was decided to 
go under any circumstances. 

Mr. Hube and his wife did not, however, trust me, and as 
he was afraid I might abscond during the night, lie not only' 
locked the gate, but took the key with him into his room. It 
was necessary therefore to wait until the morning, when the 
stable servants came at six o'clock, and the house was open. 
I then stole from my room accompanied by my chamber-maid, 
Margarita, and my faithful four-legged companion, Jnnmy. 
However, Mr. Hube was on the look-out, and when I was just 
leaving the house he came from behind a corner, stood before 
me with a very dark long foce, and said, ' Well, Princess ! ' 
I only answered, ' Good-morning, Mr. Hube,' and passed on 
towards Mexico. He took, however, another road, and when 
I came to the main road I found him there waiting for me. 

* Where are you going?' he asked. I told him that I was 
going to Mexico, but without mentioning anything about my 
dreams (at which he would only have laughed), or of my in- 
tention. He now commenced again a new assault. He said 
that I might be killed, or run other risks amongst the soldiers ; 
and for two mortal hours he exhausted his whole arsenal of 
common-sense arguments, which of course had not the slightest 
effect upon me, as [ had made up my mind, and was firmly re- 
solved to have my own way. I thanked him for all his kind- 
ness, and all the trouble he took about me, but declared thnt 
I must and would go. The dear old gentleman turned quite 
pale and did not say a word more to detain me. 1 had to 
v/alk with my maid and Jimmy a league and a half to Chapul- 

1 ' 




Ten Years of ray Life. 

" II 

1 ¥ 

tepee. The whole road was filled with Liberal officers nnd 
soldiers, who knew me, however, as they had seen me at Mr. 
Hube's, who belonged to the Liberal party. They therefore 
greeted me, and let me pass unmolested. 

When I arrived at Chapultepec, I asked for the command- 
ing officer, a Colonel Leon, who had been twoyearsin the United 
States service, and spoke English tolerably well. When he was 
brought from a restaurant, where he took his breakfast, he re- 
ceived me with extreme politeness. I told him that I was in 
great anxiety about my husband and the Emperor, and that I 
longed very much to do something to save them. For this 
purpose I wanted to go to Mexico, to speak to the com- 
manders of the foreign troops, to ascertain whether they would 
surrender if General Porfirio Diaz would engage himself to 
secure life and liberty to the Emperor and his officers if they 
should fall into the hands of the Liberals. 

The Colonel told me that Queretaro could not hold out 
much longer. The city was very closely besieged, and the 
garrison already starving. 

He would permit me to pass through his outposts, and I 
promised to return as soon as I had the opinion of the foreign 
colonels. He gave me his arm, and went with me about 
three-quarters of a league to the outposts, Margarita and 
Jimmy following. In order that our men might not think that 
I was stealing into the city, I went right across the open fields to- 
wards the garita which was defended by a battery. The offi- 
cers commanding these recognized me, and I had no difficul- 
ties. The soldiers very politely laid boards across the ditch, 
and helped me over the rampart of the battery. 

I went directly to the house of the Prussian minister, Baron 
von Magnus, whom J found at home. He received me with a 
little formality and coldness, for he had. I do not know for 
what reasons, a prejudice against Hube, and was not at all 
pleased that I had taken up my residence with that family. 
Taking, however, not much notice of his diplomatic stiffness, I 
told him why I had come to Mexico, and that I wanted to see 
Colonel Kodolitsch and Count Khevenhiiller, of whom Colonel 
Leon had spoken in the highest terms, because they fought so 
bravely at San Lorenzo, and promised, on his word of honour, 
that if they would come out for a conversation, he would let 
them return to the city, whatever might be the result. 

;ers and 
2 at Mr. 

he was 
, he re- 
' was in 
1 that I 
^or this 
e com- 
^ would 
iself to 
if they 

)ld out 
nd the 

, and I 


k that 

ds to- 
le offi- 


aron . 
vith a 
w for 
at all 
ess, I 
o see 
ht so 


The German Colonels. 


Baron Magnus changed his manner at once when he heard 
my plan, and how I was proceeding to carry it out. He liked 
my idea very much, but of course wanted to direct my move- 
ments, and was very sanguine of a satisfactory result if I would 
be guided by him. He ordered his carriage, and I drove to the 
quarters of Colonel Kodolitsch, who was not at home, but whom 
I found with Count Khevenhiiller. 

Colonel Kodolitsch was willing to go out and talk with 
Colonel Leon, but only under the condition that Baron Magnus 
had nothing to do with the whole affair, ' as the Baron was 
rather inclined to act as he pleased, and to appropriate the 
merit to himself which was due to others.' I told him that I 
had already made an engagement with the minister, and I 
could not drop him now. The colonels then promised to speak 
as soon as possible to their officers and men, and let me know 
the result. Baron Magnus then went with me to Madame 
Macholowitsch, the Mexican wife of an Austrian officer, where 
1 stayed that night. 

Next morning I saw the two colonels. Count Khevenhiiller 
was for surrender. It was clear, he said, that General Mar- 
quez had acted treacherously with regard to the P^mperor, and 
though he was ready to give a hundred lives for his sovereign, 
he did not want to sacrifice himself or his men for Marquez. 

Kodolitsch, however, was of the opinion that it was not 
desirable to treat about surrender, without having first heard 
reliable news from Queretaro, and ascertained the will of the 
Emperor. Though he was willing to hear what conditions the 
enemy might be ready to grant, he could not meet Colonel 
Leon, as Marquez, who must have some suspicion, had issued 
an order that morning threatening to shoot any officer or soldier 
who should communicate with the enemy in any manner. 

I then requests ^ them to give me a written authorisation to 
treat in the nPiiie of the foreign officers and soldiers ; but they 
thought th's also too dangerous, and wanted me to go on my own 
account and to make two propositions to Porfirio Diaz. The 
first was that he should permit me, or another person, to travel 
to Queretaro to inform the Emperor of the true state of affairs 
in Mexico, and to know his will, for which purpose an armis- 
tice should be made for seven days. If the Liberal General 
would not consent to this, 1 should, under the circumstances, 
offer him the surrender of all foreign troops, under the condi- 


i i 



If, i 





2^671 Frars o/ i/iy Zi/e. 

tion that Porfirio Diaz would give in vvrti ^jn; his v ord of honour 
ihdt he would guarantee the life of the E npeior and the for- 
eign troops, if they should become prisoners. 

It seemed to me absurd to go to Porfirio Diaz without any- 
proof that I was really deputed by the foreign troops. I there- 
fore requested Baron Magnus to give me at least a few lines. 
This he declined also to do, but told me that he knew another 
v/ay which would answer the purpose just as well. 

There lived, he said, in Mexico, a Madame Laz, whose hus- 
band was a Liberal General on the staff of Porfirio Diaz, and 
who, if the city should be taken, would become its governor. 
This lady was always in communication with the enemy, and 
acted in fact as their spy. She might be used in this afiair 
and inform her husband that I should come as the deputy of 
the minister and the colonels. 

Baron Magnus and I drove to Madame Baz, and took with 
us Mr. Schoiler, the chancellor of the minister, who spoke 
Spanish perfectly well, and could explain everything to that 
lady without creating mistakes and misunderstandings. 

Madame Baz was a very clever woman, and irequently used 
to carry on difficult negotiations. At the time when the French 
were still in Mexico, she was frequently in the camp of the 
enemy in all kinds of disguises. Her iTiionmatlon was always 
so correct and so well-timed, that the Liberals gave her the 
name of their 'Guardian Angel.' She was about thirty years 
of age, medium height nnd slender build ; her face was thin, 
her forehead broad, .; ^ yes dark, and her whole countenance 
beaming with intelligence and energy. 

When the above mentioned propositions were stated to her 
Baron Magnus declared that he would defray any expenses for 
travelling, or escort, or other purposes, to any amount. 

Madame Baz told me that she would accompany me herself 
to Porfirio Diaz, and endeavour to persuade him to accept the 
stated propositions, but she could not go until next day, as 
she had to wait for news from her husband. 

I had promised to Colonel Leon to return and let him know 
the opinion of the foreign officers, and was afraid if I stayed 
too long in the city he might become suspicious about me. I 
therefore ar, ain left Mexico, and went to Caza San Jago Col- 
o:ado, where I met Colonel Leon. He told me that he had 
seen Poilirio LMaz, and informed him of my plans. The Gen- 




. :); 

A Sad Mistake. 


f honour 
the for- 

loiit any 
I there- 

Jw lines, 

3se hus- 
iaz, and 
ny, and 
lis afikir 
puty of 

ok with 

> spoke 

to that 

ly used 
• of the 
er the 
y years 
s thin, 

to her 
s^sfor ■ 

pt the 

ay, as 





i had 




eral had given, it appeared; tbi affairs mo th'* li.'nds of Col- 
onel , to v'hom I should have to state th<^ c-nditions of 

the officers. I trld Colonel Leon that MadiM R'/ would go 
with me to Porfirio Diaz next day herself, T'.'- inbisted, how- 
ever, on my seeing the Colonel, and we di . s try his head- 
qnnrters in Tacubaya. 

The Colonel expected me ; but when I told him that I 
would come next day with Madame Baz, he permitted me to 
return to Mexico, where I had promised to be before evening. 

Meanwhile it had become dark, and when I, with my maid 
and Timmy, approached the garita, the sentinel called out, 
' Who goes there ?' In my surprise I made a very sad mistake, 
for instead of answering ' Amigo ' I very resolutely called out 
* Enemigo !' The sentinel answered at once by a shot, but the 
bullet whizzed harmlessly past us. As I was, however, afraid 
of a more effective n-^petition of the dose, I sought shelter be- 
hind the arches of the aqueduct which runs there, and Mar- 
garita, frightened out of her wits, knelt down and prayed to all 
the saints of the almanac. 

To make them understand at the garita that I was by no 
means an ' enemigo,' I called to the soldier's, and cried out, 
' Viva Maximiliano !' This time old Colonel Campos heard 
me, and came out to fetch us. He was an old acquairitcmce 
of mine, and he had promised to wait ior me.u the garita, but 
expected me sooner. He was quite di^ uesped that on«^ of his 
soldiers should have fired on me. 

When I went next morning to Maurmc Baz, she said that 
she must wait until two o'clock p.M', when she should hear 
from her husband. Reurning at that hour to her house, she- 
told me that her husband had been ordered that night to go to 
Escobedo, and that she therefore could not accompany me ; 
she would, however, send a messenger to Porfirio Diaz, with a 
note stating that I was really deputed by the Prussian minister 
and foreign officers. I tried hard to induce her to go with me, but 
she would not. I therefore had to go alone. Colonel Leon 
and the others waited for me with an escort, to bring me and 
Madame Baz to Porfirio Diaz. 

As I had not changed my dress for three days, and v/as to 
go on horseback to Ih ad-quarters, which were several k;agues 
from Tacubaya, I went to the house of Madame Hnbe. As I 
(lid not tell her what I was about, she was very angry with me. 

" I 

I '^3 



Ten Years of my Life, 

for the trosl absurd reports about my queer doings had reached 
her ear. Much as 1 regretted the displeasure of that dear, 
kind soul, I thought it better to let her think for awhile what 
fclie pleased, and told her only that I was going to head-quarters, 
on which she informed me that I should find Mr. Hube there. 
Colonel Leon kindly lent me his handsome black Mexican 
horse, and I soon arrived at the village of San Guadalup. 
There, at the head-quarters of the Liberal general, fifty persons 
at least waited to see him ; amongst them I saw Mr. Hube 
who looked on me with a very serious face. When, however, 
I told him that I came as deputed by the foreign officers to 
treat about the surrender under certain conditions, and re- 
(juested him to be my interpreter with Porfirio Diaz, his man- 
ner suddenly changed, and he i)raised me beyond my merit. 
1 sent in my card, and was immediately admitted. 

The (>eneral is a man of medium height, with a rather hand- 
some face, and brilliant, dark, and very intelligent eyes. Ke 
wore a blue cut-away coat with brass buttons, dark blue 
trousers, and high boots. He received me very politely, and 
shook hands with me. He said that he had been informed by 
his officers that I had to ofier some condition from the foreign 
troops in Mexico for s' 'render, ar.d that he would hear what 
they had to say. I asked whether he had received a letter 
from Madame Baz, and he said he had, but of course wanted 
more detailed propositions. 

Mr. Hube then spoke to him, and did it with much feeling 
and in a most creditable manner. He implored the general to 
agree lo' the conditions, which would end at once all bloodshed ; 
be pointed out to him all the consec[uences and advantages of 
such a course, and the old gentleman felt so much all that he 
said that he had tears in his eyes. 

The General did not like the proposed armistice for seven 
days, and, as I ascertained at a later period, did not believe 
me. He was convinced that I only wanted to go to Queretaro 
to ca-xy ;.(iessages from the garrison of Mexico, which might 
end with 'i plan to attack the Liberals. I cannot wonder that 
the General thought so, for he knew what Madame Baz was in 
the h xbit of doing, and believed that i v/as engaged in the same 
manner m the cause of the Emperor. As to Marquez, he was 
perfectly certain that he would employ the armisK"'"'" in fortify- 

ing me 


Return to Mexico. 


The General therefore answered tlivit it was beyond his 
power to make any promises in reference to the Emi)eror or 
the troops in Queretaro. He commanfled only one half of the 
army, and could only treat about Mexico. " He would not ac- 
cei)t the surrender of that city under any conditions ; he was 
sure to take it, and would not suffer Marquez and others to 
escape who ought to be hung. If, however, the foreign troops 
would come oiU and surrender, he would grant them life and 
liberty, and everything they could carry with them except arms. 
He would take chem at the expens^ of the Government to any 
port they desired, in order to return to Europe. If, however, 
1 was determined to go to Queretaro, he would give me a pass 
and a letter to Escobedo, to whom he must leave it whether 
he would permit me to enter that city or not. 

It was about four o'clock p.m., and after having taken a cup 
of coffee with the General, I mounted my horse to return to 
Mexico, in order to hear what the foreign otilicers had to answer 
to the propositions of Diaz. As it was broad daylight, and the 
garita 1 came from was about four miles from Guadalupe, I 
resolved to enter Mexico by the Garita de Guadalupe. An 
escort, led by an officer, accompanied me as far as they could 
venture, and fixing my white handkerchief to my riding-whip 1 
rode at a gallop towards the garita. 

When I passed a little bridge in front of the fortification, so 
close to it that I could disUnguish the faces of the soldiers, 
the sentinel fired a shot at me, which 1 took as a hint to stop. 
I therefore stopped, expecting that the officer would send out 
some men to examine me. I saw them line the breastwork, 
but had no idea what they were about, when suddenly they 
fired a volley at me. The bullets whizzed round my head, one 
even grazing my hair, others striking the ground around my 
horse. At this I was ir re angry than frightened, for it was so 
stupid to fire at a single woman — as if I could have stormed 
their battery ! My first impulse was to rush upon the cow- 
ards, and send my whip round their long ears ; but when I 
heard behind me the clatter of the hoofs of my escort, who 
advanced to my assistance, and saw the soldiers in the battery 
reload their guns in great hurry, I would not endanger others, 
and turned round. 

My little black Mexican horse darted off like an arrow, and 
I bent my head down to his neck. The wretches sent another 


"1 . i 



Ten Years of my Life. 



volley after me, but fortunately they did not wound either me 
or my horse. 

As I heard afterwards the battery was manned with raw re- 
cruits — Indians — who did not know anything about the mean- 
ing of the white handkerchief attached to my riding-whip, and 
when 1 came on the officer commanding was just taking a 
drink. Marquez heard that they had fired on a flag of truce, 
without knowing, however, that it was I, and the officer was 

Twenty-five men and five or six Liberal officers came to 
meet me ; all were very much concerned, and would scarcely be- 
lieve that I had not been wounded. As I would not again riska 
volley, I resolved to enter the garita where Colonel Campos 
commanded, and General Porfirio Diaz was kind enough to 
give me an escort of ten men. 

Before, however, we reached the garita I was overtaken by 
a tremendous thunderstorm and rain, which thoroughly 
drenched me, and, instead of going to Mexico, I went to Tac- 
ubaya, where I was received by Madame Hube with open 
arms, for her husband had told her on what kind of adventures 
I had been out. 

Next day (April 19) was Good Friday, when no horse, mule, 
or carriage is permitted to show itself in the city of Mexico. 
It was necessary to hear the opinion of Baron Magnus and the 
colonels, and I was therefore obliged to walk many miles in 
the heat of the sun. 

1 saw first Baron Magnus and afterwp*-ds the colonels, and 
told them the offer of Porfirio Diaz, but they said they could 
not accept it without first knowing the will of the Emperor. I 
proposed then to go on my own responsibility to Queretaro, 
but Baron Magnus opposed this, and would not even consent 
to my leaving Mexico again. He wished that I would at least 
remain a few days, hoping that we mjght hear in the mean- 
while something positive from Queretaro. As I had promised 
Porfirio Diaz to return, I did not like to stay so long in Mexico, 
but at last I yielded to the urgency of the Baron. The latter 
seemed to be afraid that Marquez had received some intelli- 
gence of what was going on, and that I might be arrested on 
my way. 

When I was in the camp of the Liberals, Colonel Leon told 
me that he had under his charge a number of Imperialists, 


Confusion in Tacuhaya. 


captured at San Lorenzo, who were destitute even of food and 
clothes, and were in a most miserable condition. If I could 
do something for them in Mexico, and bring them some clothes 
and money, he most readily would permit me to deliver both 
to them myself. Accordingly, I spoke about it to Baron Mag- 
nus and the Austrian officers, and we collected for this purpose 
one hundred dollars, which were placed in my hands. 

On April 24, in the morning, the minister sent his carriage 
for me, and I drove to the garita. From thence I went to the 
Casa Colorada, where I saw Colonel Leon, and informed him 
that 1 had some money for the foreign prisoners. He led me 
himself into the castle of Chapultepec, and called the prison- 
ers in. They were a Captain Rudolph Sporrberger, with seve- 
ral sergeants — altogether fifteen persons. They had scarcely 
any clothes, and were indeed in a very miserable condition. I 
gave the captain twenty-five dollars, and each of the others 
five dollars, for which they gave me a receipt. This receipt is 
still in my possession, to prove that I did not forget my com- 

From thence I went to Tacubaya. By the manner of the Libe- 
ral ofiicers and soldiers I saw that there was something wrong, 
and when I came to the house of Madame Hube, I found 
them all in tears and in great anxiety. I do not know what 
had happened during my absence, but on April 24 Porfirio 
Diaz issued an order that all persons who proposed to leave 
Mexico under the pretext of negotiating should be shot ; and 
as I was in that position, they saw me already in my cofiin. 

I wanted to go immediately to the General, in order to ex- 
cuse myself for my long absence ; but Madame Hube would 
not let me go, and detained me for several hours. Whilst I 
was thus detained, a carriage-and-four drove up before the door, 
and an officer informed me that he had orders to take me 
directly to the head-quarters of the General. Of course there 
was great lamentation at Madame Hube's, but I was obliged 
to obey ; and after having packed up a few clothes I entered 
the carriage, together with Margarita and Jimmy. 

When we arrived at head-quarters, an adjutant of 
Porfirio Diaz informed me that I was to leave the republic of 
Mexico immediately, and handed me a passport, requesting 
me to name any j.)ort from which I would wish to sail, to 
which I should be brought by an escort. 




I I 

• f! 


Ten Years of my Life. 

The whole arrangement did not at all suit mc, and I made 
up my mind to mar it. 1 therefore desired to see (General 
Porfirio Diaz, as there must be a mistake somewhere, which 1 
wanted to explain. The General, however, would not see me, 
and the adjutant insisted on my setting otf. I declared, then, 
that I would not go by my own will. They might shoot me, 
or put me in irons, but they should not compel me to leave 
the country. 

My resolution embarassed them very much, and they were 
at a loss what to do; but I stayed from six o'clock p.m to 
twelve o'clock at head-quarters, waiting to see the General. 
At last I was lodged in a private house with a Mexican family, 
who were very kind, but a s' ntmel was placed before my door. 

On April 26, in the morning, my carriage came again, and 
the oflicer who was to escort me insisted on my leavini^. I 
did not, hovvever, stir, but sent my compliments to General 
Porfirio Diaz, requesting him to suffer me to go to Queretaro. 
To this, however, he sent me a refusal, and 1 remained reso- 
lutely where I was. 

In the afternoon came Madame Plube with some more 
clothes for me, and also General Baz, who had returned from 
Queretaro, and who was a great friend of the Hubes. He 
was kind enough to go to the Commander General, to inquire 
what made him so severe against me. 

Now we heard the reason of all this harsh proceeding 
against me. Profirio said tnai- I had broken my word ; that I 
had tried to bribe his officers with money and fair words, 
which was a great crime; and that I was too dangerous a 
person to be permitted to remain in Mexico. 

General Baz arranged affairs, however, and wrung from 
Porfirio Diaz permission for me to go to Queretaro to Esco- 
bedo, but he would not give me an escort. Escobedo might 
do with me as he liked, either permit me to enter Queretaro 
or send me farther on. 

General Baz was a very agreeable man, who looked and 
behaved more like a Frenchman than a Mexican. Though 
very friendly, his manner was dignified; and he was equally 
liked by both parties. He was extremely kind to me, and 
prepared everything to facilitate my journey to Queretaro. 
He gave me thirty-se/en letters of recommendation to 
owners of haciendas, post-masters, hotel-keepers, and officers. 

Take leuve of Madmuc Iliihe. 


Mr. Smith, a mcrrhant, and tlircr.tor or superintendent of the 
railroad, gave me four very good mules and his coachman, 
and I got also a very brii^ht yellow su[)erannuated Jiacrc from 

The road between Mexico and Queretaro was much in- 
fested by robbers, and the journey, which rec^uired about four 
days, was rather hazardous. However, my good fortime 
assisted me. A gentleman belonging to the Liberal parly, 
Mr. Para, who had travelled three days in order to speak witli 
Porfirio Diaz without success, and who was travelling home, 
volunteered to escort me, and I accepted this offer with the 
more pleasure as he had with him a mounted armed servant 
and a coachman. Porfirio Diaz had nothing to say against 
his going with me. 

With many tears I took leave of Madame Hube, and com- 
menced my journey on April 27. The whole party consisted 
of my escort, his armed servant, two unarmed coachmen, my 
maid, and Jimmy. I had my little seven-shooter rc/olver and 
only three ' ounces ' in my pocket. 

The letters which General Baz had given me proved to be 
of great value. I was received everywhere with the utmost 
kindness and liospitality, and could not have been treated 
better had I been a queen. 

In the morning before sunrise I left San Francisco, and 
when I had gone a little way, and the sun was just rising, 1 
saw some dark form hanging on a tree. On looking out of the 
carriage I discovered to my horror that it was a Liberal officer, 
his head and face covered by a black cap, and blood trickling 
down his body. With disgust I turned my head away to the 
other side. There I saw bangirig on another tree another offi- 
cer, presenting a still more ghastly spectacle. These two men 
were a Liberal Keutenant-colonel and a major, who had com- 
mitted a crime against a young girl, and when her exasperated 
father tried to revenge his child, they killed him and cut out 
his tongue. According to the Mexican custom, they were 
shot on the spot where they had committed the crime, and 
hung to a tree for a time as a warning example. For a long 
time I could not get rid of the horrible impression which this 
sight made on me. 

I \y 





t; 1 1 

f , 











e ^Ai 



■^ 1^ 122.2 

15? itt "^ 

I 1^ |2.0 


— 6" 




(71«) t72-4S03 



Arrival before Queretaro — Visit to Escobedo's head-qnai-fers — One who 
iiad 'known me intimately' — ^Journey to San Luis Potosi — Lieut.- 
Colonel Aspirez — An audience with President Juarez — M. Iglesia — 
The fall of Queretaro — The Emperor and my husband prisoners — 
Journey to Queretaro — San Teresita — My first interview with the 
Emperor — His prison — I arrange a meeting between the Emperor and 
(lenera) Escobedo — What happened in the Hacienda de Hercules — 
General Refugio Gonzales a Marplot — The convent of the Capuchins — 
The Emperof- forced to remain in a grave vault — Colonel Villanueva. 

When I arrived on the height of the Cuesta China I could 
overlook the whole of Queretaro ; and from that city they had 
also noticed my bright yellow carriage-and-four and escort, and 
took me for Juarez, as I was afterwards told- 

Little as I understand about military art, it seemed to me 
most injudicious to make a place like Queretaro as it were the 
keystone of the whole war. The town is surrounded by nills, 
which are most favourable to the establishment of batteries, and 
whence every street and every house can be seen. It is a 
regular mousetrap. 

As I drove down the hill to the Hacienda de Herecuies, 
which belonged to M. Rubio, to whom one of Generaal Baz's 
letters was addressed, I every moment expected that I should 
be fired at by the guns from the city, for I was everywhere 
within range. 

The head-quarters of General Escobedo were on the other 
side of the Rio Blanca, on the slope of a hill calk d La Cantera. 
As I had a letter for him, and wasanxif us to see him, I dressed 
at once to go there on horseback. I procured a horse, but as 
there was no lady's saddle to be lad, I had to roe on a com- 
mon wooden Mexican saddle, though lady fashion, which was 

General Escobedo. 


One who 
— Lieut. - 
Iglesia — 
isoners — 
with the 
)eror and 
ercules — 
)uchins — 

I could 
ley had 
3rt, and 

3 to me 
^ere the 
)y nills, 
es, and 
It is a 

1 Baz's 

J other 
but as 
a com- 
ch was 

by no means agreeable. The gentleman who had accompanied 
me from Mexico had gone before me to head-quarters, and 
announced my arrival. He had been made as it were respon- 
sible for me, for I was a kind of prisoner. 

When I stopped and sent in my name to the General, a 
young fair-haired captain came from among a group of officers 
standing about, and addressed me as an old acquaintance from 
the United States, though I did not remember his face. This 
was a Captain Enkilig, who had served in the German division 
in the United States army, and who had once escorted me 
when I visited General Blenker's camp. This person had, as 
I was informed afterwards, boasted that * he knew mc inti- 
mately,' though, as I said before, I did not even remember his 
face. He behaved on a later occasion in the most contemptible 
manner, and seemed to be held in very little esteem by his 
own comrades and by the General himself; for when he ofiered 
himself as an interpreter Escobedo declined his services, and 
sent for a Mexican ofi'cer, who spoke Knglish very well. This 
captain had been put under arrest by Escob^^do, as at the cap- 
ture of Queretaro he with his men plundered [.rivate houses, 
and appropriated private property to himself. 

When on one occasion I requested Escobedo to give me an 
officer to escort me to my house, he sent for this captain ; but 
I refused him with great indignation, and the captain retired in 
confusion. Escobedo had sent for this man on purpose to 
shame him. 

General Escobedo received me at once in a very small and 
most miserable tent, propped up with sticks, furnished merely 
with a table made of raw boards, and some wooden chests as a 
seat. The General wore a uniform similar to that of Porliiio 
Diaz, only with rather more lace and bras*^ buttons. He 
received me very kindly, and I told him I had heard that my 
husband was wounded, and requested his permission to go into 
the city. The General said he did not believe that my hus- 
band was wounded, and that he could not give me the required 
permission. All he could do was to give me a letter to Presi- 
dent Juarez in San Luis Petosi, who perhaps might grant me 
what I wished. He said he knew my husband very well, and 
complimented me very much about him, observing that he was 
an extremely brave officer, as he had experienced to his great 
damage. He promised to treat him kindly if he should ever 



Ten ^'eai's of lay UL. 


i I 

fall into his hands, and that if he were wounded I should be 
permitted to nurse him. 

'J'hc General left it to me whether I would remain at M. 
Rubio's until the next dili;-;ence, or whether I ^vould go with 
that which was to start next morning. Aiter reilccling that mv 
staying before Querataro was of no use, I desired to go next 
morning to San Luis Potosi. 

1 he diligeijce started some leagues from Queretaro. When 
I arrived at its place of starting, before, three o'clock in tlie 
morning, I met there Lieut-Colonel Asi)irez, who told me that 
he had been ordered by General Escobedo to escort me to 
San LiHS Potosi and to the President. He had already taken 
tickets for myself 'and maid, and we started about three o'cU^ck 


After a journey of three days we arrived in San Luis Potosi, 
and I delivered my letter from General Baz to the military 
governor of that place, by whom I was quartered in beautiful 
rooms in a house that belonged to one of the Imperialist party. 

With Lieut.-Colonel Aspirez I then went to see the Presi- 
dent. When I came to his palace I was received by one of 
his aide-de-camps, who led me by the hand, as if he was lead- 
ing me to a country-dance, to a large reception-room. There 
the aide-de-camp made a tremendous bow, and left me with 

After a little while President Juarez entered, accompanied by 
M. Iglesia, one of his ministers, whv> spoke English perfectly 

Juarez was a man a little under the middle size, with a very 
dark complexioned Indian face, which was not disfigured, but, 
on the contrary, made more nterestrng, by a very large scar 
across it. He had very black pi cing eyes, and gave one the 
impression of being a man who rviiect^^ much, and delibe^ ites 
long and carefully before acting. He wore bigh English 
collais and a black neck-tie, and was <iu ied in black broad- 

The President gave me his hand, led me to the sofa, on 
which Jimmv had n:-eady established himself, md s. -d he 
would listen to what i had to say. 

M. Iglesia, who acted as interpreter, looked more like a 
dark-haired German with spectacles than a Mexican. He was 
in appearance and manners a thorough gentleman, who allowed 
much sympathy in his benevolent face. 


Audience iv'ith President Juarez. 



I lold M. Juarrz all that had happened in Mexico, and what 
I intended to do in order to bring the horrible bloodshed to 
an end, and retpiested him to permit me to go to Qaeretaro. 

The President said tliat I'e had not received any details 
from General Porfirio Diaz, but he supposed that I niusi have 
done something very dangerous as 1 had been ordered so 
suddenly to leave the country. He could not give me an 
answer until he was better informed. If I would return with 
Lieut.-Colonel Aspirez to M. Rubio, and wait there for his 
answer, I was at liberty to do so, or to remain in San Luis. 

I told him that I would reflect on it, and give him an answer 
next morning. The President gave me his arm, and accom- 
jianied me through all tiie rooms to the head of the staircase, 
where he dismissed we with a low bow. 

As I could not get permission to enter Queretaro, I thought 
it better to remain near the President, where I should hear 
always the freshest news, and be on the spot to act accordingly. 
When, however, Lieut.-Colonel Aspirez had left, and the day 
approached when the diligence was to start again, I changed 
my mind, and resolved to return to M. Rubio. Accordingly, 
I went again to the President and told him so, but he desired 
me to remain at San Luis, as Queretaro must fall in a (c\v days. 
I remained here therefore as was required, but heard no news 
until the loth of May, when the ringing of all the bells and 
the firing of gurs announced some great event. 

The next morning a gentleman called upon me, wh ^ told 
me that Queretaro had been sold to the Liberals for three 
thousand ' ounces,' by a certain Colonel Lopez and a man 
from San Luis, Jablowski ; that the Emperor was a prisoner, 
and my husband wounded. Of course this news distressed me 
very much, and I immediately went to the President to obtain 
his permission to go to Qujretaro. He was, however, at a 
dinner-party, and I was not able to see him. Under these 
circumstances I thought it best to travel without his permis- 
sion. This I did, and I arrived without any accident at 
Queretaro on the 19th of May, four days after the fall of that 

I alighted at the Hotel de Diligencias, where my husband 
was well known. It was between six and seven o'clock in the 
evening, and too late to see General Escobedo, who had his 
quarters in the Hacienda de Hercules, which is some distance 
rom Queretaro. 



Ten Years of my Life, 



As I could not get a carriage next morning, I was obliged 
to go on horseback. A lady's saddle was not to be had, and 
as some colonel's horse was just saddled at the door and 
offered to me, I rode on it to the General's head-quarters, fol- 
lowed by an Indian servant. 

The General received me very kindly, shook hands with me, 
and said that he was glad to see me. I asked him to give me 
an order to see my husband and the Emperor. He .sent at 
once for Colonel Villanueva of his staff, and requested him to 
accompany me to the prison. 

Before going to the prison, I went to the hotel to change my 
riding-habit fc. another dress, and then went with the colonel 
to the Convent San Teresita. We reached the convent be- 
tween ten and eleven o'clock a.m., crossed a yard, and went up 
a very dirty and extremely bad-smelling staircase. This and 
the roise everywhere in the house made me quite dizzy. 

We now entered a small dirty room, where several officers 
were lying about on * cocos ' on the floor, all looking very neg- 
lected. On asking for my husband, a polite little gentleman, 
M. Blasio, informed me the Prince was with the Emperor, and 
would return directly. He had scarcely said so when my 
husband came. He was not shaved, wore a collar several days 
old, and looked altogether as if he had emerged from a dust- 
bin, though not worse than the rest of his comrades. To see 
him again under these circumstances affected me very much, 
and I wept and almost fainted ■'vhen he held me in his arms. 

My husband now left me to inform the Emperor of my arri- 
val, who told him that he should be pleased to see me. The 
Emperor had suffered beJbre the surrender very much from 
dysentery, and was sick in bed, but in such circumstances all 
the ceremonies which mak^ social life uncomfortable are at an 
end. Salm cautioned me not to speak of the death of Gene- 
ral Mendez, who had been shot a few hours ago. 

I shall never foigct this interview with the Emperor, with 
whom I had never yet spoken. The Empress had left Mexico 
several months before my arrival, and ladies were not received 
at Court. How our meeting at Chapultepec was prevented I 
have said before. 

I found him in a miserable bare room, in bed, looking very 
sick and pale. He received me with the utmost kindness, 
kissed my hand, and pressed it in his, and told me how glad 

Anxiety about the Emperor, 


he was that I had come. As he had not heard yet anytlilng 
reliable of Marquez and Mexico, he was highly interested with 
everything 1 told him, and very indignant at the behaviour of 
Marquez, who assumed rights and an air of command which 
could not be allowed to any subject. He distributed decora- 
tions and titles as if he had been the Em.peror himself. 

I mentioned my negotiations with Porfirio Diaz and the 
colonels in Mexico, and my visit in San Luis Potosi, as also 
my interview with Juarez, which all interested the Emperor 
very much. 

Looking around, and considering the bad state of health of 
the Emperor, I was very anxious that he should soon get out 
of that disagreeable position, and asked him whether he had 
yet done anything in this respect. Escobedo had paid him a 
visit, but nothing had been said about the intentions of the 
Liberals. I proposed to speak with Escobedo in the name of 
the Emperor, and to try whether I could not bring him to 
reasonable terms. I would induce him to come and see his 
Majesty, or, if the latter was well enougi: to go out, to receive 
him at some other place. The tirst thing, however, was to 
make the Emperor and my husband a little more comfortable, 
and especially to buy some fresh linen for them, which they 
greatly wanted and missed very much. 

On going at once to see Escobedo, I found him in a very 
good humour, as he expected the arrival of his sisters, whom 
he had not seen for several years. He said that he could not 
go out that day, but that the Emperor would be welcome if he 
would come to see him, accompanied by myself and my hus- 
band. Whilst Colonel Villanueva went to procure a carriage 
I went out to purchase some linen, and when that was done 
we returned to San Teresita. 

The Emperor having got out of bed, and giving me his arm, 
my husband also following with- Colonel Villanueva, we went 
down the staircase into the street, where we found the hand- 
some carriage of M. Rubio and an escort of four men. On our 
way down the prisoners had come out to see the Emperor, and 
all greeted him with much love and respect. 

Had the Emperor had a correct idea of the danger of his 
position, which then and much later was by no means the case, 
he would perhaps have thought sooner of escape, and not 
missed so many very favourable opportunities which were 





l^en Years of my Life. 

offered him. I am sure, had we employed money, the Empe- 
ror might have escaped whilst on this drive to the Hacienda 
de Hercules, and the whole escort would have gone with him. 
He was, however, very far from thinking his life in danger, 
though the fate of Kmperor hurbide might have taught him 
that a bare title is no ])rotection in Mexico. 

Arrived at the Hacienda de Hercules we entered a large and 
fine garden, with a fountain, near which were assembled a great 
many Liberal officers and otlier gentlemen, who greeted the 
P2mperor, who had me on his arm, with very low ^^ows. 

General Kscobedo advanced, and offered his hand to the 
Emperor. We went then to the right, in a wide walk, where 
seats were placed for us. We commenced the conversation 
about indifferent objects ; but this was rendered difficult by two 
bands, which made a horrible noise, drowning our voices. 
The Kmperor told General Escobedo that he had instructed 
my husband to make some propositions in b:s name, and he 
and Colonel Villanueva retired to arrange that busiviess.^ 

We remained until nearly dark at the head-quarters of Esco- 
bedo, who offered me some refreshments, which were, however, 
decw'ied; and we returned to San Teresita as v/e had come. 
T}; r Emperor was much depressed, which was owing to his 
Weak state of health. I remember that day always with emo- 
tion, and that I was the last lady the Emperor had on his arm. 

All night long there was a most disagreeable noise in San 
Teresita, which prevented him from sleeping, and he was very 
desirous to have a separate house for himseh and his house- 
hold officers. I was anxious to satisfy the wish of the Emperor, 
and drove again to Escobedo, who most readily acceded to it, 
and procured next morning a very handsomely-furnished house 
lor that purpose. One half of it was intended for the Emperor, 
the other half for the use of the imprisoned Generals. 

These good intentions of Escobedo were, however, not 
carried out, for General Refugio Gonzales, formerly a robber, 
who was charged with the guard ove^ the prisoners, reproached 
the General for wanting to treat Maximilian as a prince ; that 
this was against the instructions of the Government, and that 
he would not be responsible for the security of the ijrisoners if 

My Diai7 in Mexico, &c., dy Felix Salm-Salm. Richard Bently, 
London. 1 868. Vol i p. 222. 

San Teres it a. 


they were placed in a private house. Escobedo became proba- 
bly soirewhat alarmed, and the more so as he had the most 
convincing proof that his (Government was resolved to use the 
utmost severity towards his prisoners. He therefore left it to 
Refugio Gonzales to provide other (Quarters for the Emperor 
and the Generals, and they were transferred to the convent of 
Capuchins. The Emperor wished me to accompany him on 
the way thither, and Colonel Villanueva went to M. Rubio to 
request the loan of his carriage, whicli he got at last, after 
waiting two hours for it. 

When the Emperor arrived at the Capuchins, and was shown 
his room, he stopped on the threshold, saying, * Certainly that 
cannot be my room ; why, this is a vault for the dead. Indeed, 
this is a bad omen.' 

Villanueva excused himself as well as he could, and went to 
speak to Refnqio Gonzales, but that man said, ' Yes, that is his 
room, and he must sleep here, at least this night, in order to 
remind him that his time is at hand.' 

It was indeed the pantheon, or burial-place of the convent ; 
and it is an everlasting shame to the Mexican Government that 
they could permit this cruelty to their distinguished prisoner. 
I was indignant, and so was Colonel Villanueva. Escobedo 
was informed of thia proceedmg, and the next day another 
room was provided, from which the Emperor could walk into a 
little yard. 

Three duys later the law proceedings against the Emperor 
commenced, and he wa? placed in solitary confinement. Colo- 
nel Villanueva said to me on -the first day, *The thing is draw- 
ing now to a close nothing can save the Emperor but escape.' 





My plans to save the Emperor— What Consul Bahnsen thought of them — 
Visit to the Emperor at midnight — A letter to Juarez — Politeness of 
Escobedo — Preparing to go to San Luis — Consul Bahnsen's fear justi- 
fied — His sleeping partner — Another audience with Juarez — My plead- 
ing for delay —Mr. Iglesia on my side — Victory — Return to Queretaro — 
A wide-awake partner of Mr. Bahnsen — A fenrful journey — How I 
looked — Scene on my arrival in Maximilian's prison described by 
another eye-witness. 

I RETURNED home very much depressed ; and when I saw Mr. 
Bahnsen, who had arrived from San Luis and whose face exhi- 
bited a very lugubrious expression, my spirits did not improve. 
All that night I did not sleep, but revolved in my mind inces- 
sently the question, * What can be done to save the Emperor?' 
I reflected all the following day, and when Colonel Villanueva 
and Mr. Bahnsen called towards evening, I had found what I 
had wanted, and asked them, * Who will go to San Luis to ask 
Juarez for time ?' 

Mr. Bahnsen shrugged his shoulders, and said, * Nobody 
will go. Ask for time I It is quite useless. You do not know 
Juarez ; I know him well. That idea is not to be thought of.* 

* Well, Colonel,' I said, * 1 cannot ask you j but I, a woman, 
will go ! ' 

* You ! ' said Mr. Bahnsen, with a sarcastic laugh. 

But all his doubts and ridicule did not influence me in the 
least. I then asked the Colonel, * Will you accompany me to 
Aspirez, and aslj. him for permission to see the Emperor this 
night ? ' 

The Colonel was willing. Aspirez, my travelling compa- 
nion on my first journey to San Luis, was now ' fiscal,' and had 
the Emperor" under his especial charge. 


Vlall *o the Emperor at MidnljlU, 


Tt was past eleven o'clock r.M. when we arrived at Aspire/'s 
lodging, and he was already in bc'd ; hut Colonel Villaiuieva 
a\vi)ke him. I told the astoni.^lied officer that 1 wisb.ed to go 
again to San Ijiis, and that I rciiiiesied his permission to con- 
sult first with the Mnijieror, in the presence of Colonel Vil- 
lanueva, which was readily and kindly given. 

It was past midnight when we arrived at the Capuchins. 
My husband was asleep. He immediately dressed, but was 
quite frightened at my sudden appearance in the middle of the 
night, imagining that some bad news had brought me there. 
When, however, he heard my plan he declared it to be excel- 
lent, and went up with me to the room of the Kmperor, who 
since his separation from the other prisoners liad seen nobody 
except his doctor. 

The Emperor thanked me very much, and approved also of 
my idea. Villanueva advised him to write a letter to Juarez, 
and request two weeks* timj to prepare his defence, and to 
consult with lawyers from Mexico. 'Ihe Kmperor consented, 
and signed a letter which was written by Villanueva at his le- 
quest. This letter I was instructed to give into the hai^ds of 
Juarez himself, and if I could not do so not to part with it at 
all. As 1 wished to start on my journey immediately, I said 
good night to the poor Emperor, who had tears in his eyes. I 
was very much affected, for it appeared to me as if 1 had now 
seen his face for the last time. 

As I had promised to give the letter into Juarez's own hands, 
and was afraid that difficulties might be laid in the way of my 
seeing him, I thought it expedient to procure from Escobcdo 
a letter of authorization to the President. 

It was past one o'clock when I went with Villanueva and 
my maid to Escobedo's quarters. The General was just re- 
turning with Colonel Doria from some place of amusement, 
and I found him fortunately in very good humour. He gave 
me not only a letter to Juarez, but also granted my request for 
an order to take the mules of the diligence, with which I re- 
turned to my hotel to prepare for the journey, for which ivlr. 
Bahnsen had promised to lend me his light carriage. This 
order of Escobedo was indeed quite an astonishing thing, for 
by it the communication between Queretaro and San Luis 
was stopped for at least twelve hours for the public. 

Arrived at the hotel I found Mr. Bahnsen, who retracted 





Ten Ytara of my Life, 


his promise. TTc wns afraid liis carriage would be broken to 
pii'ccs ; he called my idea a woman's whim, and said that ihe 
whole thinj; was foolish and useless. I was in despair, and 
tried my best to ^^et the carriage from Mr. liahnsen, in which 
I succeeded after a ^reat deal of trouble, and under the con- 
dition that one of his partners, a Mexican, should accompany 

It was already five o'clock in the morning we started 
with two drivers, as usual, and five mules. These animals 
were used to drag the heavy diligence, and having such a light 
load behind them they became (piite unmanageal)le, and after 
we had proceeded only a few leagues they succeeded in run- 
ning against a stone fence and breaking the pole, thus fulfil- 
ling the fears of Mr. Bahnsen. 

My Mexican companion was in despair, and after much ado 
and useless lamentations, the pole was tied up, and we arrived 
at San Michael, where I thought it better to leave Mr. J5ahn- 
sen's light concern behind and to take the diligence. Thus 
we travelled as fast as possible all day, and arrived without 
any further accident at a hacienda half-way to San Luis. It 
was now midnight. I wanted to go on immediately, but the 
straw man whom Mr. Bahnsen had given me as an escort de- 
clared that he was tired, that he required sleep, that the road 
was infested with robbers ; in short, that he would not go any 
farther that night. 

I had at last to give way, but only on condition that we 
should start again at three o'clock. I was up at that time, 
and coachmen and mules were ready, but my sleepy escort 
was not to be seen, and all ou thundering against his door 
was in vain. I had already made up my mind to leave him to 
his slumbers and to travel alone, when he appeared at six 
o'clock, nicely dressed with kid gloves, and ordering his cup 
of chocolate. I was exceedingly angry and expressed my 
opinion of him pretty freely. 

Between six and seven o'clock p.m. we arrived at San Luis, 
and put up at Mr. Bahnsen's house, where his sisters received 
me with the utmost kindness. I had continually before my 
mind that melancholy face of the august martyr in Queretaro, 
which looked up so thankfully to mine from his sick bed when 
I departed, and was urged by the fear that every minute's 
delay might cost him his life ; I therefore did not care for my 

Mr. Ii/lcsla's Amstdtice, 


toilet, but liistcncd at nnre to the residence of ju.irez. At 
that mnincMt lie liad a Cabinet meeting, and rould not rercive 
me. He requested, however, that 1 would send in tne letter 
of the Kmperor, which 1 decUned to do, as I had promised to 
give it into no other hands but his own. I sent him, however, 
tiie letter of Kscobedo, and he api)ointed nine o'clock ^.m. 
next day as the hour he could receive n»e. 

The brother of Mr. IJahnsen accompanied me next morning 
to the President, whom I found again in company with Mr. 
Jglesia. He took, my letter, read it, handed it to his minister, 
and said, 'That the time for the proceeding against Maximilian 
was fixed at three days by the law, and tliat he, after having 
considered the case, regretted that he could not grant the 
requested delay.' 

I addressed myself to Mr. Iglesia, and pleaded the Empe- 
ror's cause as well as 1 could. I declared that it was barba- 
rous to shoot a prisoner without having given him even time 
for his defence, and to treat him as a traitor who had come in 
the honest belief that he had been elected and called by the 
Mexican people. A few days more could not be of any im- 
portance to the Government, and even prudence dictated to 
the Government not to show such improper haste. They 
might reflect on the consequences, and that not only Europe, 
but all the civilised world would be indignant at the Mexican 
Government if it acted in such a hasty, cruel manner. 

* Well, Mr. Juarez,' I said, * pray reserve your decision until 
at least five o'clock this atcernoon. Should you remain of the 
same determination, then J will return to Queretaro, Heaven 
knows with how sad a heart.' 

Mr. Iglesia saw me to the door, and T spoke to him what 
my heart prompted me to say. He did not answer, but pressed 
my hand in a manner which seemed to promise his assistance. 

When I returned at five o'clock he came to meet me with a 
happy, smiling face, and without saying one word he handed 
me the precious order granting the desired delay. I was so 
overjoyed that I nearly hugged that worthy gentleman. I 
. wished to see Mr. Juarez ai order that I might thank him, but 
he was out. 

Though I was told that the order for the respite would be 
telegraphed to Queretaro, I was anxious to return thither im- 
mediately, and declining the escort of the Mexican 'partner of 




Ten Years of my Life. 

Mr. Bahnsen, who must have been a sleeping partner I sup- 
pose, 1 accepted that of a very Hvely partner, a Mr. Dans, who 
jiroved to be a very useful and ac,Teeable travelling companion. 
As the coachman did not drive fast enough for him, he himself 
took the reins. 

The journey was rather troublesome. The night was as 
dark as could be, and we had to light torches, which were ex- 
tinguished by torrents of rain. At many places the road was 
so rough and dangerous that I had to walk for some leagues, 
which was indeed no j(?ke on such a night and in such weather. 
I had, moreover, o.ily one pair of thin boots, which were soon 
cut by the sharp stones. Fortunately I had plenty of things 
to refresh myself inside, for the good sisters of Mr. Bahnsen 
stuffed the whole carriage with an immense quantity of things, 
not only for me and my companions, but also for the Emperor 
and my husband. 

Between ten and Heven o'clock a.m. I arrived in Queretaro, 
and drove to my hotel to wash and to put on some other dress ; 
but when I heard that the Emperor did not yet know anything 
of a respite, I would not delay a moment, but hastened as fast 
as I. could to the Capuchin convent. 

J was worn with fatigue ; my boots torn to pieces, and my 
feet sore ; my hair in disorder- and my face and hands un- 
washed » I must indeed have looked like a scarecrow, but I was 
very happy and a little proud too. 

When T arrived some Americans were with the Emperor. 
One of these visitors described the scene in a paper, and I will 
give his description, as that of an unconcerned eye-witness 
frequently conveys a far more correct idea of a situation than 
can possibly be done by one of the interested persons : — 

*A bustle was heard outside, the heavy door was opened, 
aiiu a soldier announced " La Senora !" In an instant Prince 
f^alni Salm held the new-comer in his arms. She was the 
voluntary messenger, his wife, who had just arrived from San 
Luis Potosi from Juarez. Her face was sunburnt and soiled, 
her shoes were torn, her whole frame trembled with nerveless 
fati.c!;"e as she laid her hands upon her husband's shoulders. 
The Archduke came forward eagerly, waiting his turn. The 
Prince was heard to ask in a whisper, *' Have you had any 
success ? What did Juarez say ? " 

• " They will do what they have said in despatches. They 

An American Ei/e-ivitncss. 


have granted the delay." She turned to Maximilian, "Oh, 
your Majesty, I am so glad." 

' Maximilian took the Princess's hand, and kissed it. " May 
God bless you, madame!" h said; you have been too kind 
to one who is afraid he can never serve you." 

* The Princess forced a smile. " Do not be too sure of that, 
your Majesty ; I shall have some favour to ask for the Prince 
here yet.'' 

* " You will never need to ask that, madame," responded the 
Archduke, leading the lady to a seat. " But you look weary. 
You are very tired. We can offer you little. Salm, you must 
care for your — I " 

* Turning his face aside Maximilian moved abruptly towards 
the window. It was eai,y to see why. His grief was restrained, 
but almost audible. The Prince — with one hand on the back 
of his wife's chair, and with the other uplifted towards the 
Archduke in mute protestation — could hardly restrain his own 

It was time intrusion should cease. Ihe visitor, who had 
already reached the door, made an unnoticed salute and with- 



1 :.i 




My husband's plans for escape — I do not believe in them — T ofTer to go to 
Mexico to fetch Baron Magnus, lawyers, and money — Delays— How 
I managed Escobedo — A telegram makes my journey superfluous — 
Consul liahnsen again in a fright — Judge Hall — Arrival of the For- 
eign Ministers in Queretaro — Impression made by it — Baron Magnus 
— Money no object — The Austrian and Belgian Ministers — Mr. 
Curtopassi — My plan to save the Emperor — Money wanted — Baron 
Magnus gone to St. I-uis — Colonel Villaneuva — Colonel Palacios — 
How I tempt him — Two bills for one hundred thousand dollars each, 
but no cash — Baron Lago in deadly fear for his neck — His cow- 

The respite had been obtained, but now came the question 
how to make use of it. The first time when I saw the Emperor 
I had urged on him the necessity of sending for Baron 
Magnus and some lawyers from Mexico, but he said he would 
not have them, as it was of no use. He would not telegraph 
for them even now, but had in his head a plan for escape 
which had been arranged by my husband, who was very san- 
guine about it, and the escape was to take place as soon as 
the bribed officers should mount the guard. 

Now I had not any confidence in the success of this plan 
from the commencement, though I assisted in it as much as f 
could. The plan was very excellent, but 1 put no trust in the 
men whom my husband employed. Two of them had d - 
serted from the French army. They were inferior officers, who 
seemed not to have either the power or the pluck to carry out 
what they promised, but gave me the impression that they 
wanted only to extort money. I therefore had opposed the 
plan from the beginning, and insisted that the Emperor should 
address himself to a far higher authority. 

Not trusting, as I have already sc J, in the success of the 


Money Matters. 



plan of escape, I wrung from the Emperor tiie promise to send 
for Baron Magnus, as also for the lawyers, and offered to 
travel to Mexico to bring them to him. 

I did not insist on the sending for Baron Magnus because I 
thought much of either his skill or energy, but only because he 
was the one man from whom we might expect ready money, 
which seemed to me more important than anything else. 

As I was afraid that General Marquez might arrest me in 
Mexico, the Emperor wrote to him the following letter : — 

• To D. Leonardo Marquez, Division-Generalt 
* My dear General, 

* The bearer of these lines is Princess Salm, who has the 
kindness to go to Mexico for the arrangement of family affairs of much 
importance, and to speak with the lawyers whc will defend me. You 
will, for the time of her sojourn in Mexico, and for her return to QuereLuro 
do all that can be useful and agreeable to the Princess. 

Yours affcctesimo, 


He gave me also a letter to Baron Magnus, which my hus- 
band has published in his above-quoted book, and two others 
for the two eminent lawyers, Riva Palacios and Martinez de 
la Torre, who were to defend him ; a few lines also for Father 
Fischer, in which was enclosed the following letter concerning 
the private money of the Emperor, which I publish here, be- 
cause the money mentioned in it, which I was to bring to the 
Emperor with me, had disappeared without anybody knowing 
what had become of it. 

* To the Secretary of the Cabinet, Mr. Augustin Fischer. 

' Queretaro, March 29, 1867. 

*By these presents you are ordered to try to collect the following 
amount : — 

Civil list, due ult of March. 

Expenses of my household in that month. 

Civil list for April. .... 

Household. ...... 

Civil list due for the first 15 days of May. 
Household. •••••• 












2'eu Years of my Life. 

* You will arrnnj^e with D. Carlos Sanchez Navnrro, minister of my 
l^ou^cll()Id, that at least my claims for the ex])cnses of my household, cal- 
culated at 10,000 dollars a month — which, however, in two months and a 
half were only paid once — may be paid. What you receive you will add 
to tiie alxjve-mentioned 28,750 dol'ars ; and deliver the whole sum to the 
Prussian consul in Mexico, M. Stcphan von Benecke, to cover conjointly 
with him, if possible, the bills in favour of the commander of the corvette 
•' Elisabeth," D. W. Groeler, in Vera Cruz, which M. Benecke will 
transmit to him securely. 


The directions made in reference to the employment of the 
money mentioned in this letter were only written to blind the 
Liberals in case that it should fall into their hands, for in fact 
I was to bring all the money that could be collected, which 
might have been easily done by me, it travelling back in com- 
pany of Baron Magnus and the two lawyers selected as defenders 
of the Emperor. 

As I had good reasons to expect difficulties from General 
Porfirio Diaz also, who despatched me so cei;emoniously out 
of his camp, I went to General Escobedo, explained to him 
the reason why I had to go to Mexico, and he gave me the 
following lines : — 

* To General Porfirio Diaz, Tacubaya. 

'Queretaro, May 21, 1867. 
' Much honoured Friend and Comrade, 

* Princess Salm-Salm passes through Tacubaya, on behalf of Maximilian, 
to hasten the arrival of the counsel whom he has chosen to defend him. 
Having regard for her sex, I have taken the liberty of recommending her 
to your kindness, not doubting that you will assist her. 

* Assuring you of my regard, I remain 

* Your friend and comrade, 

' *M. Escobedo.* 

Everything was now ready for me to start, but again I met 
with an unexpected difficulty which came from my husband. 
The time for the execution of his plan for the Emperor's 
escape was drawing near, and the 2nd of June was fixed upon 
for the attempt. If it succeeded my going to Mexico would 
not be required, and if they should be prevented, or retaken, 
or perhaps wounded, my presence in Queretaro, he said, 
would be of the greatest value. I had quite a fight with him 

Plans for Escape. 


about it in the presence of the E nperor, which, nowever, 
ended with my doing his will. 

I had been in such a hurry to leave that I was afraid my 
delaying might cause some comment or suspicion, and I had 
to think of some ruse to explain it. I therefore went to Esco- 
bedo, feigned to be much afraid of Pqrfirio Diaz, and that he 
might not respect his letter and detain me, or send me out oi 
the country. I requested the General to ])rocure me a permis- 
sion from Juarez to go to Mexico and return. Escobedo pro- 
tested that his letter would be perfectly suiTicient, but 1 in- 
sisted, and ot course made him do what I wanted, though he 
shrugged his shoulders and shook his head. 

He telegraphed to Juarez, and as I had to wait for an 
answer, my remaining in the city was explained. 

The Emperor believed that I had gone, and was very much 
astonished when I came to see him. When I told him how I 
had managed with Escobedo his face lit up, and he said 
laughingly, ' Well, my dear Princess, whenever I become free 
I shall certainly make you my Secretary of Foreign Affairs.' 

Though I had to yield to the will of my husband, I did so 
with a very heavy heart, for I was perfectly convinced that his 
plan of escape was all moonshine, and would end in nothing 
but bringing forth new difficulties and dangers. I therefore 
was anxious to procure means for carrying out my intentions 
as far as it was possible, without my going myself to Mexico. 

Mr. Dans, the lively partner of Mr. Bahnsen, was going to 
that city. Though we dared not trust him with all the com- 
missions which the Emperor had confided to me, especially 
with the collection of considerable sums which would have 
raised suspicion, he was charged with verbal messages to Baron 
Magnus and the counsel, in order to hurry their arrival in 
Queretaro, for, as I said before. Baron Magnus was the only 
man who was likely to procure the money I wanted. 

On June 2, the Emperor received a telegram from Mexico, 
informing him that Baron Magnus and the two lawyers were 
on their way to Queretaro ; the ostensible object of my jour- 
ney being thus fulfilled, my departure was no longer required. 

This telegram interfered also with the plan of escape 
arranged by my husband, which was to be carried out that very 
night. The Emperor, to whom the idea of escape had always 
been repugnant, was glad to find a pretext or reason to post- 



-; »i 







Ten Years of my Life, 

pone it. Maybe that tlie expected arrival of Tlaron Magnus 
and tlie lauycrs inspired him again wilh new hope, and made 
him think our t'ears for his life exaggerated. He declared to 
my husband that he would not make the attempt to escape 
that night, but wait for the arrival of Baron Magnus, and said 
that a few days more or less could not matter. My hus])and 
was in despair. He implored the Emperor not to be deluded 
l)y false hopes, but to j^rofit by an opportunity which might 
never occur again. All was in vain ; the Emperor remained 

Mr. Bahnsen, who had heard something of the plans of 
escape, felt very uneasy in Queretaro, and being afraid that he 
might get into difficulties with the Liberal Government, he left 
for San Luis Potosi, where he remained in constant fear. 

Amongst the persons employed in the preparations for 
escape was a Liberal ex-officer, who soon after the departure 
of Mr. liahnsen ran otV with two thousand dollars which had 
been confided to him. On discovering this, I teleg'-aphed at 
once to Mr. Bahnsen to stop the thief ; but I gut only the 
following anonymous lines in reply : " Your friends in San 
Luis wish you would not compromise them by telegraphic 
desprtches, as you did to-day.' 

The thief had been in the house of Mr. Bahnsen, and 
frightened that gentleman out of his senses by threatening that 
he would disclose all he knew. He said also that he had only 
eight hundred dollars left of the money, and Mr. Bshnsen was 
glad when the fellow left the houSv-> with his booty. 

There was at that time an American lawyer, Judge Hall, in 
Mexico, who had to arrange J.ome business with the Liberal 
Government for Mr. Halyday, of New York. Mr. Hall was 
from California. ■ He was an able lawyer, well versed in Mexi-" 
can lav/, and understood Spanish perfectly well. I spoke to 
the f^mperor about J udge Hall, whom he saw, and resolved to 
employ him for his defence. 

J udge Hall knew of the whole affair of the escape, and had 
taken charge of the horses bought for it. 

It will be seen that I was perfectly right when I said that 
the men whom my husband had employed for the escape of 
the Emperor had no ether intentions than to extort money. 
When the escape was postponed and the arrival of the foreign 
ministers and la\yyers announced, they were afraid that the 

Jad'je Hall. 


whole thing might be given up, and they lose the promised sums- 
One Captain among them, the most energetic man of tliem all, 
came to my lioiise and demanded of me immediately five 
hundred dollars more. It I should refuse to give in to his 
demand, the escape could not take place. He even used some 
threatening words. I had not the money, and would not have 
given it if 1 had, without having previously spoken with the 
Emperor or my husband. I told the former, and he desired 
me not to give that man one single penny. 

Whether the captain made good some of his threats I do not 
know ; but the fact was, that Judge Hall and all foreigners were 
ordered some days later to leave Queretaro. I then took the 
horses into the stable of my house. 

Judge Hall left the city, and the diligence was o.rrested and 
robbed some distance from Queretaro. The Judge had in his 
service an Italian, who returned to Queretaro, and requested 
me, on the part of his master, to use my inlluence with Esco- 
bedo to induce him to send men after the robbers who had 
taken his luggage. The servant asked me also, in the name of 
the judge, to lend him one of the horses. As the judge, how- 
ever, knew that the horses were not mine, and might be required 
every moment, I did not believe that he had really sent that 
request, and refused . but tlie Italian went away to the stable, 
said there that I had lent him a horse, and went off with one. 
An hour or two afterwards I heard of this ; I told Colonel Villan- 
ueva of it immediately, who sent a guard after the Italian, who 
overtook and captured him, and put him in prison. His name 
was Frank Leva, as I saw from a precious letter which he wrote 
me from prison, and which commenced : ' Plase do my the 
faver of let my at liberty as son as posible, or I wil tel every 
ting goen on, I no hoi about, and will by better for you and 
the Emperor, you ousband, &c.' He said that he did not 
want to steal the horse, that he was no thief, and so on. Colo- 
nel Villanueva kept him three days in prisoi, and then let him 

On June 5, Baron Magnus, Mr. Scholler his chancellor, and 
the two celebrated lawyers from Mexico, arrived. One day 
later followed Baron Lago, the Austrian minister, Mr. Schmidt 
his secretary, Mr. Horricks the Belgian, and Mr. Curtopassi, 
the Italian Charge d'Affaires. 

The arrival of the foreign representatives produced na goo/^ 




Ten Years of my Life. 

li ", 






1 If 

effect on the affairs of the Emperor. TIic gentlemen — so it ap- 
jieared at least to me — misunderstood their position in retereiice 
to the republican Clovernment. Tlieir manner and tone may 
have been perfectly correct and proper, and as it became the 
representatives of great Powers , but they seemed to forget a 
most essential thing — that they were not accredited to the 
Liberal Government, but to an Emperor, who was looked upon 
as an usurper, and who was now on his trial for treason. They 
further forgot that the Liberal Government cared but little for 
all those Powers whom they represented, as they knew ex- 
tremely well that none of them could do them much harm, 
because they were protected by the United States, which pro- 
tection proved powerful enough to drive out of Mexico one of 
the most powerful princes of Europe. 

Baron Magnus's behaviour made on me the most ludicrous 
impression, and it would have afforded me much amusement 
if the circumstances had not been so serious. He strutted 
about inflated with serio-comic dii)lomatical importance — a 
Cardinal Richelieu, i lince Talleyrand, Prince Metternich, and 
Prince Bismarck wrapped up in one Baron Magnus ! Wlien 
he, after his arrival, went to see General Escobedo, and pre- 
sented him.-.elf as the minister of Prussia, that irreverential 
Republican General put him down ^ peg or two by telling him 
that he had nothing to do with the representative of Prussia, 
which did not recognise his Government ; that he would re** 
ceive him only as Mr. Magnus, a friend of Maximiliano ; and 
that he would give him any facility which he desired in refe- 
rence to the defence of the prisoner. 

The two lawyers were to go immediately to San Luis Potosi, 
to see how matters stood there, and what was best to be done 
in the interest of their client. As I had seen Mr. Juarez and 
Mr. Iglesia before, and spoken to both about the position of 
the Emperor, Baron Magnus told me that the two lawyers w(^i Id 
call on me, and requested me to give them as much inform a- 
tion as I could in reference to the views and feelings of these 
two important personages. As they were very busy I prefer] ed 
calling upon them, and I told them that Mr. Iglesia appeared 
to be rather well-disposed and inclined to listen to conditions. 
I told them that Mr. Iglesia had not altogether rejected Lhe 
idea of an arrangement, and the suggestion tha*: the European 
powers might perhaps be willing to guarantee the war debt if 

Escohtdo takes precautions. 


the life of the Emperor were spnred, or agree to pjant otlier 
advantages if time only were given liim to enter upon negotia- 

Neither Baron Magnus nor the other representatives seemed 
to reaHse the idea that the Emperor would be shot, even if 
condemned \V'rap])ed up in the importance of their own posi- 
tion, they forgot, as I said before, that the republican Mexicans 
did not know much c^ those great states of Prussia, Austria, 
Italy, and Belgium, which were several thousands of miles dis- 
tant. They may therefore be excused for being more aston- 
ished and amazed at aK ihe bluster and fuss of Uieir represen- 
tatives than overawed. 

Whilst thus the ministers were full of the idea that the Mexi- 
can Government would not dare to commit an act which would 
be condemned, and perhaps avenged, by all European Powers, 
I was perfectly convinced that Juarez and his Cabinet would 
not take the slightest notice of it, and that the death of the 
Emperor being decided upon, nothing could save him but 
escape. This was not my own idea only. I had heard the 
opinions of Mexican republicans, who were not cruel them- 
sielves, and who felt great sympathy for the Emperor, but all 
were sure that he would be shot. 

AVhen I was with .Baron Magnus in the Emperor's apart- 
ments, the plan for escape being mentioned, the Baron declar- 
ed it to be nonsense, and that it was not yet at all requisite to 
think of such a hazardous enterprise. He seemed to have 
great confidence in negotiations, and to believe that there 
would still be time enough for escape, which he seemed to be in- 
clined to think beneath the dignity of the Emperor. Money for 
that purpose, however, seemed to be of very inferior importance 
to the Baron, and he spoke as if there would be enough, in 
case of need, to buy the whole garrison. 

Escobedo seemed also to take alarm at the idea of the money 
the Emperor was supposed to have, for the report had spread 
that the representatives had brought with them immense sums. 
Now, as the General knew perfectly well the Mexican weak- 
ness, he thought it well to take precautions. He separated all 
the other prisoners from the Emperor, Miramon, and Mejia, 
and trebled the guards. He also gave an order that all the 
prisoners should be shot immediately if they only made an 
attempt to escape. Before the arrival of the ministers it was 


2'eu Years of my Life. 

easy to obtain permission to see the Emperor, hut now I had, 
hke all the ministers, to send always for an especial permission. 

The Austrian and lielj^ian (iovernments must know better 
than I do whether their representatives acted according to their 
instructions; but to us, and even to tl'' ""^wicans, their 
behaviour appeared very extraordinary, an ^ no means to bo 
admired. When the French trooi)s left, they had already done 
great harm to the cause of the lCnii>eror by their circulars, 
which fiUel the foreign troops who wanted to remain with the 
Emperor with suspicion ; and now they behaved and talked 
as if they were cpiite on the side of his enemies. 

I Imve been told that the Austrian Charge d'Aflfaires and his 
secretary did so, ' the better lo serve the Emperor ;* but I must 
say it was a very strange, and to me an incomprehensible 

Mr. Hooricks, the Belgian minister, went so far in further- 
ance of this policy, that he openly, and in the presence of the 
staft* of Escobedo and the General himself, spoke of the P^m- 
peror with the most unbecoming expressions. He called him 
something like a ' stupid fellow,' and said that the Liberal 
Government was perfectly within its rights in shooting him. 
Escobedo and his staft' officers are still there to confirm the 
truth of what I have here stated. 

• Mr. Curtopassi, the Italian Chargd d'Aflfaires, behaved far 
better than either the Austrian or the Belgian Ministers. He 
at least tried to serve the Emperor, and if he did not succeed 
it was only because he had to work with promises instead of 
ready cash. 

He addressed himself to the Mexican physician who had to 
visit the Emperor, M. Riva de Nigra, and promised him ten 
thousand dollars if he would so arrange that the Emperor 
should be placed in a private house, for which we had worked 
long before, as I have already stated. We wanted it, because 
it was far easier to arrange an escape from such a private house 
than from where he was. 

The doctor, who would probably not have resisted a few 
hundred * ounces' in cash, d'd not trust promises, and thought 
it more profitable to inform Escobedo of the proposition made 
to him. As the desire in itself seemed so innocent, and had 
been expressed before, Escobedo took no further notice of it, 
.still the offer of so much money made him suspicious. 

id to 

I few 



Escape the only means of 8af<ty. 


1 did not understand tlien much about the importance of 
Charj^ds d'Affaires, neitlier did the Mexicans ; but I knew for 
certain that their pretensions and their ratlier hauglUy tone and 
manner made them angry. I was on a friendly footing with 
all the staff of Kscobedo, and I heard from them many things 
they would not have told others. My attachment to the Km- 
peror, and my zeal in his cause, rather pleased them, and I am 
sure most of them secretly wished me success at least, if they 
did not do so openly. From them I heard that the scene, was 
now drawing to a close ; that the ministers were utterly im- 
potent, and that their interference would not do the least good. 
The only thing which could save the Emperor was esaipc. 
That was whispered in my ear by more than one. 

I spoke to the Emperor most earnestly ; but it seemed to 
me that he also had been influenced by the great confidence of • 
the ministers, especially by Baron Magnus — and that is the 
reason why I have always retained a kind of spite against the 
Baron, who treated my fears as those of a nervous woman — 
and that he looked now upon his position in a les.s gloomy light 
than before their arrival. However, as he could not doubt my 
sincerity and goodwill, and believed somewhat in my sound 
judgment and observation, he listened at least to my sugges- 

Long before this I had impressed on him th«. necessity of 
negotiating about an escape, not with inferior officers, but with 
those highest in command. One of them I had won already ; 
he had the command over all the guards in the city ; but 
Colonel Palacios had also to be won, who had the command 
over the prison itself. For this purpose I wanted one hundred 
thousand dollars in gold from the Emperor, which were to be 
placed in the bank of M. Rubi 3, to be drawn according to cir- 
cumstances, for ready cash. 7'his, I said, was the most essen- 
tial thing in dealing with all Americans. 

The Emperor said that money was the least trouble in the 
affair, for Baron Magnus and the other ministers had assured 
him that it would be at his disposal to any amount. Strange 1 
at the tail of each word of these gentlemen hung a gold ounce, 
but not a miserable dollar at the tips of their fingers I It is 
indeed excusable if I get impatient and indignant, U'^t tliis 
paltry stinginess killed the Emperor. 

Baron Magnus had unfortunately gone to San Luis Poiosi. 






Ten Years of my Life, 

The two lawyers there had tcle.Q:raphcd for him, and it was be- 
lieved that he mi^ht come to some arran^^ement with the Govern- 
ment. The Ktnpcror was much apjainst his going, as he told 
me himself in the presence of Dr. liasch, for he had still more 
confidence in Magnus than in any of the other ministers. 

I told the Kmi)eror that without money I could do nothing, 
and he sent tor Baron Lago, the Austrian Charge d'Atiaires, 
who had not ventured near him for two days. I believe the 
good Baron belonged to that great tribe which they call in 
Germany ' harefoots * — HasenfUsse. He had been of the 
opinion that the Emperor would not be shot, and treated my 
a]>|)rehensions also as the fancies of a frightened woman : but 
of late he had become rather nervous, and was afraid these re- 
publican rascals would not only shoot the Emperor, but even 
the most sacred representative of his Imperial brother of 
Austria 1 

The Emperor was indeed very much forsaken, and felt so ; 
and when I told him that the Imperial imprisoned colonels 
were all to be sent away, and my husband with them, and that 
I sliould have to follow them, he was very much excited, and 
said, ' You are the only person who has really done anything 
for me. It you go, I am utterly forsaken.' In consequence 
of this, it was arranged between my husband and myselt that 
he should now show his commission as a General, which he 
had not done before, as it was said that all the Generals would 
be shot. He was of course in no hurry tor that. 

The day appointed for the trial ot the Emperor and Mira- 
mon and Mejia now arrived. It was to be held in the theatre, 
v/hich was decorated for that purpose as for a festival. It was 
an odious idea, as it appeared to me, that the Emperor, weak 
and sick as he was, should be placed there as an exhibition ! 

When I saw him therefore the night previous to the trial, I 
endeavoured to persuade him not to go, but rather to take 
something in the morning which might make him appear even 
more sick for a time than he really was. He did not himself 
like the idea of appearing in the theatre, but was afraid he 
might be compelled to go. I satisfied him, however, in that 
respect, as I had spoken before to Colonel Villanueva, who ad- 
vised that mode of avoiding it. 

When I arrived at the Capuchins next morning at nine 
o'clock the prisoners were just coming out, and my heart beat, 

Fear of As>i((sshi(ition. 


was be- 
he told 
ill more 

eve the 
f call in 
of the 
ated my 
m ; but 
hese re- 
tut even 
)ther of 

I felt so ; 
and that 
ted, and 
selt that 
rhich he 
s would 

d Mira- 

It was 
►r, weak 
ition ! 

trial, I 
o take 
ar even 
raid he 
in that 
svho ad- 
it nine 
:t beat, 

for I was afraitl of seeing the I'lnpcror also, but he di'l not 
come. (Icncral Miramon looked as brlL^ht as if he were going 
to a ball, but poor Mejia looked very much depressed. 

My husband had written a letter to the Kmperor, which I 
transmitted to him, in wiiich he implored him to lose no time 
by resii^ning himself to delusive hopes, but to i)repare immedi- 
ately for escape, for which tlie plan was also contained in the 

1 now told the Emperor that I had arranged everything with 
Colonel Villanueva, who would lead him outside the prison, 
where a guard of one hundred men would be kept ready to es- 
cort him to the Sierra Gorda, and from thence to tiie coast. 
The I'-mperor insisted on my following him close on horseback 
with Dr. Basch. He was afraid of being betrayed and assas- 
sinated, and thought that the presence of a lady might be a 
kind of protection against such an atrocious act. 

Villajuieva had, however, declared to me that nothing could 
be done witiiout Palacios, who hud always three guards in the 
I)rison who walked all night before the room of the Emperor. 
I told iiim so, and that 1 had myself engaged to win him over, 
but that I required money for that purpose. 

The Emperor now saw at last his position in its true light, 
and regretted that he had squandered so much precious time. 
Untortunately he had no money, but he said he would look to 
that, and have at least five thousand dollars in gold, which I 
required to give either to Palacois to distribute amongst the 
soldiers, or to give it myself into their hands. 

When I returned again to see the Emperor he was in de- 
spair, for he could not procure the money which was required 
to bribe the two colonels ; but he would give me two bills, each 
for one hundred thousand dollars, signed by himself, and drawn 
upon the Imperial family in Vienna. 'J'he five thousand dol- 
lars, however, he could not send me until nine o'clock p.m. 

I had not yet made any attempt to bribe Palacios, and it 
was agreed between myself and Villanueva that I should leave 
the prison at eight o'clock p.m., and request Palacios to see 
me home, where I would detain him until ten o'clock. I did 
njt live then in the hotel, but in a private house belonging to 
IMadame Pepila Vicentis, the widow of a gentlemen of our 
party who died during the siege. The old lady was extremely 
kind to our prisoners, and undertook to provide for fii'teea of 



Ten Years of my Life. 

tlicni all the time. General Echegaray lived in the same 

In the afternoon I had a very long conversation with the 
Emperor. He spoke to me about his family and his relations 
with It, how unfortunately he was situated, and what he in- 
tended to do when he came to Europe. He spoke also of his 
mother with great love, and requested me to tell her so. I felt 
extremely sad, for I had a strong presentiment that I now saw 
him for the last time. 

When it was nearly eight o'clock the Emperor gave me his 
signet ring. If I succeeded with Palacios 1 was to return it as 
a token. Then I left with a very heavy heart and filled with 
anxiety, for I had before me a task of the highest importance, 
which I had to accomplish with very insufficient means — two 
bits of paper, of which the meaning was scarcely known to the 
person with whom I had to deal. 

Colonel Palacios was an Indian without any education, who 
could scarcely read or write. He was a brave soldier, had dis- 
tinguished himself, and won the confidence of his superiors, who 
employed him as a kind of provost- marshal, who had to super- 
intend military executions. He had a young wife, who had 
just given him his first child, in whom the father was entirely 
wrai)ped up ; and as he was poor, I hoped that his care for 
the future of that child might induce him to entertain my pro- 

The Colonel saw me home. I invited him to the parlour. 
He followed, and I began to speak of the Emperor, in order 
to ascertain how he felt in referer-ce to him, and whether I had 
any chance of success. He said that he had been a great 
enemy of the Emperor ; but after having been so long about 
him, and having witnessed how good and nobly he behaved in 
his misfortune, and looked in his true, melancholy blue eyes, 
he felt the greatest sympathy, if not love and admiration iur 

After this introductory conversation, which lasted about* 
twenty minutes, with a trembling heart I came to the point. 
It was a most thrilling moment, on which indeed hung the life 
or death of a noble and gO'X^. man, who was my friend and 
Emperor. I said that I had to communicate to him something 
which was of the utmost importance to both of us ; but, before 
doing so, I must ask him whether he \AJ»ould give me his word 








I had 



Ived in 

ion ior 

I about 
he lile 
I word 

ot honour as an officer and a gentleman, and swear by the 
head of his wife and child not to divulge to anyone what I was 
about to confide to him, even if he rejected my proposition. 
He gave me his word of honour, and most solemnly swore, as 
I desired, by the life of his wife and child, whom he loved be- 
yond anything in this world. 

After that I told him [ knew for certain that the Emperor 
would be condemned to be shot, and that he would be shot if 
he did not escape. I had arranged this escape through others, 
and it would take place this very night if he would only con- 
sent to turn his back and close his eyes f^^r ten minutes. 
Without this nothing could be done ; we were entirely in his 
hands, and upon him now depended the life of the Emperor. 
Urged by the necessity of the situation, I must speak plainly 
to him. I knew he was a poor man. He had a wife and 
child, and their future was uncertain. Now an opportunity was 
offered to secure them a good competency. I offered him here 
a cheque of the Emperor's for one hundred thousand dollars in 
gold, which would be paid by the Imperial family of Austria, 
and five thousand dollars I should receive directly for 
the soldiers. What I proposed to him was nothing against 
his honour, as in accepting it he best served his country. The 
death of the Emperor would bring all the world in arms against 
it ; but if the Emperor escaped he would leave the country, 
and no European Power would ever meddle with the arrange- 
ment of their affairs. I spoke a good deal more, to which he 
listened attentively, and I saw by the changes in his counten- 
ance that he battled hard within himself. 

At last he spoke. He laid his hand on his heart, and pro- 
tested that he felt indeed the greatest sympathy with Maximil- 
ian ; that he really believed it to be best for Mexico to let him 
escape ; but he could not decide about such an important step 
in five minutes. If he did, he could not accept the cheque. 
He took it, however, into his hand, and looked at it with 
curiosity. The Indian probably could not conceive the idea 
that in such a little rag of piiper, with some scrawls on it, ..hould 
be contained a life of plenty for his wife and child. A bag full 
of gold would have been m.ore persuasive. 

He handed me back the cheque, observing that he could not 
accept it now. He would reflect upon it in the night, and tell 
nic his decision next morning. I showed him the signet ring 


h I 


Ten Years of my Life. 


of the Emperor, told him what it meant, and requestca him to 
accept it, and return it to the Emperor at night. He took it 
and put it on his finger ; but after a while he took it off again 
remarking that he could not accept it. He must think it all 
over. He became confused, and wen on speaking of his 
honour, of his wife, and his child. 

'Well, Colonel,' said I, *you are not well-disposed. Re- 
flect about it, and remember your word ot honour and your 
oath. You know that without you nothing can be done, and 
to betray me would serve no purpose whatever.' 

Colonel Villanueva came to dee how matters went on, but 
without betraying that he was in the secret. Directly after him , 
came Dr. Basch, sent by the Emperor, but without* any 
money ; and Palacios left me about ten o'clock, not knowing 
whether I might hope or not, but rather inclined to hope. I 
told Dr. Basch T believed all would be right, but that I should 
not know it for certain before the morning. 

In reference to the two cheques which the Emperor gave 
me I mention a circumstance illustratino: the character of the 
Austrian minister. Baron Von Lago. The Emperor had de- 
sired that the two papers might be signed by the foreign min- 
isters, especially by that of Austria, who were so free with their 
promises of money. Dr. Basch was entrusted with that com- 
mission. When he entered the room and told b'S errand, 
Baron Lago, forgetting all his diplomatic dignity, jumped about 
the room like a rabbit pursued by Jimmy, tore his hair, and 
cried piteously, * We cannot sign them ! If we do we shall all 
be hanped ! ' The other ministers present, though less undig- 
nified, remonstrated also, and Baron Lago, whose signature ' 
was already under the cheques, for he had signed in the pre- 
sence of the Emperor, took courage by the cowardice of his 
fellow representatives, and resolutely taking a pair of scissors 
he cut off his signature ! 

When Dr. Basch returned with the mutilated cheques to his 
master, and mentioned the fear of the Baron of being hanged, 
the Emperor said, * What would it matter if he were hanged ? 
The world would not lose much in him.' 

When Dr. Basch returned from my house after my conver- 
sation with Palacios, and told the Emperor what he had heard 
from mc, the latter seemed to be afraid that I would be swin- 
dled out of my cheques, which might be presented after he 




had been- shot. He therefore ordered the Doctor to bring nii 
next morning the following paper, written by his own hand, 
which I will give here as an autograph : — 

* Queretaro, 13 de Junio de 1757. 

*Las dos Whraxizzsacienmil pesos c[wt firmd hoy para los Coroneles Palacios 
y Villanueva y que deben ser pagados por la casa y familia Imperial de 
Austria en Viena, no son validas que al dia de mi completa salvacion de- 
bida 4 los submencionados Coroneles. 

* Maximiliano.' 

'Queretaro, June 13, 1867. 

*The two bills Ci{ one hundred thousand pesos tQ.chy which I signed to-day 
for the Colonels Palacios and Villanueva, to be paid by the house and 
Imperial family of Austria in Vienna, are only valid on that day when I 
shall regain my perfect liberty by means of the above-mentioned Colonels. 

* Maximilian.* 

Colonel Palacios seems to have reflected on my propositions 
until midnight j then he made up his mind, and went accord- 
ingly to Escobedo, and divulged to him the whole affair. 


>f his 


.2:ed, • 





:r he 









Dr. Basch arrested on leaving my house — General Escnbedo wishes to see 
me — A grand scene — A furious General and a resolute woman — What 
Ebcobedo thought of the great Ministers — The carriage M'ith four 
mules at my door — How I frighten a little captain — Negotiations — 
Getting in the carriage — How I got out of it — Villanueva- I am 
brought to Santa Rosas — Go from there to San Luis— Lenience of 
Mexican Generals against attempts to escape — Reasons for it — How 
I was received by Mr. Juarez and Mr. Iglesia — Respite of three days 
— What Baron Magnus might have done it he had been somebody 
else — My last pleading for the Emperor's life — Jaurez wi'» only grant 
that of my husband — Madame de Miramon's audience w 'h the Presi- 
dent — Death ot the Emperor — Mr. Lerdo — Return to Queretaro — Go 
to Mexico — Again to Queretaro — Salm'? prison life — A roguish doctor 
— Transportation ot the prisoners to Mexico — To Vera Cruz — My 
usband in Tehuacan — How he was treated by Porfirio Diaz and 
leneral Baz — Exertions 'or the release ot the Prince — Success On 
my arrival in Vera Cruz, Salm had left with Baron Magnus — My 
despair — Going to New York and Washington — On board the ' Ville 
de Paris ' — Arrival in EuropCi 

I :!' 


Before I was np next morning a guard was placed, at my 
house. Everybody who went in was permitted to pass, but on 
coming out he was arrested. This fate was unsuspected by 
Dr. Basch, who came in the morning on the part of the 
Emperor to bring me the paper mentioned in the preceding 
chapter. When he left my house he was xrrested by General 
Refugio Gonzales. 

Two servants of the Emperor came with the message that 
he wished to see me immediately. I knew then already that 
Colonel Palacios had broken his word of honour, and that Dr. 
Basch had been ariested, for an officer of Escobedo's staff sent 
me this news in a litde note, which I destroyed. I piepared 
to leave my house as if I knew nothing. 

ii,i i rr- i "■ 

Escohedo in a Passion. 


When I stepped over the threshhold General Refugio Gon- 
zales addressed me, grinning over his whole face, and told me 
that General Escobedo wished to see nie immediately. 1 
replied that I was just on my way to pay him a visit. 

When I arrived at head-quarters, I was led into a large 
reception-room, which was filled with a great many officers. 
Some of them seemed amused, as if expecting an interesting 
scene ; others looked with compassion on me. One of them 
approached me and whispered, ' All is lost ' 

After awhile Escobedo came. He looked as black as a 
thunderstorm. In a polite but sarcastic tone he observed, 
' That the air here in Queretaro did not seem to agree with 
me, that it was indeed very bad,' I assured him that I never 
felt better in all my life; but he insisted that 1 did \ )t look 
well at all ! He had a carriage ready, and an escort lo take 
me to San Luis Potosi, where I should feel much better. 

I told him that I had no desire whatever to go tliere, but 
thanked him much for his kindness. He could not bear this 
any longer, his anger over-mastered him. He said he found it 
so extremely wrong in me, so against all feeling of gratitude 
and honour, that I, after he had shown me so much kindness 
and treated me so well, tried to bribe his officers and to bring 
him into an embarrassing position. 

• I have done nothing. General, of which I need be ashamed 
and what you yourself would not have done in my position.' 

' We will not argue that point, madame ; but I wish you to 
leave Queretaro.' 

' General,' I answered, ' you know that I am powerless now, 
and that the Emperor is lost. But my husband is here also, 
waiting for his trial, and I request you to let me remain here. 
Confine me in prison, or m my room, and place a guard over 
me, if you will ; I will remain quiet.' 

The General would not listen to this \ he was too angry, and 
said that after what I had done I might even assassinate his 

I was indignant at this, and told him that he had no right to 
think thus of me, even if I wished to save my husband aad my 

He answered, I might go to the President under a guard, 
and plead there for their lives, but not here. I was not the 
only person who had to leave ; the foreign ministers had re- 
ceived the same orders. 




t ■' 

! til 


;l ' 

ii i 


Ten Years of my Life. 

* But, General,' I replied, I assure you the ministers had 
nothing whatever to do with my plan, and would not have 
dared support it.' 

* I know that,' he said, contemptuously ; *and just because 
they are such cowards they may go.' 

' But, General, the Emperor will then be utterly alone, and 
without anyone to assist him in his last arrangements.' 

* What good,' he burst out, * can such old women be to a 
man ? Pretty people are the ministers f Two of them have 
already run away without even waiting tor their baggage/ 

These two frightened representatives were, ot course, Baron 
Lago and Mr. Hooricks. All the officers of Escobedo laughed 
at them, and the General himself told me later in Mexico, that 
if one of these men had requested him to see the Emperor and 
take leave of him, he would not and could not have refused. 
But they did not even make the attempt, and Baron Lago ran 
off with the codicil to the Emperor's last will unsigned ! 

I of course have not the slightest scruple in stating that I 
consider the behaviour of these gentlemen as contemptible as 
possible, and that I fully subscribe what the Emperor said 
about the ////Vrepresentatfve of Austria ; but if they or anyone 
else should doubt that General Escobedo expressed himself so 
undiplomatically about these diplomatists, I appeal to the 
General himself, who is not the man to deny what he said ; 
and to his whole staff, who heard it, and especially to Colonel 

I saw nothing was to be done at present, and I had to leave 
Escobedo's head-quarters. These had been removed long ago 
from the Hacienda de Herecules to the city, and were only a 
few houses from mine in the same street. As I saw the omin- 
ous carriage with four mules before my door, I went there of 
course, expecting that time would be granted to me to prepare 
and go upstairs. I was about entering the door of my house, 
which was ajar, when a little captain, who escorted me, shut 
the door, and made a movement to seize my arm. This exaspe- 
rated me. I felt as if I had become suddenly six inches taller 
and that I becamedeadly pale. As quick as lightning I drew from 
under my dress my little revolver, and pointing it at the breast 
of the horrified captain, I cried, ' Captain, touch me with one 
finger and you are a dead man !' 

The captain protested that he did not intend any force, but 


A Frlijhtoied Cciptain. 




that General Es^obedo held him responsible, and that he was 
compelled not to permit me to go out of his sight. I told the 
poor little fellow that* he might accompany me. I should take 
my time to prepare and pack up, and I was in a rather danger- 
ous humour. I told him then to go where he liked. I would 
go up, and up I went, revolver in hand, the captain following, 

I wanted to gain time, in hopes ' that something might turn 
up,' and declared now that neither I nor my servant understood 
packing. I must have some one who could do it, and he 
might try to get one. At his wits' end, the captain now went 
back to General Escobedo, from v/hom he returned, after about 
half an hour, with an escort of six men. The General had re- 
ceived him very badly, and said he would put him under ar- 
rest if he could not compel me to go. He had orders to bring 
me to Santa Rosas at the foot of the Sierra Gorda, and to place 
me there in the diligence for San Luis Potosi. 

1 saw now that nothing more could be done, and commenced 
packing, when a servant of the Emperor came with a message 
that he wanted to see me immediately. I requested the cap- 
tain to let me write a few lines to the Emperor, but this was 
refused, and the servant sent out of the room. 

I caused the captain to send to Escobedo for permission to 
take leave of my husband, which was refused also. Then I 
wanted to write to him, and was at last permitted to send off a 
few lines, which the captain dictated to me, ana which were 
delivered to my husband. Salm did not understand anything 
of the whole business, and sent me rather a peremptory note 
commanding me to come and see him. 

When I was ready with my packing I stepped into the car- 
riage, followed by my girl, Jimmy, and a small trunk. Some 
time before Colonel Villanueva had arrived ; I had given him 
the two cheques, which he promised to return to the Emperor, 
whom he would see immediately, and also my husband. 

I suppose the Colonel transmitted some order to the cap- 
tain, and when I had taken my place, and the coachman was 
just going to start, he told the man to drive to head-quarters. 

As soon as I heard that I jumped right over my maid, and 
trunk, and Jimmy, out of the carriage, and declared that I 
would not go there : that I did not want to see Escobedo 
again, and be exposed to his sneering remarks and thijse of 
his officers. If the General wished to see me, he nught come 



ii » 


I ' 


Ten Years of my L\fe, 

to mc. The captain sang again his song of instructions, ccc, 
and I declared positively I would not go to Escobedo. At 
last Colonel Villanueva interfered, and the captain promised 
to wait until he returned with other instructions from the Gen- 
eral, which he soon did. 

Villanueva related afterwards to my husband this whole 
scene, which, he said, had amused him greatly, though certainly 
it was not amusing to me, for I was in a towering passion. 
Escobedo had laughingly said, when the Colonel told him what 
a fix the litde captain was in with me, that he would rather 
stand opposite a whole Imperial battalion than meet ' the angry 
Princess Salm,' and ordered that I should be brought at once 
to the place arranged. Finding him so reasonable I did not 
offer any further resistance, and re-entered the carriage. 

In Santa Rosas I was quartered in a comfortable room, in a 
hacienda belonging to one of the Liberals, by whose family I 
was treated with kindness. Next morning, when the diligence 
passed, I found places taken for myself and maid, and an offi- 
cer, in citizen's dress, escorted me. That gentleman satisfied 
himself with keeping me in view ; he never spoke to me, and 
none of the other passengers knew that he was my guard. 

At that time I was of course very furious against General 
Escobedo ; but if I consider what 1 attempted to do, and that 
I was by no means yielding, I must acknowledge that I was 
treated throughout with great forbearance and courtesy, not 
only by General Escobedo, but also Mr. Juarez, hiS minister, 
and by all Mexicans with whom I came in contact. Even in 
the United States, where ladies enjoy considerable preroga- 
tives, 1 should have experienced far different treatment, as 
many Confederate ladies will testify. 

Having gone through the whole late French war with tho 
Prussians, and become acquainted with their views in reference 
to discipline, 1 must say that I still more wonder at and ad- 
mire the lenience of the Mexican military authorities in regard 
to me. I must, however, say a few words in explanation of 
this behaviour, which will appear rather strange to German 

Attempts to escape occurred very frequently in these civil 
wars, where it happened not rarely that generals became pri- 
soners of other generals, who soon again became their prison- 
ers. Endeavours to escape were considered as very excusable 






San Luis Potosi 


and natural, and were not punislied with too much severity by 
the Generals, in order not to create a precedent which might 
perhaps tell against themselves. Kscobedo himself had once 
been a prisoner of jMejia, and condemned to be shot by a 
court martial ; but Mejia had not only assisted him in his 
escape, but even furnished him with money for it. What Ks- 
cobedo expected his own friends to do for him, he could not 
])unish too severely in friends of the Knij^eror, and he was sat- 
isfied with making such attempts impossible. 

When I arrived at San Luis Potosi, my guard left me. 
Alighting at an hotel, I now sent for Mr. Bahnsen, who came 
and kindly invited me to his house. I wished to cee the 
President the same evening, but was told to come the next 
morning. He was, however, too busy to receive me, and sent 
Mr. Iglesia, to whom I related everything which caused me to 
be exiled to San Luis. Mr. Iglesia said he knew very well 
that they had many rascals at Queretaro, who might be bought 
for money. He agreed that, if 1 had had gold ready, my plan 
would have succeeded. 

When, in the course of the conversation, I asked him to tell 
me frankly, whether, in his inmost heart, he would not h ve 
been glad if the Emperor had escaped, he smilingly answered, 
' Yes, I should.' 

I spoke lO him of my anxiety with regard to my husband, 
and asked whether it were not possible that I might return to 
Queretaro to be near him. He advised me to wait awhile, 
until after the execution of the Emperor. As I insisted on 
seeing Mr. Juarez, the minister told me to come at five o'clock 
in the afternoon. 

Although I had planned the escape of the Emperor, Mr. 
Juarez received me in his usual manner. I commenced by 
speaking about the plan for the Emperor's escape, but he told 
me that he knew all, and evaded answering those same ques- 
tions I had put to Mr. Iglesia, but his whole manner impressed 
me with the idea that the escape of the Emperor would not 
have been very disagreeable to him either. 

Mr. Juarez told me that I should have to remain at Gan 
Luis, and be under surveillance. When I spoke about the 
Emperor and my husband, the President said he was afraid 
that nothing could be done for the Emperor, and that he must 
die j but as for n)y husband I might be perfectly satisfied. For 





m '^ 

11- : 



Ten Years of my Life. 

the moment notliincr rr)uld be done, but even if lie slioiild lie 
condemned to death he would not be executed, on which lie 
gave me his hand and his word of honour. 

The Emperor had been sentenced to death at the time I was 
on the road, and was to be shot three days later, liaron 
Magnus was still in San Luis when I reached that place. He 
again saw the President, but was assured that nothing could 
save the Emperor. The Jiaron pleaded for another delay of 
three days, and the President consented only because Baron 
Magnus wished it, and because he did not desire to show 
extraordinary haste or unnecessary severity ; but it was useless. 
The Prussian minister was so perfectly convinced of it that, 
when he left San Luis for Queretaro, he took a i)hysician with 
him — to embalm the Emperor ! Now, I ask, what sense was 
there in such behaviour ? To ask for a respite of three days 
under such a conviction was an act not only of sickly weak- 
ness, but of cruelty ; for it could not but inspire the poor 
Emperor with delusive hopes, which made their final failure 
far more difficult to bear. The only excuse I have for the 
step of the Baron is that at that time he was really almost unac- 
countable for what he did, fcx he was walking about like a mita 
who had lost half a dozen of his five senses. 

Had this gentleman remained in Queretaro and scrawled his 
name under a good bill of exchange, on which ready gold 
would have been provided at once, instead of opening his 
diplomatic windbag and squandering his pinchbeck coin of 
valueless words in San Luis, he would have saved the Emperor; 
the Prussian Court would have rejoiced in paying for such a 
purpose ; decorations of all sizes would have been showered 
upon him, and he would have earned a reputation for ever 
remembered by history, instead of regretting now in vain what 
he might have done, ' if he had known.' 

I was like one distracted during all that time, and day and 
night I revolved in my head how the Emperor might still be 
saved. I frequently saw Mr. Iglesia, but each time I left him 
I became more and more convinced that {he Emperor was lost 
beyond hope. Again I tried to obtain another delay of eight 
days, on better grounds than those of Baron Magnus, thougii 
rather weak also, until I should receive an answer from J^resi- 
dent Johnson, whom I knew well, and whom I would urge by 
telegraph to send another more energetic protest against the 


Pleading for the Emperors Life. 



execution of the Emperor. But Mr. Iirlcsia told mo, and so 
did President Juarez later, that a further delay could not In* 
granted, and that they regretted much to have yielded to the 
request of Baron Magnus, as the President had been accused 
of intentionally prolonging the agony of the fvUiperor, a 
reproach made him especially by the foreigners, who called 
him a cruel, revengeful, and barbarous Indian. 

The last day before the execution now came ; the Emperor 
was to be shot on the following morning. Though 1 had but 
little hope, I was resolved to make another effort, and to appeal 
once more to the heart of that man on whose will depended 
the life of the Emperor, whose pale flice and melancholy blue 
eyes, which impressed even a man like Palacios, were con- 
stantly looking at me. It was eight o'clock in the evening 
when I went to see Mr. Juarez, who received me at once. 
He looked pale and suffering himself. With trembling lips I 
pleaded for the life of the Emperor, or at least for delay. 
What I blamed in a man — in Baron Magnus — might be par- 
doned in a woman. The President said that he could not 
grant it ; he would not prolong his agony any longer ; the 
Emperor must die to-morrow. 

When I heard these cruel words I became frantic with grief. 
Trembling in every limb and sobbing, I fell down on my knees 
and pleaded with words which came from my heart, but which 
I cannot remember. The President tried to raise me, but I 
held his knees convulsively, and said I would not )eave him 
before he had granted his life. I saw the President was moved ; 
he as well as Mr. Iglesia had tears in their eyes, but he 
answered me with a low sad voice, " I am grieved, madame, 
to see you thus on your knees before me ; but if all the kings 
and queens of Europe were in your place I could not spare 
that life. It is not I who take it, it is the people and the law, 
and if I should not do its will the people would take it and 
mine also." 

In my raving agony I exclaimed, he might take my life if 
blood was wanted. I was a useless woman, but he might 
spare that of a man v/ho might still do so much good in 
another country. All was in vain. The President raised me 
up, and repeated to me that the life of my husband should be 
spared ; that was all he could do. I thanked him and left. 

In the ante-room were more than two hundred ladies of San 


2'cn Years of my Life. 

I.iiis asscniMccI, wlio came also to pray for the lives of the 
ilircc condciiined — Maximilian, Miramon, and Mejia, They 
were received, but had no more success than myself Later, 
JMadame Miramon came, leading in her hands her two little 
I'iiiidren. The President could not refuse to receive her. Mr. 
igiesia afterwards told me that it was a most heartrending 
Fccnc to hear the poor wife and the innocent little ones praying 
for the life of their husband and father. The President, he 
said, suffered ec^ually at that moment from being under the 
cruel necessity of taking the life of a noble man like 
Maximilian, but he could not do otherwise. Madame 
Miramon fainted and was carried out of tl:e room. 

The trying scenes through which the President had gone 
that day were too much for him. He retired for three days 
to his room and would not see anyone. I could not close my 
eyes that night, and went with many other ladies of our party 
to church to pray for the condemned. 

In the course of the morning the telegraph conveyed the 
sed news that the execution had taken place, and that all was 

In the evening I went to see Madame Miramon. She was 
so much changed that I scarcely recognised her. She told rne 
that she would stay a few days quietly at San Luis, until she 
had recovered strength enough to travel to Quere^aro and 
receive the body of her husband. I much desired to return to 
that city also, and gave a great deal of troubk to Mr. Lerdo 
and Mt. Iglesia, for scarcely one day passed that I did not 
importune them by my visit*. 

Mr. Lerdo was the right-hand man of Mr. Juarez, and enjoyed 
not only his perfect confidence, but had also the reputation of 
being a great politician. He does not look at all like a Mexican, 
for he is fair and has blue eyes. He is a very refined gentleman 
and most exquisitely polite. I had written to my husband to 
ask the permission of Escobedo for my return, and as he granted 
it, the President yielded to ray repeated request, but I had to 
give him my word of honour that I would not engage in any 
enterprise to assist in the escape of my husband or any other 

On July I, I arrived in Queretaro, and went again to the 
nouse of Madame Vicentis, though she was absent. My hus- 
band looked thin and pale, and was, as is almost always the 

Coitjllctitnj Jill iiioars. 


ion of 
id to 
id to 




case with prisoners, very impatient and excitable. Tie had 
siill fresli in his memory the death of tlie I'.inperor, and would 
not believe either in tlie promises or liie word or iioiioiir of the 
* blood-thirsty Indian.' He thought of nothing but es(:ai)C, 
and in that 1 could and 'vould not assist him, even wlien his 
trial was near at hand, and everybody was certain that he 
would be condemned. 1 believed in tlie assurances of Juarez, 
Lerdo, and Iglesia, who had told me that he and tlie other 
Generals would be condemned to death only to satisfy the peo- 
ple, but that only some of them, if any, would be shot, and my 
husband certainly would be saved. 

As in his excusably angry feelings Salm was not very amiable 
with the officers who guarded him, he could not expect much 
kindness from them. Difficulties of all kinds were jilaced in 
the way of my seeing him, and the Liberal ofiicers found a 
pleasure in spreading alarming reports only to torment the 

Prejudiced as my husljand was, he believed those rumours 
more than my assurances, and made me feel uncertain and 
anxious. When his trial came on it was thought best that I 
should go to Mexico, where Mr. Juarez and the whole Cabinet 
were at that time, and I accordingly nQt off about the i2th of 

In Mexico the rumour was current that all the prisoners 
would be shot, and I, like many relations of them, felt 
great anxiety in consequence. About twenty wives and sisters 
of prisoners went to see the Pre.:ident, who sent us Mr. I.^lesia, 
by whom we were told that a delay of two weeks had been 
granted. The minister repeated to me the assurances made 
before, and advised me to remain quietly in Mexico until it 
had been decided where the prisoners were to be confined, 
then he would assist me in managing that my husband should 
come to Mexico- 

The decision did not come for a long time, as all the papers 
of the ditferent prisoners had to be examined again ; and as 
Mr. Ilube advised me also to wait, I remained meanwhile with 
his family in Tacubaya. At last, in September, it was ordered 
that the prisoners- should remain in Queretaro, and I started 
the same night for the city, where I arrived on September 8. 

My husband and all the other Generals imprisoned with him 
had been condemned to be shot in July. Their execution 





Ten Years of my Life. 

which was to take place on the 19th, was first postponed for 
five days, and then sine die. As I knew for certain that my 
husband would not be shot I did not feel much anxiety, and 
remained in Mexico ; but he did not trust my assurances, and 
^even provided for the embalming of his body. 

Though I brought with me an especial permit from the 
Secretary of War to see my husband whenever I liked, all 
kinds of difificulties were placed in my way, and my visits made 
as disagreeable as possible. By the intercession of a German 
who served in the Liberal army, Colonel von Gagem, this was 
altered for the better, and to the kindness of this worthy officer 
my husband and the other prisoners owed very much. The 
Prince was even permitted, on giving his word of honour, to 
go now and then in the city, and I could remain with him in 
puson until ten o'clock in the evening. 

The citizens of Queretaro behaved very kindly towards the 
prisoners, and supported them by providing for their meals, 
and other comforts. My husband has described his prison 
life in his book, and as I could but copy him I shall pass over 
this period of my stay in Queretaro, and only mention my 
rather curious transactions with the physician who had em- 
balmed the Emperor. 

It is well known what difficulties the Liberal Government 
placed in the way of those persons who were sent to fetch the 
body of the poor Emperor. But not only the Government 
speculated with the body, — Dr. Licca, who had embalmed him, 
did the same. This doctor had made a plaster of Paris cast 
from the face of the Emperor, and Dr. Basch wrote to my hus- 
band to procure it for him. He commissioned me to speak to 
the doctor, and I ./ent accordingly to see him. 

This doctor was a low, mercenary wretch, who already had 
made his name infamous by betraying General Miraroon, and 
by the brutal manner in which he treated the body of the 
Enipc or. When he plunged his knife into the corpse, he said, 
* What a delight it is for me to be able to wash my hands in 
the blood of an Emperor T 

This man had retained all the clothes which the Emperor 
wore when he was shot, part of his hair, beard, &c., and was 
waiting for a purchaser of these relics. He asked me twenty 
thousand pesos for them, and I requested him to make a 
written inventory of all the things he had, and also the price 

Tlic Prisoners leave Queretaro. 


ed for 
at my 
y, and 
s, and 

m the 
ed, all 
3 made 
lis was 
:)ur, to 
him in 

ds the 
ss over 
on my 
id em- 

ch the 
is cast 
fiy hus- 
Deak to 


ly had 
, and 
of the 
e said, 
nds in 

d was 
ake a 

he asked for them. Probably to bribe me he gave me part of 
the Emperor's hair and beard, and a piece of the red silk sa.-.h 
which was saturated with his blood ; and to my husband lie 
sent a piece of the Emperor's heart in alcohol, and a bullet 
which was found in the body. I spoiled, however, the specu- 
lation of this wretch, by showing the inventory he gave me to 
Admiral Tegethoff and President Juarez. He was sued for 
trying to sell what did not belong to him, and condemned by 
the court. 

On the morning of the 8th of October the order arrived that 
the prisoners were to be transported from Queretaro to their 
difierent places of detention, namely, Oaxaca and Vera Cruz. 
On the 9th, at one o'clock, p.m., they left under an escort, 
and on pardng the inhabitants of Queretaro presented them 
with all kinds of eatables, and showed their sympathy in a 
very affecting manner. 

I followed with the wife of Colonel Diaz and Colonel von 
Gagern in the diligence, and met the prisoners on the loth in 
San Juan del Rio. There I took breakfast with my husband, 
and went to Mexico in advance of him. 

The prisoners were placed there first in the common house 
of correction, and all visitors excluded ; but this was altered 
in a few days and they were transferred to the convent of 
Santa Brigida, where they were very well quartered, and where 
they received a great many visitors, who all brought them 
flowers, fruit, cigars, and other comforts. 

I and friends of my husband exerted ourselves with all 
persons of influence to bring about a change in his position. 
Ifwe could not persuade the authorities to exile instead of 
imprisoning him, we would try at least to retain him in Mexico, 
instead of sending him to Oaxaca. Salm, however, who did 
not think that this would be granted, wished at least to be per- 
mitted to go to Vera Cruz, because he believed that escape 
from there would be easier than from a place in the interior. 

On the 24th of October, in the morning betweeen five and 
six, I received a note from my husband, informing me tiiat the 
prisoners were to be transferred at once to Oaxaca and Vera 
Cruz. Their departure had been kept secret in order to pre- 
vent their many friends from showing their sympathy. I 
arrived in the convent when they had already left, but overtook 
them at the garita. Tiiey were transported through the streets 





i ' ! I 


Ten Years of my Life. 

not like generals and prisoners of war, but like convicts, 
marching between an escort of cavalry by two and two, my 
husband and old General Castilio arm-in-arm at their heacl. 
'J'heir miserable condition affected me so much that I wept 

All the precautions taken by the authorities had not been 
able to prevent many ladies from collecting at the railway sta- 
tion to say farewell to them. As I could not accompany tne 
prisv"ners on their march, and moreover as my presence in 
Mexico 'was necessary in the interciit of my husband, I took 
leave of him also, hoping to see him soon released, and to de- 
part with him to Europe from Vera Cruz 

In Tehuacan, the head-quarters of Porfirio Diaz, my husband 
was very amiably received by General Baz, chief of the staff, 
who told him that he had been strongly recommended to the 
Commanding General from Mexico. Porfirio Diaz treated him 
indeed very kindly. My husband was allowed to go about in 
the town as he pleased, and dined with the General and his 
family. When he left after two days of rest Porfirio Diaz gave 
him letters of recommendation to two generals in Vera Cruz^ 
for he had received permission to go there instead of to 

In Vera Cruz my husband, with the other Generals, was de- 
tained in the casemates of the Fort San Juan d'Ulloa, situate 
on an island near that city. 

In my task to work for his release I was kindly assisted by 
all the Americans from the North and the South living in 
Mexico, and I have especially to thank Mr. A. P. Perry, the 

correspondent of the ' New York Herald ; ' Dr. Skelton 
above all the new Charge d'Affaires of the United ^wui 


Mexico, Mr. Plumb, who was instructed by Mr. Se 

-J, who 
knew my husband very well, to intercede for him v/ith the 
Mexican Government. President Johnsor* caused Mr. Seward 
to write a private letter to Mr. Juarez in reference to the Prince, 
and told me later, when I saw him in Washington, that it was 
done in consequence of my several letters to him. 

Admiral Tegethoff had also interested himself for the Prince 
and in the middle of November he sent me a card of con- 
gratulation, as Minister Lerdo, with whom he had dined, had 
informed him that the President had just signed the release oi 
my husband. 


:, my 



.y sta- 
y tne 
ice in 

took . 
to de- 

to the 
id him 
out in 
id his 
z gave 
, Cruz, 
of to 

as de- 

ed by 

ing in 

ry, the 


• ill 


h the 



t was 

Deixiriure for Europe. 


This release was taken by Baron Magnus to Vera Cruz, and 
communicated on November 13 to my husband, with the 
request to report to the commander of the city. The Prince 
intended to leave for Europe in the Englii^h steamer sailing (jn 
December 3, and telegraphed for 'me to come. 1 answered 
that I would be with him in four days. 

When Salm reported to the commander of Vera Cruz, this 
gentleman insisted on his leaving by the next steamer, the 
' Panama,' which started on November 1 5, at eleven o'clock 
A.M., and to his ^reai regret he had to obey orders. 

My despair may be itnagined when I arrived the following 

I resolved not to return to Mexico, though I had left there 
all my things, and not to wait in Vera Cruz for the next Euro- 
pean steamer either, but to sail at once in a little French 
steamer to New Orleans, and from there to New York, where 
I hoped to procure means to go as soon as possible to Europe, 
for I had very little money. 

It was a rather disagreeable voyage, for coming from a hot 
climate 1 had no clothes suitable for a cold country ; and 
arrivinLT in the MetropoUtan Hotel, in New York, I had to 
keep in my room until some were made for me. 

1 was quite astonished at the reception I had in New York. 
When my arrival was made known in the papers I received an 
immense quantity of bouquets from everywhere, and wherever 
I showed myself, in the hotel or in the street, people crowded 
and cheered me. I was much affected by this unexpected 
show of sympathy. 

From New York I went to Washington to see my sister, and 
also President Johnson, and other persons who had assisted 
. my husband, to thank them. 

Though I required some rest after so much trouble and ex- 
citement, I longed to join my husband, and after having pro- 
cured the money I required, I left New York for Brest, on 
December 28, on board the ' Ville de Paris/ 

, had 

lase ol 










! I 

1 I 



Brest — First impressions — A four-legged baby — Paris — Castle Anholt— 
Prince Alfred — His family — Our position — ^Journey to Vienna — 
Audience with the Emperor of Austria — Result — Salm in the hands 
of his old enemies — Flight — M) audience with the mother of Maxi- 
milian — Hor present — Munich — Countess Salm-Hoegstraeten — Re- 
turn to Westphalia — Princess Minna— "rince Alfred dangerously ill 
— Rheingrafenstein — von vStein— Meetir^ with Corvins in Rorschach 
— Castle Wiggen — The Rorschach Hill— The Lake of Constance — 
Mrs. Raggebas — Visitors — A visit to Combe Varin — Professor 
Edward Desor — Baron H. and wife — A Russian Baron and his 
daughter — Prince Hohenzollern — At the Wfinburg — Off to Berlin. 

To travel alone several thousand miles is a very heavy task 
for a young woman, especially if encumbered by a dog, whom 
nobody would any longer call a little dog, and which, in fact, 
weighed nearly twc nty pounds and had distressingly long legs. 
Little children are great encumbrances in travelling, but they 
are at least looked upon as pardonable nuisances ; whilst a dog 
is persecuted by railway and diligence conductors, and even 
captains of steamers, with a zeal approaching fanaticism. A 
baby may be shown openly — and this is rather the pleasant 
side of baby transportation — conductors cannot object ; whilst 
a dog must be carefully concealed from the lynx eyes of prying 
conductors, who will not always be appeased by pleading 
words, even if accompanied by more persuasive silver. If 
Jimmy could write his memoirs his book would be read with 
great sympathy, not only by the whole canine tribe, but also 
by all ladies who cherish a four-legged pet. 

New Year's Day on board the ' Ville de Paris ' was a most 
miserable day, for the weather was extremely rough and every 
body was sea-sick, myself and Jimmy included. 

We arrived on January 6, 1868, in Brest, \yhere I went to 

A Four-lerjfjed Bahy. 


a dog 


. If 




nt to 

the Hotel I^amarque. I sent at once a despatch to Felix and 
his brother, and was very much disappointed on receiving next 
day .the news that my husband was prevented from coming for 
me to Brest, but that he expected me in Paris. 

I was of course in a very bad humour, and it may be 
ascribed to this circumstance that the first impressions which 
Europe made on me was by no means favourable. Everything 
appeared to me extremely small in comparison with what I had 
left in America. The rivers looked all like miserable creeks, the 
mountains like mole-hills, and the trees like toys. The people 
in the hotel were, however, very kind, and assisted me to the 
best of their ability. The landlady accompanied me next 
morning to the depot, to facilitate difficulties which possibly 
might occur in reference to Jimmy, as dogs were severely pro- 
hibited in first-class carriages. To submit the noble dog to 
the ignominy of the dogs' quarters in tlie train was revoltii;g to 
all my feelings, and in order to protect him against such a de- 
grading position he, with the help of the landlady, had been 
dressed up as a baby, and a thick veil covering his dear long 
snout concealed him before the sharp eyes of the railroad 
guards. The young lonely mother found sympathy with them, 
and I had a coupe all to myself. 

I arrived in Paris on January 9, at one o'clock a.m., and 
found at the depot my dear husband waiting fui me. In the 
pleasure of the meeting 1 forgot myself, and the guard dis- 
covered that my baby had four legs. He seemed very much 
. alarmed, but a Napoleon calmed his fears, and we drove away 
very happy. 

We intended to leave Paris on the same niglit for Schloss 
Anholt, the residence of Alfred, Prince Salm-Salm, Feli.^'s 
elder brother. We were, however, detained a day longer, 
having to make many purchases. 

Paris pleased me very much, though it presented itself under 
very unfavourable circumstances, for the weather being 
extremely bad a gloom was spread over everything. 

On leaving Paris for Schloss Anholt, in Westphalia, it was 
only natural that I felt somewhat nervous. Though Felix had 
assured me that I should be received most kindly by his whole 
family, I had still some apprehensions, fearing the formal and 
ceremonious stiffness which I imagined to be inseparable from 
all Prussian families. 

f if 








Ten Years of my Life. 

We arrived in Anholt on January ii, at ten o'clock a.m., 
and all my fears were speedily removed by the very kind man- 
n r in which I was received by my husband's brother and his 
numerous family. 

Prince Alfred zu Salm-Salm, Duke of Hoegstraeten, Rhein 
and Wildgraf, &c., <S:c. — all his titles may be seen in the Al- 
manac of Gotha — is, notwithstanding all his pompous titles, a 
very simple, unpretending, kind, and very polite man, who 
did not look upon me as a stranger, but treated me from the 
first moment as a sister, so that I felt at once at home. 

Schloss Anholt is an extremely old, extensive, imposing- 
looking Castle, built around a tower, which stood there before 
the Christian era, having been erected by the Romans. The 
whole Castle is like Amsle^-dam, built on wooden piles, which 
have become like stone in the course of time. The whole 
ground around is swampy, and by digging only one foot deep 
water is to be found. The Castle is surrounded by a splendid 
park, which is improving every year, and protected by a moat 
with drawbridges, which are drawn up every night. 

The house contains very fine halls, with an armoury and 
other relics of olden times, and above one hundred rooms.^ All 
this is very fine and noble, but it did not altogether correspond 
with the ideas I had about a princely palace. Used to the 
luxurious dwellings of the rich people of North America, 
everything appeared to me somewhat primitive and as it were 
uncivilised. I wondered at the uncarpeted staircases and 
rooms, where only patches here and there covered the dark 
oaken flooring, which was made so slippery by beeswaxing 
that I found difficulty in walking, and really fell down on 
entering my bedroom. 

There do not exist in North America such feudal dwellings, 
and as there are no feudal ideas to be found either, I did not 
look exactly with the same feelings of pride and satisfaction on 
this simplicity as the members of the family. Modern elegant 
dwellings, however, may be procured by every rich cheese- 
monger, but such grand halls, solid staircases, &c., are to be 
found only in the seats of noble old families. 

If I felt somewhat disappointed in reference to Castle An- 

1 The picture gallery, is extremely fine, and in it are to he found highly 
valuable originals of Con-eggio, Rubens, and other celebrated old masters. 


Salm's Posit Ion. 




holt, the people living there all did their best to make me com- 
fortable and feel at home. Prince Alfred, though Prince and 
Duke, did not differ in his manner and behaviour from other 
well-bred gentlemen, and his daughters were nuite natural, 
kind, and good-hearted girls, with no stupid pride or any other 
nonsense about them. 

The household of the Prince was carried on in a style be-- 
coming his position ; everything was well regulated and agree- 
able. The weather was not very favourable, and the family 
were mostly confined to the Castle, where we passed the time 
with home occupations and amusements. My brother-in-law 
taught me how to play at billiards and his daughters how to 
spin, which afforded me much pleasure. 

When the weather permitted, we had a ride on horseback, 
or in a pony-chaise, or a walk to a neighbouring farm, where 
we took coffee. Felix and his Diulher went out shooting 
hares, and I joined them occasionally with my fowling-piece, 
and sometimes succeeded well. In a word, we led a quiet 
coun<-iy life, which was to me very pleasant after the exciting 
scenes I had gone through, but of which but little of interest 
could be said without entering into details. 

The future of my husband occupied Prince Alfred a good 
deal. Though Felix might have lived to the end of his life in 
Castle Anholt, surh an idle and dependent existence would 
not have suited either him or me, and it was his great desire to 
enter the army again. Felix had served before both in the 
Austrian and Prussian army, and it deserved some considera- 
tion where he would have the best chances. His sympathies 
were entirely with Prussia, but having once left that service 
when still a very young officer, it was rather doubtful whether 
he would find there a position he could accept in his advanced 
age, after having occupied places of some importance. In 
Austria his chances seemed to be better ; he had been the chief 
of the household of the Emperor Maximilian, had been distin- 
guished by him especially, and been his companion in prison. 
Moreover, the late Emperor had remembered him in his last 
will, and expressed otherwise confidence and love towards my 
husband. It was therefore reasonable to expect that he would 
be favourably received by the Imperial brother of his late 
friend and Emperor. 

There existed, however, still other difficulties, which were 

1 1' 


I ► 


i : 



7Vy? ]>f/?'.9 o/ 711 y Life. 


by no means easy to conquer, and which were not only franglit 
with danger, but attended by circumstances of an especially 
unple-'isant and annoying character. 

I mentioned the reasons which caused my husband to leave 
Europe — his debts. These debts were not paid yet, and were 
not forgotten either by his creditors. Though these people 
had given up nearly all hope of ever recovering them when my 
husband went to America, their hope was again revived by his 
return, which became known through the papers in connection 
with reports which still strengthened these hopes. It was said 
that the Emperor Maximilian had left a legacy to my husband, 
and on this his creditors speculated. It would have been easy 
to come to an arrangement with them as long as my husband 
was still in Mexico, but this having been neglected, his return 
made such an arrangement liar more difficult. Some of these 
creditors addressed his brother, ond though Prince Alfred was 
much inclined to Qoa great deal foi him, he could not think of 
satisfying their extravagant demands, as he had himself a rather 
large family, and besides knew very well in what manner these 
debts had been contracted, and how shamelessly some of these 
usurers and sharpers had profited by the extravagance and 
carelessness of his young brother. 

Before coming to any decision in this serious matter and 
taking any steps, it was necessary to ascertain what chances my 
husband might liave in reference to his future career. 

It was therefore agreed between Felix and his brother that 
the former should go to Vienna. He wished to go there alone, 
leaving me behind in Anholt, whicb, however, aid not suit me. 
I had promised the poor Emperor to see his mother, Arch- 
duchess Sophie, and I was anxious to fulfil my promise. The 
opposition of my husband was overruled by Prince Alfred, and 
both of us left for Vienna on February 14. 

The weather was extremely fine, and the journey pleased rne 
much, for I saw for the first time the Rhine and its beautiful 
scenery. Westphalia is not the most favourable part of Ger- 
many, but our road led through countries which pleased me 
far better, and reconciled me to the fatherland of my husband, 
my future home. 

Arriving in Vienna we alighted at an old, very good hotel in 
a narrow street, " the Archduke Charles. I was extremely 
pleased with Vienna, which is indeed a most beautiful city, 
with charming surroundings. 

ed rne 
d me 


^xuaicnce ivlih Emperor of A iisfrltt. 2.S7 

Next day a nephew of my liusband, Prince Alfred, dined 
M'iih us. He was then an otliccr in the Austrian army. 
Anotiicr of the sons of my husband's brother was an officer in 
Triissia. I snid before tliat the sympathies of the old Catholic 
nobility of Westphalia were always divided between Austria 
and Prussia, and that it was usual for some of their members 
to serve in the Austrian, others in the Prussian army. » 

As soon as our arrival became known in Vienna we received 
many visits, especially from old acquaintances in Mexico. Dr. 
Pasch called, and also Col. v. Kodolitsch and Admiral 

On the 1 8th my husband had an audience with the 
Emperor of Austria, from which he returned rather dissatisfied 
for he might have expected a more gracious reception. The 
reserve of the Emperor may, however, be easily explained. 
After the catastrophe of Mexico a great many persons arrived 
in Vienna who all had served Maximilian, and expected to be 
rewarded for their services extravagantly by his brother. The 
Emperor was indeed annoyed very much, and in self-defense 
had to look somewhat coolly on the numerous claimants. 
This may explain the unsatisfactory reception of my husband, 
though his exceptional position with Maximilian might per- 
haps have justified a slight exception on the part of his brother. 
Decorations are very cheap at Courts, and often bestowed 
much out of place, and they were so without doubt on the 
breast of Baron Lago, about whom Maximilian had expressed 
himself so explicitly. Kind and yielding as he was, however, 
he had given to this impotent diplomatist a written testimony 
of his good behaviour, which the Baron took good care to 
present as soon as possible in Vienna, and in consequence of 
which he obtained a decoration, on which he, however, ought 
never to look without blushing. From this noble Baron the 
Emperor probably received information in reference to my 
husband, for a letter which Maximilian gave the minister to 
show in Vienna, in order to mform the Emperor of the inti- 
mate connection existing between the poor prince and my 
husband. Baron Lago had destroyed, afraid that it might be 
found upon him and endanger his precious neck. Thus it 
happened that the friend of Maximilian did not receive from 
his brother even such a token of his satisfaction as was granted 
to a Baron Lago ! He felt much grieved and mortified, and 




2'en Years of my Life. 

when on the next day an aide of the Emperor offered him a 
small amount of money, or an annuity, he declined, for i)oor 
as he was, lie felt rather humbled by such an ofier. This was, 
however, certainly not the intention of the Kmperor. 

The presence of my husband in Vienna did not remain un- 
noticed by his creditors in that city, and on February 22 he 
was arrested. He was released, however, on paying two thou- 
sand five hundred dollars to the officer, and to prevent a repe- 
tition of such an occurrence he accepted the offer of a wiser 
or more speculative creditor to conceal him in his house. Not 
feeling at ease there either he thought it safer to decamp, and 
he left Vienna. 

I had requested an audience with Archduchess Sophie, and 
had to remain. As the Empress was not in Vienna 1 could 
not be presented to her, nor to the Emperor either. Maybe 
he would not have received me, as was the case with Madame 
de Miramon, though she had an autograph letter from poor 
Maximilian, recommending her and her family to his brother. 
She remained five weeks in an hotel waiting for an audience, 
and had to leave Vienna without having been able to see the 
Emperor. I have explained already the seeming harshness of 
this kind Prince. The claims made upon him by people who 
had served his brother became indeed alarming, and if he had 
once commenced to satisfy them he would not have known 
where they would stop. When things became more settled, 
and he was enabled to go into the affairs of his brother, he 
did not forget Madame Miramon, and provided for her in a 
very noble and handsome manner. 

Archduchess Sophie received me on February 27. She was 
extremely kind, cried a good deal, and thanked me much for 
what I had done for her beloved son. She said she had been 
much opposed to his going amongst such barbarians, and I 
had to tell her all he had said, and how he had looked, &c. 
She was indeed very much affected. 

Her gratitude restricted itself not only to words. Soon 
afterwards was offered to me on the part of the Emperor an 
annuity of twelve hundred dollars, which I thankfully accepted, 
and about a fortnight after this visit she sent me, through 
Countess von Furstenberg, a splendid bracelet, with the por- 
trait of the Emperor Maximilian, as a keepsake. 

I left Vienna on February 28, and met my husband waiting 





;r, he 

in a 



I been 

id I 


ir an 



The Fatai't luuk^ IkirL 



for me at the station in Munich. We p;ud a visit to an aunt 
of Felix, who lived there, u (Jountess von Salm-llor^straeleii, 
whose husband was not at iionu', but in IJoiui with one ot his 
brothers. We passed a })leasant day with the Countess and 
her daughter, who were charnung, kind people, and leli or* 
March 2, early in the morning. 

Arriving in Bonn at half-past nine p.m., we were received at 
the station by the Counts Albrecht and Hermann Salm- 
Iloegstraeten, who has a house in Bonn. We stayed next 
day in this city, with which I was very much i)leased. 

In the afternoon we received a visit from the eldest son of 
my husband's brother, Leopold, the hereditary Prince of the 
house of Salm-Salm, whom 1 saw here for the first time, as he 
did not live in Schloss Anholt, but in Godesberg, where he 
was under hydropathic treatment. This important personage 
did not say much, but stared all the afternoon in my face. 

We returned t(^ Anholt rather sad and discouraged, for our 
future looked dark. Without having arranged with his clamour- 
ing creditors my husband could not think of entering the army. 
This arrangement became more difficult every day, for as soon 
as the creditors were aware of the desire to settle, and that the 
reigning Prince wa«6 willing to assist, their exactions became 
extravagant beyond all reasonable bounds. Under such cir- 
cumstances it was impossible for us to remain in Germany, and 
we seriously reflected on le-^ving it again, but where to go we 
did not know. 

Though my brother-in-law and his family did all they could 
to make us feel at home, we could not shake off our sad 
thoughts. We were groping in the dark, and for a long tfme 
we could not come to any resolution. 

Life in Anholt went on as usual in a quiet way, and was 
only interrupted now and then by visits from relations or visits 
we paid to them. Amongst others we visited the widow of 
Prince Emil Salm, a brother of Alfred and Felix, who lived in 
Cleve, where her two sons were at a college. Her name was 
Minna. Felix liked her very much. 

Time passed on without anything definitive being decided 
in reference to us. Alfred, however, endeavoured to come io 
an arrangement with my husband's creditors, and to facilitate 
this it was thought expedient that we should leave Germany 
for a time. 





1 1 










Ten Years of my Life. 

During our stay in Mexico we had always kept up a lively 
correspondence with our friends the Corvins. The Colonel, 
who had a position in the United States Treasury, became 
tired of greenbacks and seven-thirties, accepted a position as 
special correspondent of the * New York Times,' and returned 
to Germany in 1867. He lived then with Mrs. Corvin in 
Berlin, and we had arranged to meet somewhere in Switzerland, 
where we intended to spend our sumnier together. 

When we were nearly rt'^'^y to start my brother-in-law, 
Prince Alfred, fell seriously ill, and the whole family was much 
distressed and alarmed. Everybody liked Prince Alfred, for, 
being a very good and kind father, his death would not only 
have been deeply felt by ^11 his children and relatives, because 
they loved and respected him, but also because a very great 
change would have resulted from it. 

The most celebrated physicians were fetched from Bonn, 
but they agreed that Alfred was most dangerously ill, and that 
there was little hope of his recovery. All the members of the 
family and also tiie Duke of Croy arrived in Anholt, and on 
Friday, April 3, Alfred received the holy sacrament. But from 
that time he improved and began to recover slowly. At the 
end of April he was oui «i>f dang^^r, and on Tuesday, May 5, 
we left Anholt for Switzerland, taking the steamboat at Cologne. 

On our way we paid a visit to the ancestral castle of the 
Salms, the former residence of the ' Rhingraves,' the Rhein- 
grafenstein, which is now a ruin still belonging to the family. 
As my husband had good reasons for not making it known who 
he was, we had resolved to lay his title aside and to travel 
under the name of Von Stein. 



Basle to Constance we took there the 

steamer, and arrived on May 9 m Rorschach, in the Canton 
$4:. Gall, Switzerland, where we met he Corvins, who had 
arrived two days before us. 

Rorschach is a large village hard on the Lake of Constance, 
which would be called a city in many parts of America. It is 
just opposite Friedrichshafen in Wiirtemburg, and situated at 
the foot of a hill nearly three miles long, which rises from the 
lake about two thousand feet high. I was not in a frame of 
mind to enjoy anything, and that, I suppose, was the reason 
that I did not then like the place, though the Corvins were de- 
lighted with It. We alighted at the Hotel G^rni, close to the 

A Remarkable Stove. 


. lively 
tion as 
vin in 

3 much 
sd, for, 
Dt only 
/ great 

nd that 

of the 
and on 
ut from 

At the 
May 5, 


of the 


n who 

ive the 

LP ton 

10 had 

It is 
ited at 
>m the 
ime of 
;re de- 
Ito the 


lake, the railroad running right before the house. As I did 
not like the accommodation at all, we looked out for some 
other place, and went in a boat to Arbon, situate on a project- 
ing kind of peninsula. From the garden of the inn there wi 
had a spltndid view of the Saentis mountain and its glaciers, 
but the inn being rather too rustic for our taste, we did not 
hke to stay there. 

Salm and Corvin went prospectmg about, and discovered a 
little old castle about a quarter of an hour from Rorschach, 
situate on the slope of the above-mentioned ridge, something 
like two hundred feet above the surface of tiie lake. Its name 
was Castle Wiggen, and it belonged to a former Landamann of 
St. Gall, Mr. Hoffman von Leuchtenstern, who had resided 
there several years, but who lived then, since he had become a 
widower, in St. Gall. Hearing that the castle was in perfect 
repair and furnished, we were desirous o( renting it, and went 
to St. Gall to speak to its owner, who was willing and we took 

Salm and myself occupied a very large corner room, with an 
adjoining bedroom. From the windows we had a most 
splendid view over the Lake of Constance and its shores. The 
Corvins took the opposite corner room, separated from ours 
by a hall with a large window, in which were inserted in stained 
glass the arms of former owners. Whilst our rooms were 
modernized, that of our friends was left in its primitive state. 
The walls were gaudily and curiously painted, and provided 
with many cupboards. The furniture consisted of a large 
oaken centenarian table and straight-backed chairs, a narrow 
bed in a recess, and another very large one standing free in 
the room. The most remarkable object in that room was, 
however, the stove : it was the biggest and most respectable 
stove I have seen in all my life ; a whole Indian family might 
have lived in it, and it is worth a description. On four solid 
iron feet, ^bout two feet high, rested a more than three inches 
thick stone slab of six feet by three and a half, and on it stood, 
built of green, glazed, curiously ornamented square tiles, the 
main structure of the oven, capacious enough to hold a whole 
cartload of wood. On this square compartment rose, built of 
the same material, a round tower, reaching nearly up to the 
high ceiling. In the ornamented battlement of this tower 
were inserted the arms of the Schlabberitz, who once lived in 


• ti 





Ten Years of my Life. 

'lie castle. The most curious and suggestive part of this stove 
.\'as, however, to me the space between it and the wall. A 
lew steps of green glazed slalv led to ' seat made of the same 
material. It did not requi- much fancy to imagine sitting 
there some grey-headed old knight with a large tankard at hij 
olbow, or a venerable grand-mother, her wrinkled face rising 
above an enormous stiff frill. 

Old pictures, portraits and >thers, of more or less value, in 
tarnished gold or simple black frames, all looking somewhat 
mildewedj ornamented the rooms and halls, in which stood 
!)eautifully carved, enormous wardrobes of black walnut, with 
locks and keys that seemed to have been wrought by Tubal 

The hall between ours and the Corvins' rooms was closed 
by a strong iron-fitted door, opening on a stone staircase 
winding up in a round tower. On the top of this tower was 
arranged a little roon., from the window of which a wide view 
was to be had in ail direction . 

The tower was entered from a large hall on the ground floor, 
through which one came to the yard, closed by a farm-building 
and cow-stables. On the opposite side of the building was, 
enclosed by a wall from which some turrets had been removed, 
a little garden with fruit-trees, flower-beds, and vegetables, kept 
in order by the couple who were in cha?ge of the castle, and 
who lived in a kind of entresol. Peaches and pear-tiees and 
creepers covered th outside wall of the castle, which stood on 
a gentle eminence. Its slope was a luxuriant meadow, studded 
with beautiful fruit-trees. 

Though at that time I was dissatisfied with everything, be- 
cause I was much troubled in mmd, I must say now that this 
Castle Wiggen is a beautiful spot. From the back room one 
looked right upon the Rorschach hill, jf which the slope fall- 
ing off towards the lake is indeed a little world in itself Ap- 
proaching Rorschach from the lake, when still the snowy 
mountains behind the ridge are to be seen, this slope looks 
rather insignificant ; but on coming nearer and the high moun- 
tains disappearing, it looks more interesting ; but to become 
fully aware of its beauties, one must stay for a longer time and 
explore it. It is indeed, as I said, a little world in itself 
There are little villages and farms, deep gullies with rocks and 
water rushino; over them ; fine woods and splendid meadows, 

Be a u t If a I See n ery. 


lis stove 
^all. A 
he same 
2 sitting 
:d at hi;: 
:e rising 

^alue, in 
:h stood 
lut, with 
y Tubal 

is closed 
)wer was 
ride view 

md floor, 
ding was, 
)les, kept 
stle, and 
lees and 
stood on 

hing, be- 
that this 

covered with beautiful flowers like a f^arden. Everywhere 
crystal springs are bubbling. Towards the top of the ridge are 
pine-woods, It 11 a rather long and toilsome way up to them, 
but it is worth the trouble to make it, for behind these woods 
is the crest of the ridge, from where the enraptured eye looks 
on the Saentis, which seems so close by that every little rock 
on it can be seen. At the other end of the ridge the view is 
even finer, for before us are the Rhine Valley, the mountains 
near Ragatz and Chur, and the Tyrolean Alps. 

The beauties of the site of Rorschach, though it does not 
strike visitors on a first view, have been fully appreciated by 
connoisseurs. The Queen Dowager of Wurtemburg, who is 
now dead, had between Rorschach and Bad Horn a fine 
country-housre, where she resided every summer. At the op- 
posite side, nearer to the entrance of the Rhine into the lake 
is Castle Wartegg, the residence of the Duke of ParmA. On 
the same line, not on the lake but on the top of the ridge, 
stands the very stately old Castle of Wartamsee, which has 
been restored by an Englishman, who, however, lost his money 
in Baden-Baden, and had to sell that fine place, which since 
then has changed hands several times. Not far from Rors- 
chach, in the Rhine Valley, is the Weinburg, a country seat 
belonging to the Prince of Hohenzollern. 

Rorschach is built hard by tlie lake. It was a very flourish- 
ing n Tcantile place, and many rich merchants dealing with 
Italy lived there. Several fine old houses, with curiously sculp- 
tured windows and balconies, especially in the main street, 
bear testimony to their taste and wealth. It is still an impor- 
tant place, and one of the grain markets of Switzerland. Close 
to the lake, on the haven, stands an extensive old corn-house. 

In summer Rorschach is very lively, for an immense num- 
ber of travellers pass through, coming either from Lindau or 
Friedrichshafen, on their way to the interior of Switzerland. 
Steamers are going to and fro, the railroad whistle is heard in- 
cessantly, and all these steamers and trains are crowded, loaded 
with travellers from every part of the world — or societies, 
schools, colleges, &c. out on a pleasure excursion. Most of 
these passengers pass only, but very many think it worth while to 
stay a day or two in Rorschach, and in the several hotels of 
the place company is always to be found, almost every day fiesU 




Ten Years of my Life. 

As it was inconvenient to walk every day to Rorschach for 
our meals, though the distance from Wiggen would be con- 
sidered trifling in a city, we commenced housekeeping in the 
castle. It is true the cooking apparatus of centuries ago was 
very insufficient, but we had all been used to camp life, and 
found it not very difficult to put up with little imperfections 
and simple tare. 

A few minutes walk brought us to the bank of th'=' lake, 
where we made friends with a gardener who had charge of an 
extensive villa, belonging to some Stuttgart gentleman, and 
were allowed the use of the bathing-house, which was indeed a 
great comfort. A bath in the Lake of Constance is indeed a 
treat. Though it is the largest of the Swiss lakes, it is only a 
pond in comparison with our American lakes. In fine wea- 
ther one can see every house in Fnedrichshafen on the Wur- 
tembergian shore, though the steamer requires an hour and a 
hr.lf for the passage. Still it is beautiful, and one does not 
tire of looking on its ever-changing surface. Now it is as 
blue as an Italian lake ; in the next quarter of an hour it is 
green, which is its most usual colour, shaded off from emerald 
green to the darkest hue. A land-scape painter could not 
find anywhere a more favourable place for studying water and 
sky than at the windows of our bright and pleasant room. 
Small as the lake appeared to me, in stormy weather it can 
assume quite a formidable aspect and foam like the sea. Skip- 
pers say that it is dangerous, and accidents to ships are by no 
means rare. Some years ago one of the largest steamers was 
wrecked close to the port of Rorschach 

It is plainly to be seen where the Rhine enters the lake, and 
the course of the river is still to be traced a great distance. 
The place near the entrance of the Rhine is rather ill-reputed, 
on account of an eddy making it dangerous to inexperienced 
boatmen. Salm went one morning out fishing alone in a 
small boat, with nothing but a piece of bread and a small flask 
in his pocket. Knowing that he was a very persevering sports- 
man, I did not wonder at his not being back to dinner ; but 
when, late in the afternoon, he still had not returned, and our 
glasses swept the lake in vain, looking out for his boat, we all 
became alarmed and afraid of some accident, though the wea- 
ther was fine and the lake like a mirror. At last he arrived 
but utterly exhausted and in a pitiful state. His face was 



ch for 
s con- 
in the 
J, and 

» lake, 
of an 
n, and 
deed a 
ieed a 
only a 
2 wea- 
e Wur- 
■ and a 
es not 
it is as 
ur it is 
Id not 
er and 
it can 
by no 
;rs was 

:e, and 
in a 
In flask 
; but 
|nd our 
we all 
le wea- 
be was 

burnt quite red and the inside of his hands was peeled 
off. As the place where the Rhine enters the lake was fa»nous 
for salmon, he ventured there, but not being sufficiently ac- 
quainted with the dangers of that locality he got in the famous 
eddy, and was kept there for hours, no help being near. 

The lake is still famous for its fish, though the steamships 
have done a great deal of harm. Some years ago a renowned 
fisherman from Horn caught in one morning 8oo cwt. of fish, a 
fact scarcely credible, but which was confirmed as true by 
many persons. Salm and '"orvin engaged that lucky man to 
initiate them in his art, and they went frequently out fishing 
on the lake, mostly trolling for salmon-trout and pike, but with 
indifferent success. Once. Salm had a bite and he became 
quite excited, for according to all indications an enormous 
salmon had taken the bait. Instead of giving the fish line and 
letting it exhaust its strength, Salm in his eagerness pulled in 
with all the strength of his arm, and the result was, as every 
votary of the craft might have foreseen, that he nearly capsized 
the boat by falling on his back, the salmon getting off with 
six hooks in his mouth. Salm was much teased for this un- 
courteous behaviour of one of his cousins towards the ' Rhine- 
grave,' for salmon is Salm in Gernian, and the family derive 
their name from this denizen of the Rhine, the Salms having 
two salmons in their coat of arms. 

I contented myself with fishing with the rod, remaining on 
shore. Though I am not very fearful in general, I dislike 
water, for on looking on it I think, shudderingly, of sea-sick- 

We made of course many excursions to the mountains, and 
though sometimes fatiguing, they were pleasant. We visited 
now and then the fine village of Heiden, about six miles from 
Wiggen, beyond the crest of the Rorschach hill and beautifully 
situated. Many people live there through the summer, and 
the place is quite celebrated, as Professor Graefe, the eminent 
oculist, stayed there every summer, r.nd people from every 
part of the world came there to consult him. 

We visited also sometimes Castle Rorschach, the decayed 
residence of the old lords of Rorschach, and once the resi- 
dence of an abbot of St. Gall, who sustained a siege and died 
there. It is situated some hundreds of feet above the village, and 
is now owned by a man who has been everywhere in the world, 



2'cu Years of my Life. 



and who looks like an Italian robber. He keeps in the castle 
a kind of restaurant, and many people go there to drink his 
good wine and enjoy the splendid view. 

More frequently we visited a place only a short walk from 
us, close to Castle Wartegg. It was called * im Wiedien,' and 
belonged to a man of the name of Raggebas, whose family 
have owned the house and surrounding fields for centuries. 
The very insignificant-looking house was built against the hill, 
and one entered with reluctance, first, a room where workmen 
from the neighbouring q^iarries were smoking horrid tobacco, 
eating horrid cheese, and drinking a horrid fluid called saft. a 
kind of weak cider made of pears, a whole pint of it costing 
but a fraction of a penny. 

From there one came into another room, where a better 
class of people, and amongst them some servants of the Duke 
of Parma, were drinking thtir coffee or pint of wine. Through 
this room one came to the third largest room, which was re- 
served for those persons who were imagined to belong to the 
higher classes. All the rooms were scrupulously clean and 
pleasant. The owner of this farm, who was a wealthy man, 
never aspired to a higher place in society than had been held 
by his ancestors. He was a free Swiss peasant, and, wearing 
all the year round his blouse and hobnailed shoes, he carried 
his milk to his customers and worked on his farm, leaving to 
his wife and servant the care as to housework and attendance 
on the guests. 

Mrs. Raggebas became a great friend of ours, as she 
had been of the late Duchess of Parma, who often came and 
had a chat with her. She was a middle aged, pleasant, kind, 
and polite peasant woman, who kept her house in trim order, 
and everything she served was excellent and ridiculously 

When we came there in company of six or eight persons and 
enjoyed all the luxuries to be had, as splendid coffee, excel- 
lent cream, cake, honey, and good Tyrolean wine, we never 
succeeded in running up a bill surpassing five francs ; and when 
paying, Mrs. Raggebas always forced upon us a quantity of 
cherries or pears, adding with a reassuring smile in her Swiss 
dialect, ' Koscht nix.' 

She had a maid-servant, who was remarkable also. She 
was the daughter of a wealthy farmer herself, but not liking her 

Frojessor Desor, 


I castle 
ink his 

k from 
n/ and 
: family 
:he hill, 
[ saft, a 

1 better 
e Duke 

was re- 
g to the 
jan and 
liy man, 
^en held 

Lving to 


as she 
me and 
a order, 


ons and 
d when 
ntity of 
;r Swiss 

:ing her 



stepmother she preferred serving. She was a rather tall, plea- 
sant-looking girl, with an open though not pretty countenance, 
who was held in great respect* by all the men on account of 
her strength, which she once used in a very credible manner. 
A little stranger, with a high, well-brushed cylinder hat, at- 
tempted to flirt with her in a country-like fashion. Looking 
upon him at first with some amused astonishment, she settled 
the question by quietly taking hold of his waist with both her 
hands. Then she lifted up the little amorous man as one does 
a baby, and ramming his precious beaver against the low ceil- 
ing so that it went down over the nose of the stunned little 
fellow, she went away laughing. 

When the weather was not favourable we were occupied at 
home ; Mrs. Corvin with painting in water colours, and I 
with learning German, for which I had engaged a teacher from 
Eorschach. Corvin had discovered in the castle an old library 
full of curious books, into which he dived with all the zeal of 
an antiquarian. Salm wrote his Diary in Mexico, which was 
published some time after, myself adding to it a part of my 
own diary. 

Visitors were not wanting, for many persons we knew passed 
through Rorschach and stayed there a few days. Amongst 
others came an old comrade of Salm's in the Austrian army. 
Baron Hauser, with his putty wife, the daughter of the Trieste 
banker, and a colonel from Bregenz paid us now and then a 
visit. The same did a Baron Alten (a staunch Welf, who 
foUov/ed the fortunes of his deposed king), with his daughter, 
an agreeable girl. 

Parties to Bregenz, Ragatz, Heiden, and St. Gall interrupted 
now and then our monotonous but rather pleasant life, which 
would have satisfied me still more if the unsettled state of 
Felix's affairs had not troubled my mind and embittered all 
enjoyment. My husband went from Rorschach to Munich 
and Vienna to bring about some arrangement, but without 
effect ; and from Schloss Anholt we did not receive much 
comfort either. 

In the first days of August, Mrs. Corvin resolved to pay a 
visit tC' a friend of her youth, the celebrated savant, Protessor 
Edward Desor, who lived near !N"eufchatel, and she invited me 
to accompany her. Switzerland is not Mexico, and I need 
not desciibe what I saw. Thoi'.gh the weather was not very 









m !': 




Ten Years of my Life. 

good, I was delighted. At a station beyond Neiifchatel, I 
believe Noiraigre, the carriage of the Professor waited for us, 
its ov/ner excusing himself on the ground of a slight indisposi- 
tion. The road to his country-seat was uphill work, for 
Combe- Varin (that is its name) is situate five thousand feet 
above the sea. It was formerly a hunting house of a noble 
family related to Mr. Desor, and has been changed by him 
into a very comfortable Swiss dwelling-house. The Professor's 
name is well known in the learned world. He was a long 
time in America, and a companion of Agassiz. Now he has 
settled in Switzerland, and is a senator of influence in his 
canton. He is a bachelor, but his house is never empty of 
visitors, for he has many friends in every part of the world. 
We found there a Mr. Reinwald, a publisher from Paris, with 
his wife, and a Professor Eisenlohr from Carlsruhe, a great 
scientific gun, who died, however, some lime ago. 

The Professor does not look like a professor, but more like 
a country gentleman, and his household does not resemble 
that of a bachelor either. 

P^erything was extremely comfortable, and in all Switzer- 
land I never met a better provided dinner-table. Mr. Desor 
is somewhat of an epicurean, as every sensible man ought to 
be who can afford it. I felt somewhat out of my depth in 
this learned society, but all of them being men of the world 
they dealt mercifully with me, and our visit was very pleasant. 

We made from Combe- Varin some fine excursions, and paid 
a visit to a friend of the Professors, Mr. Fritz Berthond, who 
lived at a village, Fleuris, in a house elegantly furnished in 
Parisian taste. 

We remained four days in Combe- Varin, and left on August 
8 for Zurich, where we met my husband, with whom we 
returned to Rorschach, Some days afterwards Mrs. Corvin 
left us for Frankfurt, and the Colonel took his quarters in the 
Hotel Garni in Rorschach, whilst we were looking out for 
comfortable quarters in that village, as it now soon became 
dark, and it was inconvenient to return late to our castle. 
We were fortunate enough to find in the finest of the old 
houses of Rorschach a large hall, furnished and decorated in 
the rococo style, with two adjoining rooms, and left old 
Wiggen on August 23. 

We passed our time quite agreeably, for we had always nice 


Tlie Weinburj. 


company. Baron Hauser, with his wife and children, came to 
Rorschach, and also frequently Baron Alten with liis daughter. 
In Heiden we became acquainted with a Mademoiselle de 
Dusterloh, a very handsome, sprightly young lady, to whom 
we became very much attached. Her father, liaron von 
Dusterloh, v^ho had an estate in Kurland, Russia, arrived also, 
and when he had to go to Berlin he left his daughter under 
my care. Our company was increased by Mr. Morpargo, the 
brother of Baroness Hauser, an agreeable young man suftering 
from the poetical fever. Everything turned to verse in him, 
and he could not keep it to himself. We were of course vic- 
timised, but the bashful manner in which he administered to 
us his poems made it tolerable. 

On September 3, Corvin left us, and we accompanied ! n 
to Friedrichshafen in the steamer. Tliis place is larger than 
Rorschach, and many peo])le prefer it, because they have a 
view of the Swiss mountains. 

On September 10, Prince Hohenzollern and family arrived 
at the Weinburg, and we were invited to come and see them'. 
The Weinburg is a beautiful place, deriving its name from the 
vineyards surrounding it, where are grown the most delicious 

I cannot sufficiently acknowledge the great and genuine 
kindness with which we were received and treated b}^ this 
most excellent and amiable family. The Prince, who is a 
general in the Prussian army, is a fine noble-looking man, with 
an extremely benevolent face, and the Princess his peer in 
every respect. With them were staying their second son, 
l*rince Ciiarles of Roumania, Baron von Schreckenstein, 
captain and aide-de-camp to his father, and his wife, and the 
Baronesses Esebeck and Lindhein. The Prince is very rich, 
and though not related to the King of Prussia, he has great 
influence, which, however, he does not use, keeping far trom 
mixing either with internal or external politics. As the name 
shows, the Prussian Family and that of the Prince come from 
the same stock, and the HohenzoUerns of Hechingen and 
Siegmaringen are even of the elder line. They remain Catho- 
lics, while the Royal Family of Prussia are Protestants. 

I need not repeat here the circumstances which made Prince 
Charles of Hohenzollern accept the rather troublesome posi- 
tion of Prince of Roumania, It is said that he often regretled 


Ten Fears of my Life. 

that step, and would have preferred to return as a simple officer 
to Berlin. Whenever he made a journey it was rumoured he 
would not return, probably by people with whose wishes this 
would have coincided. At all events, he is still in Bucharest, 
and as far as I know without any intention of leavmg it. 

We dined several times at the Weinburg, and passed there 
very agreeable hours. The Prince presented me with an album 
containing i)hotographic views of the Weinburg, and the Prin- 
cess frequently sent me fine flowers and grapes ; and all came 
to see us in Rorschach. Jimmy was highly displeased with 
these visits, for the dogs of the Weinburg were not so hospita- 
ble towards him as their masters towards his, and he had with 
them a rather severe fight. 

The kindness of Piince Hohenzollern was, however, not re- 
stricted to mere politeness ; he understood and sympathised 
with the .position ot Salm, and promised to assist him, which 
he did in a very noble and princely manner. 

It was deemed expedient and even necessary that we should 
go to Berlin to pursue the endeavours of Felix to get a suitable 
l)osition in the Prussian army. We therefore left Rorschach 
on October 2, and I was very glad, for it was at least a step 
towards a final settlement, for which I longed much. These 
perpetual troubles and anxlL-ties, these false hopes and delays, 
were almost more than I could bear, and I was yearning with 
all my heart for rest. 

In passing Mayence we met there an old friend of my hus- 
band's, a Mr. Kalmer, and his wife, who was with him at Paris 
at a very sad period of his life, before he left for the United 
States. We went over to Wiesbaden to see that celebrated 
beautiful watering-place. Of course we tried our luck at the 
roulette-table. I sacrificed a few gilders, but Salm won, to my 
envy, a good many. 

Next morning we started for Bonn, where * Uncle Hermann' 
waited for us at the station, and look us to his house. We 
made the acquaintance of a baroness Frank, whom we visited 
at her beautiful country-house, which might be rather called a 
palace, situated on the opposite side of the Rhine, not far 
from the Drachenfels. The hereditary Prince of Anholt came 
also to see us, and we all made a nice party to Rolandseck. 

On October 7 we left for Berlin, and arrived late in the 
evening at the Hotel St. Petersburg, Unter den Linden. 




Salm's Diary in Mexico pul)lishe(l--riince KrafTt Ilohenlohe — Biron 
Magnus — Audience wilii Princess Charles of I'rus.sia — Countess Seyd- 
ewitz— At Baroness Sclileinitz's — Salm Major in the Ciuards — Audience 
with Her Majesty the Queen — Countess Schulemburg — Countess 
BenckendorIT — Fast habits — Col^lentz — Society there — 'I he Prussian 
army — Prussian officers — The regiment 'Queen Augusta.' 

As we expected to stay for several months in Berlin, we looked 
out tor more convenient quarters. We moved first to the 
Hotel de Brandenburg, and from there to private lodgings in 
the Kanonierstrasse. My husband had been so long away 
from Berlin that he had becoine almost a stranger in that city ; 
but fortunately the Corvins had returned to their residence 
there, and Baron Magnus lived also in Berlin, where his brother 
is a great banker. We found also a nephew, Prince Max 
Salm-Salm, whom the king had made lieutenant in the regi- 
ment of Dragoons of the Guard. It is still a privilege of the 
princes of former sovereign houses that they may be appointed 
officers at once, but ihey have to pass through their examina- 
tion afterwards. 

We 'vere of course frequently with the Corvins ; in fact, we 
saw eadi other daily, we eitlier staying with them or they visit- 
ing us. Baron Magnus came also frequently as usual, and en- 
deavoured to take the direction of all steps to be taken by my 
husband. It was, however, a very trying time, for we had first 
to feel our ground, to form all kinds of connections, to make 
calls, &c. Both Felix and myself were therefore in a very bad 
humour, and our friends had a rather hard time with us. 

Though I did not feel at all disposed, my husband insisted 
on my going very often to the theatre, or to take part in other 
amusements. As the season was still favourable we visited 


> ; 




Ten Years of luy L'ife, 

Potsdnm, wliicli is indeed a beautiful place. We s.-.w Sans' 
Soiici, the new Palace, the Marmor Palace, which all inter" 
ested me much, as I had never before seen such royal residen* 
ces. We visited also the tomb of Frederi( k the (ireat, which 
is in a very simple vault underneath the pulpit in the garrison 

Meanwhile the book of my husband, * My Diary in Mexico,' 
written at Rorschach, had been published both in the English 
and German languages. Though much had been written be- 
fore about that dreadful catastrophe in Mexico, this book was 
received more kindly by the public than we could expect, and 
was read by many ])ersons of high standi^ig and influence in 
the Prussian cajjilal. 

In the commencement of November Felix was received bv 
the King, who was extremely gracious, and invited him on the 
nth to dinner. He returned from there much elated and full 
of good hopes. Many of his old comrades remembered him 
now and behaved very kindly, and were willing to assist him 
in his endeavours to re-enter the Prussian army. Amongst 
them was Prince Krafft Hohenlohe-Ingelfmgen, who was a 
general in the Prussian Artillery, much in favour with the 
King. He came frequently to see us, and behaved altogether 
extremely kindly and serviceably. 

The Queen of Prussia was at that time not in town, and tliat 
was an impediment to my being presented to other members of 
the Royal Family, and at Court. On November 12, however, 
Baron Magnus called and made a very important and myste- 
rious face. He said he came at the request of the Princess 
Charles, the sister of the Queen, who wished to see me, though 
it was somewhat against etiquette. 

In consequence I wrote to the first lady of honour to the 
Princess, requesting an audience. The former, a Countess 
von Hagen, and the Countess von Seydewitz, lady-in-waiting, 
immediately called on me, but I was not at home. 

On the 14th I went to the palace of Prince Charles, where I 
was received by her Royal Highness in the presence of her 
lady-in-waiting, the forenamed Countess Seydewitz, one of the 
handsomest ladies and finest figures I have ever seen. The 
Princess received me with the utmost kindness, and I had 
good reason to be highly gratified with my first appearance 
amongst persons belonging to the Prussian Court, for every- 
body was extremely polite and kind to me. 


,w Sans' 
ill inter' 
it, which 

■ English 
itten be- 
)ook vviis 
:)ect, and 
uence in 

;eived by 
m on the 
1 and full 
ered him 
issist him 
ho was a 
with the 

, and that 

;mbcrs of 


d myste- 


, though 

lur to the 

where I 
:e of her 
le of the 
in. The 
I had 
\v every- 

9* mm 

On the same evening Countess Seydcwitz called, and we 
drove together to liaroness Schleinit/., wife of the minister of 
the royal household, wlicre we found company. Tiie conver- 
sation turned much u\Km affairs in Mexico and the I''mj)enir 
Maximilian. One gentleman of the company, whose name 1 
had heard only imi)crfcctly when he was jjresented to me, ex- 
pressed himself in a manner with which I did not agree, and I 
answered him somewhat shari)ly in defence of my late emperor 
and friend, to the great amusement of tiie company, for that 
dissenting gentleman was the Austrian minister. 

When the ice once was broken things went on extremely 
well. Many persons belonging to the Royal Court called, 
amongst them Count Peri)or.cher, and several other distin- 
guished persons. Felix had written to the Countess Schulem- 
burg, requesting an audience for both of us. The Queen was 
indisposed, but the audience was granted for a few days later. 

Meanwhile I received a note from Princess Charles, who 
wished to see us once more, as she was leaving for Nizza. 
We accordingly went to her palace, and were presented to her 
husband, Prince Charles of Prussia, the brother of the King, 
Avhom he does not resemble in the least. 

We received also visits from Count Bismarck, Prince Ho- 
henlohe, and Mr. Bancroft, the American minister. Baron 
Magnus came frequently, bringing us good news in reference 
to the affairs of my husband, who was to my great satisfaction 
appointed a major in the 4th Regiment of Guards, the regiment 
* Queen Augusta,' of which her Majesty is the chief. Had he 
not left the Prussian service as a young lieutenant he might by 
that time have been a colonel; but Pelix was nevertheless 
highly gratified, for he preferred his place of major in the 
Prussian army to his title of General in the United States and 
in Mexico. 

On December 17 I received a letter from Countess Schu- 
Ifemburg, saying that the Queen would receive us next day at 
three o'clock p.m. 

Though I am not very nervous in general, and the manner 
in which I had been received by her sister might have encou- 
raged me, I must say I felt actually nervous when I drove to 
the royal palace. Everybody spoke of the Queen with so 
much love, praising her kindness and amiability, still she was 
— the Queen. Though I did not expect to see her with crown 




Ten Years of my Life. 



I'i' $i 



and sceptre, I couUl not get rid of the idea that she would 
receive me sitting on a throne under a dais, surrounded by 
superbly-arrayed ladies watching every movement of mine with 
a criticising eye. 

I was ushered into a room, where I did not see anything I 
had anticipated, and looked in vain for a throne. In that 
room was a fine and stately lady, elegantly but simply dressed, 
whom I took for one of the Court ladies who would lead me 
to the presence of the Queen. I stopped irresolutely, but when 
Felix made his lowest bow and kissed the extended hand of 
that lady, I became aw are that I was standing before the Queen 
herself. Though somewhat disappointed and perplexed on 
account of the absent throne and royal state, I was more tiian 
indemnified in looking on that noble, beautiful face, with its 
inimitably gracious and benevolent smile. 

When the Queen had taken a seat, and we were seated be- 
side her, she commenced speaking about poor Emperor Maxi- 
milian, whom she regretted very much. She was kind enough 
to express herself "ery graciously about the part I had played 
in that tragedy, and though she did not say that she expected 
to see me with an Indian feather dress and a bow and arrows, 
or at least a revolver in my belt, I imagine that the Queen was 
somewhat disappointed in her turn at seeing a woman such as 
those of whom she saw daily many prettier and more remark- 
able. But whatever impression I might have made, her 
Majesty was so exceedingly kind that I felt highly gratified 
and quite bewildered and happy when we, after about half an 
hour, were graciously dismissed. Felix kissed her hand, and I 
wished to do the same but the Queen did not permit me. « 

Next day Felix dined with the King, and after dinner we 
drove to Countess Schulemburg, who had invited us for the 
evening. She was a very amiable lady, liked by everybody, 
and extremely kind to me. Being a stranger at Court, and 
afraid of sinning frequently against etiquette, I asked her ad- 
vice, which was very valuable to me. 

Some days later we dined with Countess Benckendorff, 
daughter of General Prince Croy, and first cousin to my hus- 
band. The Countess is very rich, and lived in a very elegant 
house in the Behrenstrasse. We had many invitations and 
saw very pleasant company, where I was both amused and 
shocked, as the manners of those high-born German ladies 




led by 
le with 

Kins I 
n that 
;ad me 
t when 
land of 
Led on 
re than 
with its 

,ted be- 
r Maxi- 
en was 
uch as 
e, her 
half an 
and I 
le. ' 

mer we 
for the 
[rt, and 
Iher ad- 

jny hus- 
Ins and 
led and 

differ very much from those of the Americans. Though the 
opinion ])revails in Germany that American ladies are very 
fast, I must say that the German ladies have no great cause fo*- 
blaming and criticising them, for from what I heard and saw 
I came to the conclusion that they beat in this respect their 
American sisters. I was much astonished on seeing many of 
the ladies smoke in company with the gentlemen, not only 
cigarettes, but cigars, like old smokers. I thought it best to 
do in Rome as the Romans do, and smoked also, though I do 
not like it. The Queen is rather strict, and not pleased at all 
with the fast manners of these ladies, but though they behave 
well oi course in her presence, they do as they please when 
amongst themselves. 

On Monday, December 21, Felix left for Coblentz to join 
his regiment, and after having made all my arrangements and 
paid my farewell visits, I followed him on the 24th, and met 
him next day at the station in Dusseldorf with Count Her- 
mann Salm and the hereditary Prince of Anholt. We stayed 
a day in Bonn to celebrate my and Felix's birthday, for we 
were both born on l^ecember 25, a curious coincidence. 

On the 26th we arrived in Coblentz, our future home. Hav- 
ing no house yet, we remained in the Hotel de Treves, which 
is a most comfortable hotel. 

I need not describe Coblentz, for everybody has visited the 
Rhine. It is certainly a beautiful place, and the favourite 
residence of Queen Augusta, who has done much to beautify 
it with splendid promenades and tastefully laid-out grounds, 
an undertaking which offered great dif^culties, arising from the 
circumstance that- Coblentz is a fortress, but which has been 
carried out with a success as perfect as cart be. The new 
promenade is a great ornament to the city, and will remain an 
everlasting, endearing monument of the predilection and love 
ot Queen Augusta for Coblentz. 

The frequent presence of the Queen had in every respect 
its influence in this city. It changed, as it were, its character 
oi a provincial town, and bestowed on it many advantages and 
peculiarities of Royal residences. Though this n^tiuence ex- 
tended more or less over all classes of inhabitants, it made itS'Mi 
especially felt on those forming the society of Coblentz. 1 nis 
society consisted, as almost everywhere in Prussia, ot the 
families of persons who are employed in the service of the 


.M i ! 





Ten Years of my Life. 

Government, and amongst these the military officers formed 
the most numerous and the leading part. 

In no other country military officers occupy a position in so- 
ciety similar to that in Prussia, and it is the natural conse- 
quence of the justly admired and praised military organisation 
of this country. It is generally acknowledged that Prussia 
owes to this organisation its prominent place amongst the States 
of Europe, and other countries are endeavouring to ihtroduce 
this excellent system, hoping thus soon to reach similar results, 
and to counteract the military and political preponderance of 
that Power. 

Though it cannot be denied that the victories won on the 
battlefield by the Prussian army are the result of this military 
system, and that the imitation even of the mechanism of this 
system must increase the efficiency of rival armies, it will not 
be sufficient to produce the same effect as in Prussia, if those 
rival Slates do not endeavour to create amongst their people 
the same spirit and feeling which pervade the Prussian nation. 

Other nations, prejudiced and bUnded by vanity, will indig- 
nantly contradict even the suggestion that this spirit and feel- 
ing amongst the Prussians are of a higher order than amongst 
themselves, and will point to former successes and to the pa- 
triotism and sell-sacrificing enthusiasm shown under urgent cir- 
cumstances. These historical facts are undeniable, but they 
only prove that all nations, if stimulated by extraordinary 
agencies, are able to act just as bravely as the Germans did in 
the last war. Courage and patriotism are to be found even 
amongst the most debased nations, and it requires only the 
proper means to awake them from their slumber. Other armies 
have fought just as bravely as the Prussians, and other people 
have shown even more enthusiasm than they did, when their 
-national independence or liberty were endangered. 

If the superior scientific military skill of Prussian generals 
and the superior tactics of their troops won the victories on 
the battlefields, the educational virtue of the Prussian military 
system — whether intentionally or only indirectly, I am not able 
to judge — has had other effects which are perhaps even more 
important and beneficial than those that were the real cause 
of the introduction of this system. In Prussia these educa- 
tional effects are > fully appreciated by most people, but I be- 
lieve they are not sufficiently noticed in other countries, and I 




n in so- 


iC States 
• results, 
ranee of 

L on the 
1 of this 
will not 
, if those 
ir people 
.n nation, 
vill indig- 
and feel- 
i amongst 
o the pa- 
irgent cir- 
but they 
ms did in 
und even 
only the 
ler armies 
,er people 
hen their 

:tories on 
|n military 

not able 
ken more 
}eal cause 
Ise educa- 
Ibut I be- 
lies, and I 

Prii ssian Mil itary Tad Ics. 


must say that I had not even an idea of them before I came 
to Prussia, and belonged as it were myself to its army. 

It always seemed to me astonishing that many nations should 
leave the defence of their country and its interests to hirelings, 
for I should think that the protection of his home and family 
was the most sacred and most noble duty of every citizen. It 
was thought so at least in olden times. But we find almost 
everywhere that with the increase of wealth and opulence 
people acquired different ideas, and that they found it more 
convenient to pay men who made war their profession. The 
consequences were in all cases the same. The standing armies 
created everywhere despotism and tyranny, and once free and 
noble nations became debased. When this effect was felt it 
was almost too late, and to remedy this evil was so difficult 
that more than a century has passed by without removing all 
the pernicious influences. These influences are still felt, and 
they are the cause of the repugnance which rival nations feel 
against tne introduction of the Prussian military system. 

If we look at the state of the standing armies of past times, 
v;hich, however, are still in the memory of many living, we find 
i-hat iheir elements consisted of the dregs of the nation. 
Whoever was not thought good for anything else was still 
judged good enough to become a soldier Thus it came about 
that the presence of an army had everywhere a demoralising 
effect, and that citizens looked upon soldiers with aversion, if 
not with disgust. The armies were not only despised as herds 
of demoralisation, they were also hated as the tools of despots, 
and it is very characteristic that the desperate declaration of a 
member of an honest family to go amongst the soldiers, was 
received with a horror which very old people even in Prussia 
remember still with a smile ; a horror which by no means has 
died out everywhere, for this traditional and once well-justified 
aversion of citizens against the profession of arms has remained 
still, enough in many countries to counteract the introduction 
of the Prussian military system in such a n.anneras to compel 
the Governments to act with grc - r 'on and reluctance. 
And even these Governments seem * > be . ir from understand- 
ing the spirit of this system, which is proved by introducing, 
as I have said before, only its mechanical organisation, ascri- 
bing to it solely the a'lmirable successes of the Prussian 
armies. The consequence will be a very imperfect result, and 


'I I 


.1 1 


Ten Years of my Life. 

Germany, which has now adopted the Prussian system in its 
perfection, may look on these weak endeavours of their rivals 
without apprehension. 

The present generation in Prussia has grown up under this 
system, conceived and introduced by enlightened statesmen, 
and it has changed the whole character of the people in a 
most wonderful manner. By this system the army, once a 
hotbed of vice and degradation, notwithstanding its great effi- 
ciency from a purely military point of view, has become as it 
were the high school for the nation, where young people ac- 
quire those qualities which make them not only efficient sol- 
diers, but also good men and citizens — both able to defend the 
independence of the nation against foreign arrogance and 
aggression, and the law and Government against internal 

The Prussian schools have a reputation throughout the 
world, but their progress and success was hindered greatly by 
influences from which they have been freed only quite recently; 
and without the course of training which every Prussian has 
got to undergo m the army, where these hindering influences 
were less powerful, Prussia would not have been enabled to get 
to be the head of Germany and to make that country what it 
is now. 

In Pnissia every able-bodied young man piust enter the 
regular army, and for a certain time, varying from one to three 
years, be a soldier ; that is, he must join some regiment, and 
remain with it all the time. Nobody is exempted — ^nobleman 
and peasant, prince, and artisan — all have to enter the army as 
private soldiers : substitutes are not permitted. The time of 
presence with the regiment is three years, as a rule, but excep- 
tions are made for the so-called volunteers, who have to serve 
only one year. Though they have to pay a certain very mode- 
rate amount of money for their equipment, this advantage is 
by no means granted them by reason of this payment. A 
young man might j)fter hundreds of thousands for it without 
success, if he were not able to prove that he has that degree 
of education which permits the supposition that a shorter 
presence with the army would be sufficient to make him a per- 
fect soldier. Every one who claims this advantage has to sub- 
mit to an examination, or to produce a testimony from the 
head-master of one of the Royal Colleges (Gymnasiums), sta- 

in its 

er this 
le in a 
once a 
^at effi- 
e as it 
pie ac- 
snt sol- 
end the 
ce and 

out the 
eatly by 
iian has 
ed to get 
what it 

kter the 
Ito three 
;nt, and 
rmy as 
Itime of 

to serve 

itage is 
mt. A 


1 shorter 
a per- 
Ito sub- 
lom the 
Ls), sta- 

Ediication of the Soldier. 


ting that he has advanced to a certain form of this educational 

To foreigners it seems extremely lia;d that young men have 
to interrupt their career for such a long time to play at soldiers. 
National economists are indignant that so many hands are 
taken away from industry or agriculture, calculating to the 
penny what damage is done by it to the country. Though 
these calculations may be very correct, these adversaries to the 
Prussian military system forget that this loss is more than suffi- 
ciently compensated for by the improvement of these hands ; 
for the agriculturist and tradesman will be sent back to his 
home endowed with quaHties which enable him to follow his 
occupation with far greater success than before. He does not 
learn only hov/ to handle his gun and to practise the goose- 
step ; he has to undergo a course of education which makes 
him in every respect a better man. Care is not only taken to 
improve and complete what he has learnt in his rural school, 
his bodily development is likewise considered. Besides this, 
and that is highly important, he becomes used to order and 
cleanliness, and by intercourse with his comrades his views are 
enlarged and his whole tenor of life improved. 

His comrades are not, as was in olden times the case, the 
scum of the nation, for at his elbow stand in rank and file the 
young men of the best f-imilies of the country ; and even if one 
should bring with him low habits and propensities, the example 
and influence of this class of 'comrades, which is rather prevail- 
ing in number in consequence of the attention paid to national 
education, would serve as a check and improve his morals. 

After having served his time with his regiment a young man 
will, in most cases, return much altered and improved, and as 
his connection with the army is not ended yet with his term of 
actual service, this salutary influence will always be refreshed 
by his annual return for a few weeks to some military body. 
Up to a certain age this connection with the army is continued ; 
he belongs to the Landwehr, and in case of war he has to join 
his regiment at the shortest notice. The last war has shown 
what this Landwehr really is, and gloriously proved in every 
respect the excellence of the Prussian military system. Hard 
as it seemed to foreigners that married men had to leave their 
families and avocations to fight the French, ' because their 
king was slighted by the minister of Napoleon HI.,' they had 



Ten Years of my Life. 

i • 

ii! I 

plentj' of opportunity to see with vliat joyous readiness every- 
body followed the summons, proving that these soldiers were 
not mere killings machines, but enlightened citizens, who 
understood perfectly that they were called upon to defend what 
is most sacred to every thinking man. 

Officers commanding Prussian soldiers must possess qualities 
to make them fit to command such men. Discipline is a 
powerful agent in an army, and formerly it was the only means 
to govern the wild, unruly rabble. It is still an indispensable 
necessity, but in the Prussian army of to-day it has to be main- 
tained in a manner different from that applied a century ago. 
Those barbarous punishments, of which we read shudderirigly, 
cannot be applied any more; brutal force alone will not do ;• 
discipline must now be sustained by the intellectual and moral 
value of those wielding its power. Ruffians might be com- 
manded by worthless men, if they had only courage and know- 
ledge of their military duties ; Prussian soldiers, as I described 
them above, can only be commanded by officers who are 
gentlemen in every respect. This necessity is fully acknow- 
ledged by the Prussian Government, and the utmost care is 
taken in the education of officers. It is not sufficient for them 
to know their duty in the field and on the drilling- ground ; 
they must possess a certain degree of general education, enabl- 
ing them to hold their ground in every grade of society. 

The examination through which officers have to pass is 
rather difficult, and no influence whatever can make it more 
easy. I know princes who found it too hard and could not 
become officers. I know even a case, where a count, con- 
nected with the most influential persons, had to enter the army 
as a private soldier for three years, because he was not able to 
pass his examination as a volunteer I 

It is therefore not to be wondered at that the epaulette is 
the key to every society. Everybody knows that an officer is 
a gentleman, which is by no means the case in all other coun- 
tries. This favoured position of the military officers in Prussia 
is the necessary and natural consequence of its military system, 
and also the reason why many nobleman and others who have 
means enough to live independently remain all their life long 
in the army. 

It would, however, be erroneous to suppose that all effects 
of the former state of things have died out in the Prussian 

Rival Re(j i ments. 


s every- 
rs were 
IS, who 
nd what 

ine is a 
y means 
je main- 
ury ago. 
not do ;• 
id moral 
be com- 
id know- 
who are 
t care is 
for them 
ground ; 
|n, enabl- 

pass IS 
it more 
uld not 
nt, con- 
he army 

able to 

ilette is 

Officer is 

lY coun- 



lio have 

[ife long 



army. Traditional ideas and prejudices are not easily effaced, 
and many of them are still to be traced even in the present 
Prussian army ; and military chiefs who became officers when 
the idea and word of 'constitution' was still offensive, think 
their maintenance not only beneficial but even absolutely 
necessary. Civilians and young representatives of the people 
will not admit that the position of officers is an exceptional one, 
requiring a different treatment both from the laws of the country 
and society, and assert that this idea is still a remnant of the 
old bad regime, when officers prided themselves in being body- 

servants to the King, and felt 


when reminded that 

they were servants of the State and people. I can only state 
the fact that something of this feeling is still existing, and that 
officers think themselves nearer connected with the Kinii: than 
any oflficer of the civil service. Thi§ feeling will remain in 
existence as long as Prussia remains what is called a military 
State, and as long as the King and all princes of his house 
wear the military uniform. 

Another reminiscence of old traditions is the rivalry between 
the ofiicers of the Guards and those belonging to the Line, 
the former imagining that they hold a higher rank, which again 
is the feeling of the ofiicers of the Line in reference to those of 
the Landwehr. Without examining the cause and justice of 
this feeling, I will only state from experience that it is also still 
existing, or at least was existing when my husband entered the 
regiment * Queen Augusta.' 

This regiment belonged to the Guards, and being garrisoned 
out of its district, on account of the Queen's frequent residence 
in Coblentz, it occupied in that garrison a separate, rather 
independent position, its Colonel being its highest authority 
there, for brigadier, division, and corps commanders were in 
Berlin. The officers of this regiment mostly kept amongst 
themselves ; an intimate intercourse between them and families 
belonging to other regiments was exceptional and rare. The 
families of a few of the highest civil officers residing in Coblentz, 
as in the capital of a district, acted as it were as the only con- 
necting links between the families of our regiment and tho.-e 
belonging to the troops of the Line. 

Many ofilicers of the regiment ' Queen Augusta ' were mar- 
ried, and these different flimilies formed as it were only one. 
I was received in this family with a readiness and cordiality 


■ ii 

■ ill 





Ten Years of my Life. 

which ])leased me greatly, and to which I respondjd with all 
my heart. 

After the unsettled life I had led since my marriage, and all 
the exciting scenes I had witnessed, I longed for rest and a 
home ; my hope of finding in little Coblentz a happy home was 
much increased by this amiable behaviour of the ladies to- 
wards me. I shall always remember the time of my sojourn 
in that city with very pleasant feelings and gratitude. 










t ' 







with all 

, and all 
St and a 
ome was 
idies to- 



Our society — Countess Haake — In Berlin with th Corvins — Another 
ludience with the Queen — The King — A qi ei- cousin — Prince SaltCn- 
Horstmar — A princely apostle — Housekeeping lessons — Mr. General 
von S . — Salm's revolt — I try my hand at match-making — Excur- 
sions — Mr. Moriary — Princess S W and her sons — M^al- 

liances — A poetical friend — Coblentz li —Public tea-gardens — ^The 
(^ueen in Coblentz — Princess Liegnitz--* Uncle Herrmann' — ^The 
Grand Duchess Dowager of Mecklenburg — in Ems — Their Majesties 
The Queen as a godmother — Baron Gerolt — Why he resigned — Mr. 
Bancroft— His meanness — In Ems with his Majesty — My cousin, the 
Duchess of Osuna — Breakfast with their Majesties at Sayn — Military 
manoeuvres — Visit to Anholt — Prince and Princess of Weid — A party 
at her Majesty's — Grand Duchess of Baden and Pi incess William — A 
ball at her Majesty's — I dance with the Grand Duke of Weims'; — 
Breakfast at her Majesty's- -Dinner at Neuweid — Prince and Princess 
of Roumania — The Count of Flanders — Departure of the Queen- 
Christmas in Anholt — A batttie — Bitter reflections. 

Had I the talent of writing novels, I should find many inter- 
esting types of character within the circle of our society in 
Coblentz ; but not having this talent I shall restrict myself to 
very hurried sketches. 

Life within the circle of regimental society has its peculiari- 
ties, originating from a combination of causes. The officers 
belonging to it though differing in military rank and age, are 
in reference to society all equals, members of one family. The 
wife of an officer is no isolated being, who may live as she 
pleases ; she belongs to a corporaiion, who claims the right to 
control her behaviour in a more extended degree than general 
society, and she has to submit to the customs and laws of this 
corporation, which are the result of the exceptional position of 
officers. In everything she does she must consider the interest 
and feeling of the corps to which she belongs, as the actions of 



Tea Years of my Life, 



I ^ 

il I' 

each single member reflect on the whole community. In con- 
eciuence of these relations an officer is not at liberty to marrv 
IS he pleases ; he can only choose a wife who is considered by 
die whole corps as worthy to enter the family. Does pnssion 
lead him to disregard this, he must ce;ise to be an ofiicer. 
From this results the advantage that each wi,e of an otiicer 
shares all the social advantages granted to his <:lass. 'J'he 
title of wife of an officer admits her to every soc iety, for she 
must be a gentlewoman, an wliich is n(;t granted to 
all wives of officers in the civil service, even if the rank of their 
husbands should be considered higher. 

This is, I think, the jjrincipal cause why almost everywhere 
in Prussia the officers' fannlies take the lead in society, which 
is most decidedly the case in places like Coblentz, which have 
a large garrison. 

Society in that city acquires still an additional tinge, making 
it different from that in other garrison towns, by the frequent 
presence of the Queen in Coblentz. for the officers and the 
wives of officers belonging to the Queen's own regiment were 
considered as it were forming part of her Court. This being 
the case, the admittance of a new member was not alone lefc 
over to the high military authorities, but more to the decision 
of the Queen. This was the cause why the appointnient of 
my husband was delayed, for the King would not act for him- 
self, but had first to ascertain the wishes of the Queen, who 
was then absent from Berlin. 

It was one of my first duties to call upon the ladies of our 
regiment and make their acquaintance, as well as that of some 
other ladies forming part of their society. 

The former Colonel of our regiment had become a Major- 
General, and his official connection with his former command 
had ceased, though he remained in Coblentz. His wife had 
also to resign her place as mother of the regimental family, 
which had to be reserved for the wife of his successor ; but she 
loved her old regiment, and resigned her place of mother only 
for that of a grandmother. 

Mrs. General von S was a very lively, sharp-witted, 

nimble-tongued lady, whose conversation was pleasant and 
amusing, because always seasoned with a particle of gossip 
and medisaiice. An adept in housekeeping, she knew exactly 
the price of butter and eggs, and could calculate to a farthing 

Oar Socletf/. 


Tn ron- 
V to mnrrv 
sidcred by 
es jxission 
an ofikxT. 
an oii'icer 
ass. 'J'lic 
ty, for she 
Jiranted to 
ik of their 

;ty, which 
hich have 

e, making 
i frequent 
s and the 
nent were 
'his being 
alone left 
I decision 
itnient of 
t for him- 
een, who 

es of our 
: of some 

a Major- 
wife had 
but she 
her only 

ant and 
f gossip 

how much a penny would fetch at compound interest in a 
century. She did not put her light under a l)ushel, but liked 
both being asked for advice and giving it amply and in minute 

She was not quite adored by the wife of the Lieutenant- 
Colonel, Mrs. von G , a very true-hearted, good woman, 

much beloved by every one. She became my most intimate 
friend. Amongst her many talents was one of verse-making, 
and I served now and then as a target for her poetical arrows 
She was a highly accomplished lady, and I think of her often 
with love, and regret that fate bid us part. 

The handsomest lady in our regiment was the young wife of 
Captain von C . She was the daughter of a Polish coun- 
tess, whose husband had taken part in the revoltuions of his 
country, and who, after his early death, had been leading a 
rather roving, adventurous life, which 'lad not remained with- 
out influence on her young daughter ; she was, however, greatly 
admired by all gentlemen, for she was very pretty, elegant in 
manner and toilet, rather lively and coquettish, and very well 
educated, speaking German, French, English, and Polish 

The sister of her husband was the wife of a civilian officer, 

Mr. von M , a very good and agreeable woman, who had 

the great misfortune of losing her husband by a sudden dis- 
tressing illness. 

The highest civil officer in the district was Mr. von P , 

a very distinguished, able man, much beloved and respected 
by everybody. His wife was not so much liked as her hus 
band, for she was an extremely weak, always undecided and 
fluttered woman, on whom one never could rely. She had ii 
son who was a lieutenant in our regiment, and a fine grown-up 

A general favourite of all ladies and gentlemen was the 
most excellent wife of the Landrath of the district, Mrs. von 

F . She appeared to me perfection in every respect, and 

was indeed an accomplished lady, wife, mother, and house- 
keeper ; and with all these qualities combining beauty, high 
education, kindness of heart, and great amiability. Her house- 
hold and family might have served as a pattern. Mrs. von 

F was the realised ideal of a German matron, as it lives 

in the fancy of German poets. She had a family of eight 


Ten Ycjtrfi of my Life. 

] f 





1' 'i 

children, and 1 did not sec any reason why it should stop at 

that nuinbcr. With all that Mrs. F was very eIegan^ 

She was, in fact, the leader of our society, and nobody thought 
even of disputing her this place 

I do not think there is to l:e found anywhere a society with- 
out a sprinkling of old maids, either belonging to the subdued, 
soft, resigned class, who have not found a husband though 
deserving one, or to the crabbed, prickly species, who have 
remained single because they were too clever and sharp, and 
frightened away marrying men ; spinsters with eyes as search- 
ing as those of custom-house officers, tongues as sharp as 
razors, and wagging even in sleep. 

We were not neglected in this respect either, and favoured 
^vith a numlSer of noble spinsters belonging to the latter class, 
ind being held in high respect, alloyed with some dread, not 
because they were bad-tempered or malicious, but on account 
of their awful cleverness. They understood everything best, 
and were not stingy with their treasure of knowledge either ; 
they gave it away lavishly, even without being asked. They 
had studied everything, read every book or pamphlet, and 
whenever a topic turned up in conversation, and one of them 
was present, Brockhaus, Pierer, and Meyer might remain un- 
disturbed, for each of them was a living encyclopsedia. 

Another unmarried lady who now and then appeared 
amongst us was Countess Haake, the * Palast Dame ' of the; 
Queen, who had been v/ith her since her Majesty's entrance 
into Berlin in 1827, and it may be imagined that everybody 
strove to win her good graces. I need not say more about 
this lady, as I have stated somewhere else that she strikingly 
resembled the Princess Iturbide of Mexico. 

Tliough everything in the Hotel de Treves, where we lived 
first, was excellent, our first care was to look out for a house. 
Assisted by good luck and our new friends, we found one which 
suited us in every respect, and I went in February to Berlin to 
buy my furniture and other things required for housekeeping. 
Not liking to live in«an hotel without my husband, I accepted 
the invitation of the Corvins to stay with them. 

On the day of my arrival I called on Countess Schulemburg, 
requesting an a idience with the Queen, who received mc on 
February 23 even more graciously than the first time. After 
having been with her a short time she rose, calling out, ' His 


prince Charles Sahn-Iforsti),ar 


iild stop at 
ry cIcgan^ 
xly thought 

^ciety with- 
le subdued, 
ind though 

who have 
sharp, and 

as search- 
1 sharp as 

I favoured 
atter class, 
dread, not 
m account 
hing best, 
ge either ; 
id. They 
^hlet, and 
of them 
Jmain un- 

e ' of the; 
)re about 

we lived 
a house, 
le which 
Berlin to 

em burg, 
mc on 
It, 'His 

Majesty ! ' I rose hurriedly, and was ])rcsented to the King, 
who had entered. He received me very kindly, and having 
taken notice of that part of my diary contained in my hus- 
band's book, he spoke of Mexico, complimenting me most 
graciously about my * tapferes IJcnelmien.' He spoke Ger- 
man, the Queen kindly interi)reting what he said, though he 
understood what I answered in English. His presence made 
on me the same imi)ression as on everybody who hod had the 
honour of being addressed by him, and 1 now understood per- 
fectly the love and enthusiasm with which my husband always 
spoke of his Majesty. He remained about the minutes, and 
1 then went home quite delighted with my reception. 

During this stay in IJerlin 1 made the ac([uaintance of a 
rather queer and original relative of my husband, Prince 
Charles Salm-Horstmar, and his wife, a born Princess Hohen- 
lohe. The Prince was a great devotee and philanthropist, but 
nothing of this was betrayed by his exterior, for though he was 
lame he was dressed in a highly dandified style, to which the 
very simple, almost homely appearance of his wife formed a 
rather strange contrast. He was an enthusiastic ])romoter of 
piety and virtue, and he and his wife had undertaken to estab- 
lish a reformatory for unfortunate girls, but they had to give it 
up in despair. Having some doubts about matrimony in com- 
bination with his profession of apostle, he had resolved to re- 
main a bachelor all his life, and in consequence of this fancy 
renounced the maj orate of his family to his younger brother. 
But even the most devoted men are not shot-proof against the 
arrows of the little great mischief-maker, and our pious cousin 
fell desperat'ely in love with Princess Elise, before whose charms 
his :elibate resolutions crumbled to dust. Princess Elise did 
not exactly share the abnegatory inclinations of her virtuous 
Prince Charles ; she regretted much the renunciation of the 
majoraie, which left her husband only a very moderate income, 
and thinking that money was no hindrance to devotion, she 
*ried all she could to find a legal flaw in the proceedin";, but 
without success. ^ 

While Felix was still sowing his wild oats and persecuted by 
the Jews, his pious cousin imagined ti^at this was the proper 
time for working the salvation of his soul. Being still rich at 
that time, he thought it necessary to win first the confidence of 
Felix by keeping at bay the hooked-nosed fiends who troubled 



Ten Years of my Life. 

Ii i 


h .; 

J1 . 


.. :.p, 

him, a well-conceived strata^-em which would have been per- 
haps successful if my poor husband h , 1 had any talent for de- 
votion. I am, however, sorry to say that he was then very 
worldly, and though he consented to live with his would-be 
reformer in Paris and even to join in his devotions and prayer 
meetings, he chcxced liim in a very wicked manner. 

Eveiv iiigbt when the princely apostle had dismissed him 
after prayer with his blessing to his bed, my scapegrace hus- 
band stealthily ieft the house through a back window, where 
his friend and comrade Kalmar waited for him to join some 
meetiiig, which was no prayer meeting, whilst Prince Charles, 
somewhat suspecting the effect of his teaching, watched the 
front door of the house. ^ 

When my husband was induced to leave for America, his 
cousin crammed his trunks with tracts and pious books, the 
latter to be studied on the passage and the former to be dis- 
tributed amongst the savages and civilized wicked Americans. 
When living foi a time with my husband in New York, I 
found all thesfr packages sti'' unopened. Discovering these 
spiritual treasures, I presented them to my Methodist landlord, 
acquiring by this gift an undeserved odour of sanctity. 

On April lo I moved at last to my new lodgings. It was 
in the first storey of a nice house, consisting of ten rooms, and 
vas very convenient. Though married several years I had had a home of my own, and having lived much in the 
camp and there become used to shift-making of every descrip- 
tion, I felt highly satisfied with the completeness of my ar- 
rangements and with my nice furniture, though it was in fact 
very simple. As officers can never be certain how long they 
will be permitted to stay at one place, moderation in this re- 
spect was strongly advised by Mrs. General von S and my 

poetical friend, the wife of the Lieutenant-Colonel, who were 
my tutors and teachers in everything concerning domestic 
arrangements and housekeeping. Though I felt extremely 
proud and happy to have at hist a home of my own, it was still 
not exactly what I longed for, for my ideas of home differed 
from those of people in Germany, and were more those of the 

I have mentioned before that the grandmother of our re^fi- 

ment, Mrs. von S , was an excellent housekeeper. She 

was delighted to find me utterly ignorant in this respect, and 

'e been pcr- 
ilent for de- 
s then very 
is would-be 
; and prayer 

missed him 
egrace hus- 
3ovv, where 
join some 
ce Charles, 
'at-^hed the 

merica, his 
books, the 
r to be dis- 
w York, I 
ering these 
it landlord, 

;s. It was 

ooms, and 

lars I h;id 

uch in the 

y descrip- 

of my ar- 

^as in fact 

Jong they 

n this re- 

and my 

who were 



t was still 

e differed 

)se of the 

our regi- 
)er. She 
3ect, and 

My F'lM Home. 


most eager to listen to her culinary and other revelations. As 
the pny of officers is rather insufficient, considering the posi- 
tion they are expected to hold in society, strict economy be- 
comes a necessity with them, and Mrs. von S was an 

adept in all these mysteries. She had calculated to the farth- 
ing the price of everything, and tried especially to impress 
upon my mind the great truth that one silbergroschen spent 
regularly a day makes twelve thalers a year ; therefore ten sil- 
bergroschens a day make a hundred and twenty thalers, a cal- 
culation which struck me with awe. This great truth therefore 
became my guiding star through the maze of housekeeping, 
and I was such an apt scholar, or at least such an eager one, 
that I in my ambition not only adhered to the strict rules laid 

down by Mrs. von S , but even surpassed them. That all 

servants were thieves was a gospel with Mrs. von S ; they 

were all greedy and wasteful, and all cooks and housemaids 
had very hungry sweethearts. The men servants loved their 
masters wine and cigars, and the grooms considered it as a 
great blessing that horses were born mute ; iif a word, all re- 
quired a very sharp look-out and great strictness. 

The manner in which I followed the housekeeping rules of 

Mrs. von S had consequences which astonished me very 

much, and made me very angry with my servants, who all held 

opinions exactly opposite to those of Mrs. von S . When 

the cook ran away and other tokens of mutiny transpired 
amongst the rest of the servants, I was very indignant, and 
always believed I was in the right ; but this belief was some- 
what shaken when my dear husband revolted, and acted with 
an energy to which I was by no means used in reference to me. 
He said that he became thin and starved with my housekeep- 
ing ] that he was ashamed of my stinginess ; that he wanted a 
proper household, becoming his station ; and that Mrs. von 
S with her starvation code might go to Jericho. He en- 
gaged a perfect cook and made other alterations, which in- 
creased the silbergroschens spent a day to an alarming figure. 

Though shaking my head I had to submit, and we lived as 
he thought proper. His relatives seemed to approve of it, and 
to be rather pleased with our house, for our s[)are room for 
visitors was occupied all the year round by some of them, and 
not rarely I had to give up my own bedroom. 

Looking over my diary of that time, I am astonished to find 


r '■ 



Ten lears 0/ miy L\je. 



that scarcely one day passed without some entertainment, 
party, or pleasure excursion. This was very natural. Officers 
have much time to spare, and are in general a light-living 
people and very social amongst themselves. The five or six 
ladies who formed the particular set to which I belonged saw 
each other daily, and there was always amongst them occasion 
for some entertainment, and besides we gave regular parties 
each in her turn. When relatives from outside came to visit 
one of us they had of course to be* entertained, and thus an 
occasion for a smaller or larger party was never wanting. 

Speaking of strange visitors reminds me of an incident 
occurring at that time, in which I played a part as a match- 
maker, and very successfully, for the couple brought together 
by my means are very happy. A few pages back I mentioned 

that, while living in Rorschach, a young Miss von D , 

from Kurland, was confided to my care by her father. She 
was a very pretty girl, and her photograph was in my album. 

We had in our regiment a Lieut. -Colonel von O 


was a bachelor, imd expected by everybody to remain one to 
the end of his liTe, as the hearts of all our young ladies and 
their mothers had been exercised on him in vain ; he was a 
very agreeable and therefore desirable man. One day, when 
looking over my album, he seemed to be spellbound by the 

photograph of Miss von D , inquiring most eagerly who 

that beautiful lady was. Now chance would have it that I 
had just received a letter from her, informing me that she and 
her father were at Schlangenbad. Salm and myself, who liked 

both Miss von D and the Lieut.-Colonel, thought that it 

might lead to a match if we brought them together, so we 

invited Baron D and his daughter to meet us at Einger- 

briick, where we went, accompanied by Lieut.-Colonei von 

O , of whom I had written nothing to Miss von D . 

The Lieut.-Colonel was still more charmed by the life original 
of the photograph which had inflamed him, and Miss von 

D seemed also to be pleased with him, though she did 

not suspect his serious intentions. 

The Lieut.-Colonel was deeply in love, and as a proof of 
that fact may serve the circumstance that he had not the 
courage to ' pop the question/ though he was several limes 
alone with Miss von D , and that she returned to her Rus- 
sian home without the Colonel having unburdened his heart 

^^ 1 J I ImWI iii JlL ■ 




. Officers 
five or six 
onged saw 
n occasion 
lar parties 
ne to visit 
)d thus an 

1 incident 
s a match- 
It together 

n D , 

:her. She 
ny album. 

, who 

lin one to 
ladies and 
he was a 
lay, when 
nd by the 

rly who 
it that I 

she and 
vho liked 

t that it 
so we 

)nei von 

D . 

liss von 

she did 

>roof of 
not the 
il times 
ler Rus- 

s heart* 



I, of course, had taken care to inform Miss von D of tlie 

sickness of the poor man, and though she was at that time not 
in love with him, she liked him much, and I was justified in 
my belief that he would not be refused. 

To propose in writing would not do, and it was at last 
resolved that the Colonel should remember an invitation of 
the Baron's, made to us all at a dinner, to come and visit him 

in Kurland. This Lieut.-Colonel O really did, somewhat 

to the embarrassment of the Baron, who probably suspected 
his intention, and did not want to part with his lovely daughter, 
for he took the utmost care not to leave him alone with her 
for a single moment. Thus the day of departure approached 
without the Colonel having had an opportunity of making a 
declaration to the lady. He was in despair, when at last a 
chance was offered. The Baron had to leave the room for a 
•few moments, and when he returned the proposal of the 
Colonel had been accepted by his daughter. He stormed and 
fumed, but the young lady had a will of her £)vvn, and the 
Colonel returned to Coblentz a happy man. 

When the weather was fine we made visits in the countr)% 
either riding there on horseback or going by rail or steamer. 
An Irishman, Mr. Moriarty, had bought the old Castle of 
Lahnstein, a short distance from Coblentz, and restored it in a 
splendid manner. He was an agreeable man ; we became 
acquainted with him and saw him often, either in Coblentz or 
at his castle, where he used to receive us in the most friendly 
and hospitable manner. 

Another castle not far from Coblentz belonged to the 

princely family of S W , and was occupied by the 

-. She had been once a great and 

Princess Dowager of W 

celebrated beauty, and was still a strlK.mgly handsome, very ac- 
complished, and most amiabL- woman. Her castle was 
splendid, and its church and chapels quite delighted me. 
With all this and all her riches she was not happy, for her 
sons gave her a great deal of trouble. The eldest son and 
heir was such a scapegrace thai he was judged unfit to become 

the head of that branch of the house of W . He was 

therefore induced to renounce his birthright in favour of his 
second brother. But, alas ! this second son turned out no 
better, and both these brothers shocked the whole high nobility 
by marrying to Jew girls — sisters, daughters of a Berlin usurer. 




1 -. 

1 : 



v ^. 




bi'J. )t, 

'5 'I 


Te7i Team's o/ my Life. 

Grtiit exertions were made at that time to persu'de the 
"' c<>nd son to renounce the majorate and his hereditary seat 
in the Prussian First Chamber in favour of his youngest 
brother, who was then an officer in a Prussian regimjnt of 
cavalry, and married to a French princess related to the Bour- 
bon fiimily. This he refused to do, and also to be divorced 
from his wife. He said, ' I love my wife, and as to the ma- 
jorate and to my seat in the chamber, no law can deprive me 
of my right ; I certainly shall maintain it/ This he did, and 

on his becoming of age his mother had to leave Castle S , 

to the great regret of all the neighbouring families, who of 
course sided with the mother, with whom they had been on 
the most friendly footing for many years, and who retired to a 
country-seat she bought on the Lake of Geneva. 

To atone in some way at least for our, not idle, but rather 
gay and useless manner of living, a number of Catholic ladies 
had formed a sewing society, which met regularly on cei tain 
days for a few 'hours in the Convent St. Barbara. My poetical 
friend, who was a most zealous Catholic, belonged of course 
to this society, and I became a member likewise. She also 
induced me now and then to go with her to some other con- 
vent, where we did not make clothes for the poor, as m St. 
Barbara, but where we mended the garments of the priests, 
which required repairing very badly. 

The Queen visited us not rarely ki Tt. Barbara's Convent, 
and on seeing me there she was very K'ld, and expressed her 
aoi)roval at my being occupied in this manner. 

Though I liked pleasure, gay company, and dancing, I 
never felt more satisfied than I did at home, quietly sitting at 
the sewing-machine I had bought, and which I learnt to use 
extremely well ; or going out for a walk with one or two of our 
friends, and passing some pleasant hours in one of the public 
restaurant gardens in the New Promenade of the Queen, 
listening to the music of the band, or chatting amongst our- 

In Englan I or in America this kind of enjoyment is utterly 
denied to ladies belonging to society, and all of them would 
sl;udder at the very idea of sitting down in a public garden 
among.. V ^ iioking and beer-drinking people of all classes. 
Whoevei has travellea in Germany will find it, however, 
everywhere, and agree that it is rather pleasant, for the 


■ mj a iiu M n i LK 


FuVtc Gardens in Gcrmaiiv. 



.^de the 
tarv seat 
rrjnt of 
le Bour- 

the nia- 
^rive me 
did, and 
^S , 

who of 
been on 
red to a 

Jt rather 
ic ladies 

f course 
?he also 
ler con- 
as in St. 


;sed her 

jcing, I 
tting at 

to use 
D of our 

2:st our- 

or the 


Gemians behave at such places al'.\'ays extremely well, and 
nobody need be afraid of being annoyed or shocked by noisy 
or indecent behaviour. Of course I do not speak of the 
resorts of the low classes. 

I must say nowhere people understand how to amuse them- 
selves in a more sensible manner than they do in Germany, 
and other nations might indeed learn from them. Foreigners 
visiting Berlin, Vienna, Dresden, or any other of the larger 
German towns, are always surprised on visiting one of those 
public places, where many thousands of persons — men, women, 
and children — are sitting at little tables, eating and drinking, chatting, or listening to most excellent music. Every- 
thing goes on pleasantly, and scarcely ever any disagreeable 
sound is heard or any quarrel occurs. Everybody is drinking 
wine or beer, but drunken people are rare, and one may live 
for months in a city without ever seeing in the streets an 
intoxicated person. 

The presence of the Queen in Coblentz was always hailed 
with great pleasure, for she was much beloved by all classes, 
and showed herself very gracious and amiable towards every- 

To be noticed by her and to be invited to her parties vas 
of course the aim and ambition of a great many people, ?i< u 
as she was so very kind, her kindness was not rarely ' \?ch 
tried by the importunity of persons who found means of being 
admitted, though they might better have stayed away, as l:,« ir 
position did not entitle them to such an honour. 

The Queen gave generally two great balls, to which every 
1x)dy was invited — that is, the people of all classes ; and also 
two great cafes-dan sants in the garden, where ladies appeared 
in bonnets i-nd street toilet, and where dancing was going on 
on the gravel. 

She also frequently gave little dinners to a more select com- 
pany, and parties of a similiar kind, where the ladies appeared 
in evening toilet, though not in low dresses. The same was 
the case at her teas, to which were invited rarely more than 
twenty or twenty-five persons, and which ^^^ere of a more inti- 
mate character. The Queen sat there often occupied with 
some embrodiery, or a lottery was arranged for little trifles, 
bought or worked for that purpose. The great amiability of 
her Majesty made these parlies always very pleasant. 







,- . 


n \ 


2^en Years of my Life. 


As it is almost impossible to mention all interesting things 
and persons I saw during my stay in Coblentz, if continuing 
in the manner in which I commenced, in hope to save space 
I think it better to follow my diary, and dwell on those inci- 
dents which seem to deserve it. 

At the end of June my Catholic lady friends was greatly ex- 
cited, for they expected the arrival of the newly-appointed 
Catholic Army Bishop, Mr. Namszanowski. The church was 
beautifiilly decorated with flowers and garlands in his honour, 
and on June 26 all the ladies of the sewing society assembled 
in their rooms in the church, where the bishop was presented 

to us. He called at my house at noon, when Mrs. von G 

and Mrs. von C were with me ; we all knelt down, kissed 

his ring, and received his blessing ; but Salm would not kneel 
down, though he also kissed the ring of the bishop. He was, 
iiowever, frequently with him, and on July i we took supper 
with him and four other priests at my enthusiastic friend's. 

When the season in Ems commenced we went frequently 
there. On July 10 we rode over to pay our respects to the 
Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg, tl e sister of our beloved 
Emperor, whom she resembles very much, especially in man^ 
ner, her face beaming with true kindness. Jimmy, who had 
accompanied me on this visit, as he had been especially invited 
by the Grand Duchess, who is a great iQverof dogs, established 
himself at once on the sofa, and she was so pleased with my 
impudent long-legged friend that she asked for a photograph 
of him. 

On the 15th Countess Haake called, asking me and my 
husband to cori-e at four o'clock to see her, to pay our respects 
to Prircess Liegritz, who would be there. As my husband 
was in Emi [ wtiit alone. Princess Liegnitz, the consort of 
Frederick V/iliiam 111., the father of our Emperor, who is 
much respected a'; id i)eloved by the whole Royal Family, re- 
ceived me very graciously, and when I went next morning to 
the station to see her off she was so kind as to present me 
with one of the .'•lany boquets she had received. 

On t'i.e same day 1 went with my husband, and the Here- 
ditary Prince of Anholt and 'Uncle Herrmann,' to Ransbach, 
shooting roebucks. There I saw for the first time a roebuck 
in the wocd, and heard his voice. German hunters call his 
cry ' schmaelcn/ which verbally translated means scolding. We 

ing things 
ive space 
;hose inci- 

jreatly ex- 
lurch was 
is honour, 

oil G ' 

m, kissed 
not kneel 

He was, 
)k supper 
ets to the 
r beloved 
y in man^ 

who had 
ly invited 

with my 

and my 
:onsort of 
r, who is 
unily, re- 
orning to 
iisent me 

le Here- 
s call his 
ing. We 

The Queen a' Goilwother. 


remained iintil *.lie iSthin Ransbach, and though we did nut 
kill a single buck we passed a very pleasant time in the wood, 
and in quite a romantic shooting-lodge of Count Herrmann, 
which reminded me of the time of my camp life. 

On the 20th we went to Ems, paying our respects to the 
Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg, and not finding her at home 
I left iiie photographs which she had requested. On the Pro- 
menade, hi^: Majesty the King sent word that he wished to see 
me. He gave nie his hand, walked with me about iialf an 
hour, and was very kind and gracious. Both the King and 
the Queen interested themselves very much about many tilings 
ot which I imagined they had scarcely time to think. They 
asked many questions in reference to our domestic life, and^ 
that of other officers ; inquired even into details, which all 
seemed to interest them. When I, some days later, sat at 
dinner in Ems, the Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg sent for 
me, and I went with Jimmy to nay her my respects. 

Mrs. von F had given birth to her usual baby — the 

ninth, I believe — a sturdy little boy, and her Majesty the 
Queen honoured him with being his godmother. As the 
Queen wanted to arrange about the christening, she quite un- 
expectedly desired our attendance in the afternoon of the 27th. 
Felix being out shooting, I had to go with Mrs. General von 

S , Countess Haake, who is rather strict, noticed at once 

the absence of my husband, but Colonel von Stiehle, the com- 
mander of our regiment, had already excused him to her Majesty. 

The christening took place next day in the house of Mr. 

von F , who was one of the chamberlains of her Majesty. 

About fifty persons were present in the dining-room, where an 
altar had been arranged. The Queen hek' the heavy little 
boy, who was called August, during all the service, whicli 
lasted nearly twenty minutes, and only gave him up at a cer- 
tain part of the ceremony, the nature of which did not permit 

a Protestant to touch the child, for Mr. von F was a 


In the afternoon of next day we went to a concert given in a 
public garden in the Queen's Promenade, the Swiss House. 
Both their Majesties were present ; I was sitting near the 
Queen, and the King, friendly as usual, shook hands with 

When we next day were sitting in St. Bardara's Coavenl, 



* f! 






r7G T'en Years of my Life. 

sewing for the poor, the Queen visited us, stayini^ for lialf an 



'«! ' 


i ,! 

+ 1 



t ■ i 

hour, and having a kind word for everyone ])resent. 

When out on the Promenade with my husband in the even- 
ing, we had the greatest pleasure of meeting a dear old friend 
from America, to whom we owed much gratitude, and who, 
under all circumstances had acted to us extremely kindly. 
Baron Gerolt zur Leyen, the former German minister in Wash- 
ington. I have already spoken of him on another occasion, 
and of the great esteem which he enjoyed in America. Dur- 
ing the twenty-five years he represented Prussia he did a great 
deal to faciliate the communication between Germany and the 
United States, which was thankfully acknowledged by all mer- 
•chants. It created, therefore, great indignation in America 
when the cause became known which induced him to resign 
his place. Though this happened only at the end of the late 
French war, I shall mention it here, as I may not have another 

Mr. George Pancroft was minister of the United States in 
Berlin. Though 1 wa« told that he, as an historical author, 
could not be compared either to Prescot or Motley, his volu- 
minous work about the United States had won for him a fair 
well-merited reputation, as historical authors are rather rare 
in his cou \^ry. Mr. Bancroft had studied in Germany, and 
understood ihe language, though he spoke it rather indifferently. 
Whether he had all the qualities required of a diplomatist I 
cannot judge, but I know that he was very agreeable to the 
Prussian Government, and utterly distasteful to all Americans. 
That was very natural, for he showed not only everywhere his 
great admiration for Germany, and especially Prussian insti- 
tutions, but courted and flattered all high-titled persons, whilst 
he neglected the Americans who either lived in Berlin or pass- 
ed through, offending them often rather grossly. The President 
was frequently urged to recall him, but for a long time without 
effect, as he was so agreeable to the Prussian Court, whose 
interest he had more at heart than that of his country — said 
his en^^mies amongst the Americans. 

Mr. Bancroft made himself very often ridiculous in company 
by his eccentric behaviour, his nonsensical speeches in bad 
Geiman, &c., and said, when he had had a glass of wine, some- 
times rather undiplomatic things. Once at a dinner, I think 
given bv Mr. von der Heved, when afifairs between France and 

Mv. Bancroft. 


r half an 

the even- 
Id friend 
and who, 
y kindly, 
in Wash- 
a. Dur- 
d a great 
^ and the 
^all mer- 
Am erica 
to resign 
f the late 
e another 

States in 
il author, 
his volu- 
lim a fair 
her rare 
any, and 
miatist I 
e to the 
lere his 
lan insti- 
s, whilst 
or pass- 
t, whose 
ry — said 


in bad 

e, some- 

I think 

nee and 

Germany prcdicte.l a near rupture, he said that if a war should 
occur between the two countries the United States would cer- 
tainly side with Germany. 

Such words from the lips of a minister could not fail to cre- 
ate some sensation ; the French minister in Berlin reported 
them to Paris, and the Secretary of Foreign Affairs of Napo- 
leon expressed his astonishment to General I)ix, then minis- 
ter in Paris, who was still more astonished. He wrote a friendly 
letter to J\Tr. Bancroft, which was answered rudely. The in- 
cautious words spoken in his cups by the old man were reported 
to Washington and created a diplomatic ebullition. How 
Baron Gerolt was mixed up in this affair I do not know, and how 
he displeased Mr. Bancroft neither, but the latter had a grudge 
against him, and avenged himself in a manner speaking by no 
means well for the character of that minister, and which can- 
not be patched up by all the laudatory articles in certain Cier- 
man paj)ers. 

When the war between Germany and France broke out in 
1870, Baron Gerolt was very much astonished by a letter from 
Mr. von Thile, who replaced Count Bismarck during his ab- 
sence from Berlin. He was warfted to be more cautious in 
his expressions and behaviour than heretofore, as Mr. Ban- 
croft had complained of his com])orting himself in a manner 
likely to produce bad feelings between Germans and Ameri- 

As this utterly unfounded denunciation had not the desired 
effect, Mr. Bancroft repeated his accusation against ' his friend ' 
the Baron in still stronger terms, adding that he tried to in- 
duce American subjects to enlist in the Prussian army. Though 
the latter part of his denunciation must have appeared ridicu- 
lous to Count Bismarck, this minister had some confidence in 
Mr. Bancroft's veracity and honour, and wrote to Baron Gerolt 
a rather sharp letter, ending with the threat that, if he did not 
mtMid his ways, the Count would be obliged to request his 
Majesty to call Baron Gerolt to Berlin to defend himself. 

This cruel letter mortified the old gentleman very mucli, 
and caused him to give in his resignation. The speech which 
President Grant made on his leave-taking, in which he flatly 
contradicted the base falsehoods communicated by his minis- 
ter to the Prussian Premier, and also the sentiments which were 
expressed in regard to his doings at a dinner given in his hon- 


Ten Yi'jirti of my Life. 


i'*-' <f\ J 

our by the most eminent merchants of New York, afforded 
him some comfort. 

In acknowledgment of his merit, and as a testimony of tlie 
regard in which Baron (lerolt was held in the United States, 
his friends there presented him with a splendid piece of plate of 
solid parcel-gilt silver, which arrived in Jlerlin wiien the Baron 
had just arrived there. The Empress desired to see it, and at a 
dinner given on the birthday of the Russian Emperor it orna- 
mented the Imperial dinner-table, where it was generally 
admired. On hearing that the Baron was in Berlin, the Pan- 
peror and the Empress at once sent a gentlerian to his hotel, 
congratulating him on the reception of such a beautiful and 
well-merited testimonial. On hearing this Prince Bismarck, 
who was present at that dinner, called the messenger back, 
saying, * Please tell the Baron the same from me.' 

Though the resignation of the old minister had been granted 
with all honours, the title of actual Privy Councillor, with the 
predicate Excellency having been bestowed upon him, there 
had still remained a cloud between him and the great Premier, 
and this message therefore was highly gratifying to the vvordiy 
old diplomatist. 

On August 7 we drove to Ems. On the Promenade I met 
his Majesty the King, who gave me his hand, and asked 
whether we were going to the theatre. I would have liked to 
go but I could not, having Jimmy with me, and that spoilt fel- 
low would have cried himself to death if shut up in an hotel 
room, or placed under the charge of a stranger. 

Next morning I got up at five o'clock, and Felix, myself, 

and Captain von C , with his wife, rode on horseback to 

Ems. When the King saw our party he came and bade us 
good morning. He was extremely gracious and kind, patted 
my horse, and said he was plea d to see me on horseback. 

The kind notice which their Majesties took of me caused 
of course many pangs of jealously, even amongst my nearest 

friends. Mrs. General von S endeavoured to persuade 

me that the King had been much displeased at my appearing 
on horseback near the Promenade in Ems. vShe knew for 
certain from reliable ' sources. I did not believe it, for if the 
King had been displeased he would not have come to bid us 
good morning, and his noble, open face would not have had 
such a kind expression. 

, afforded 

any of the 

ed Slates, 

of plate of 

the Baron 

t, and at a 

or it orna- 


1, the Kni- 

his hotel, 

uitiful and 


iger back, 

en granted 
r, with the 
him, there 
It Premier, 
;he vvorihy 

ade I met 
md asked 
'e liked to 
spoilt fel- 
ii an hotel 

ix, myself, 

seba'ck to 

d bade us 

nd, patted 


ne caused 

ly nearest 



knew for 

for if the 

to bid us 

have had 

Duchess of Osf^uvia. 


If I had entertained any doubts in this respect ihcy would 
have been removed next evening, when we attended a great 
ball given by her Majesty the Queen. The King was as kind 
as usual, and made some jocular remarks on the too-long train 
of my dress, which my dre.ssmaker had sent immediately before 
the ball, and which hindered me in dancing, 

I was at that ball introduced to the Duchess of Orsina — 
Kleonore, born Princess Salm-Salm, and first cousin of my hus- 
band. The Duchess is an extremely handsome, most elegant 
and amiable woman, and we soon became great friends. 

On the following morning, the iith, ue were invited to a 
dejeuner at Castle Sayn by the Princess of Sayn-Wittgenstein. 
The Queen with one lady attendant, the King with his aides. 
Prince Reuss, his minister in Petersburg, my husband and 1, 
were the only guests. 

On the 1 2th my husband was out on the drill-ground with 

the whole regiment, and 1 visited with Mrs. von O the 

Convent of Moselweiss, where were forty-three nuns and sixty- 
five pupils. Very much pleased with everything I saw there, 
we went home, and met on our way her Majesty the Queen, 
who stopped and spoke to us. When we had left, she sent 
to recall us to look at the monkey of a poor Savoyard, whose 
good luck it was to meet this Royal fairy. We had the honour 
of accompanying her Majesty on her way to the palace. 

When J, on the 14th, went to Ems to pay some visits, I met 
in a coupe, of the train Lord and Lady Palmerston, who were 
on their way to Wiesbaden, and we were soon engaged in lively 

It was now the time of the military, and though 
I had been in two wars I had never seen such a military show, 
for what 1 saw in America was not to be compared to it. On 
August 17 I was in Colonge, when an officer accompanied me 
to the drill-ground to see the cavalry manoeuvres. I was quite 
delighted with the beautiful horses and the wonderful precision 
with which all movements were executed. 

When the manoeuvres were over, the General commanding 
the troops presented to me his whole corps of officers, and 
made a very flattering little speech, expressing his pleasure in 
welcoming me on their exercise -ground. 

On the 20th I attended the mnnceuvres of the infantry, com- 
manded by General von S , which were also very fine ; and 

I i 


« t 


f^ M-.^UKW t.,*,>*IWW«^ 






■ 50 "^ 



H^ li£ 12.0 


||L25 1 1.4 1.6 


















(716) 873-4S03 





Ten Years of my Life. 


on the 2ist I went to a raf('-dansant given by lier Majesty the 
Queen, which lasted until past seven, where I danced a great 
deal and amused myself much. 

Thus 1 passed a rather gay season, every day bringing with 
it some party, and a little rest was desirable. 1 therefore ac- 
cepted with i)leasure an invitation to Castle Anholt, where sev- 
eral of our male relatives were expected for partridge-shooting. 
I remained a fortnight, and we passed our time in a quiet plea- 
sant manner. 

Her Majesty returned to Coblentz in November, and we 
were invited to tea on the 4th, I had the honour of sitting 
next to her on her right-hand side, and she was very kind, as 
usual, to my husband and myself. The (^ueen showed us the 
si)lendid album of the Rhine with which she had been pre- 

On November 8 I went with Felix to Neuwied, to pay 
our respects, and to congratulate Princess Elizabeth on litr 
engagement with Prince Charles of Roumania. The heredi- 
tary Prince showed us some of the rooms which were arranged 
and decorated for the wedding, which was to take place on 
the 1 8th. 

On the loth we attended a very large party given by her 
Majesty, where we heard some Swedish singers engaged for 
that occasion. 1 was presented to the Grand Duchess of 
Jiaden and Princess William of Baden, whose lady of honour, 
Baroness Beust, called on me next day. 

On the 13th the Queen gave a ball, where I amused myself 
very much, for her Majesty v,\:s so extremely kind and amiable. 
I danced with the Grand Duke of Weimar in the same set 
with the Grand Duchess of Baden and the Princess William. 

On the 17th we were invited to a breakfast at her Majesty's. 
It was only a small party, consisting of the Prince and Princess 
of Hohenzollern, Prince and Princess of Wied, Count and 
Countess of Flanders, the newly-married cou|)le, the Prince 
and Princess of Roumania, with their Roumanian cortege, and 

Princess von Solms-Braunfels. Except Countess \<d\\ P . 

who had to attend her Majesty, no ladies of Coblentz were 

In the afternoon we drove to Neuweid; where we arrived at 
five o'clock, just in time for the dinner, which was a grand, 
ceremonious aftair, where all the rules of etiquette and rank 


2'/ie Count of Flanders. 


Majesty the 
need a great 

ringing with 
herefore ac- 
:, where sev- 
I quiet plea- 

er, and we 
ur of sitting 
ery kind, as 
3\ved us the 
d been pre- 

ied, to pay 
'eth on iitr 
The heredi- 
re arranged 
ke place on 

ven by her 
ngaged for 
Duchess of 
of honour, 

ised myself 
id amiable, 
le same set 
s William. 
' Majesty's. 
id Princess 
Count and 
the Prince 
ortoge, and 

on P . 

)lentz were 

arrived at 
is a grand, 
I and rank 

were strictly observed. The Prince of Rouniinia had brought 
with him all his ministers and a number of ladies and attend- 
ants, who reminded me much of the Mexicans, at !easr in out- 
ward appearance. Most of these lN.ounianian nobles 1 should 
not have liked to meet in a lonely road. 

After dinner was a concert, followed bv fireworks, and it 
was not before two o'clock next morning that we arrived in 
Coblent/. We tlid not, however, fail to be at the railroad 
station to say good-bye to the Princess of i's.oumania, who left 
for her new home, and to give her the boi/mi d'lisa^^e. 

At the dinner in Neuwied I was presented to the Count of 
Flanders, the brother of the poor Kmi)ress Carlotta of Mexico, 
and married to a daughter of the Prince of Hohenzollern. 
The Count is a tall, agreeable man, with whom I had a long 
conversation, which was somewhat difficult on account of his 
bad hearing. He asked much about Mexico, and said many 
flattering things to me. Speaking of the illness of his sister, 
he said that there was no hope whatever of b-r a.'covery. 

The next day being our sewing day at St. IJarbara's. the 
Queen came to say adieu to the ladies, as she was soon going 
to Berlin. Salm and I saw her, however, on the 22nd, whea 
her Majesty had invited about twenty-five persons for tcji. 
The Queen arranged a little lottery with cards for the conij^aTiy. 
Saim won a bust of our dear King, and I a match-box. Next 
evening we went to the inauguration of the theatre ; the (^ueen 
and her whole court were present to see ' Fidelio,' whjch was 
very badly given. 

The time until Christmas was a continuous string of j^iartieSo 
I, of course, had also to give some cotlees and teas, and be- 
sides to entertain our circle when it was my turn. I longed 
indeed for some rest, and was glad when we went, on Decem- 
ber 25 — both Felix's and my birthday — to Castle Ar.holt, 
where we found only the family. The 26th was the birti^.day 
of Prince Alfred, Felix's brother, which was celebrated in a 
(|uiet, pleasant manner, only amongst ourselves. 

On the 29th was to take place a shooting-party, a battue, aiid 
several other members of the family arrived— tiie Duciiess of 
Ossuna, the Duke of Croy, the Princes Ceorge and Philip, 
and Princess Stephanie Croy. The Duchess of Ossuna and 
myself went in a pony-carriage to see the battue. I took a 
little gun with me and fired at a hare, l.nt did not iiarm iij 


■ if 





14.. I 


28 :> 

Ten Years of my Life. 



i . 

'■■i I, 

though I killed one next day, when the hatiiie was continued. 
1 remauied until one o'clock p.m. on the grounds, when the 
ladies came to look at the battue. As it was very cold and 
Ihe snow very deep, I returned with them to the Castle. , 

Next day, being the last in the year, we went skating in the 
morning, and remained together in the evening until New 
Year. I went to my bed very sad and with a very heavy 
heart, for I could not anticipate anything good for the New 

It is true Salm's wishes had been gratified ; he was in a posi- 
tion in the army of which he was proud ; we had a little home ; 
society treated us as well as could be, and their Majesties and 
the whole Royal Family received us in a manner which affected 
me very much and raised the envy of many. In other respects 
we were not to be envied, however, for our position and our 
means to maintain the same were out cf all proportion. 

Though I am not of an envious character, I could not re- 
press some bitter feelings, looking on the difference between 
us and other members of our family. I was not indifferent to 
the social advantages derived from the high title we bore, but 
I could not be blind either to its disadvantages, circumstanced 
as we were, and which made it almost a derision. My sense 
of justice revolted against the law which treated two brothers 
so differently. Whilst one lived in a magnificent castle, sur- 
rounded by some square miles of broad acres belonging to him, 
and yielding him a large rent-roll, the other had scarcely so 
much a month as cost sometimes one dinner at his brother's 
castle. This brother was indeed a good and kind brother, but 
still it was hard to depend on his good will, and, moreover, he 
had a large family. 

This feeling of injustice was still increased in comparing the 
merit of my husband with that of other members of his family. 
A long time ago their ancestors had been men of fame ; but 
since two centuries there was scarcely one amongst them who 
had done anything worth the notice of the world, whilst my 
husband at least had won fame for hiirself. 

He was a Prince, like his brother, and it was expected of 
him that he should live according to his title, whilst the same 
laws which gave it him deprived him of the means to sustain 
it. In this respect the English custom seemed to me far more 
reasonable. There only the head of the family has the title 

1, when the 
y cold and 
istle. , 
iting in the 

until New 
/ery heavy 
>r the New 

s in a posi- 
ittle home ; 
jesties and 
ch afifected 
er respects 
:^n and our 

lid not re- 
e between 
iifferent to 
; bore, but 
My sense 
o brothers 
astle, sur- 
ng to him, 
carcely so 
J brother's 
rother, but 
reover, he 

paring the 
lis family, 
ame; but 
them who 
whilst my 

:pected of 
the same 
:o sustain 
; far more 
s the title 

Living Beyond our Means. 


and the duty to represent it in society, nobody expecting of 
younger brothers more than is expected of other gentlemen. 

We might have lived happy and not surpassing our income, 
if Salm could have lived like other majors ; but Felix was a 
Prince, and even if he had wished to economise, for which, 
however he had little talent, in consequence of his education, 
he could not live so quietly and retiredly as prudence would 
have advised, for propriety required of him more than irom 
other officers of his grade. Though I saw all the evil conse- 
quences ot such a course I had to submit, and being oblii^ed 
to fulfil the social duties expected from a Princess, and being 
also by no means Iree from the inclinations of other women, I 
did as I was told was proper — and tried not to think of the 
end. In this I succeeded tolerably well up to the end of tlK' 
year, but knowing that its first days would bring an immense 
number of lltde b.lls, I greeted the first of January with a very 
heavy hearL 






L^ 1 

'i t 


New Year — The 'little bills' — In a whirlpool — Our new Colonel, Count 
Waldersc'j — In Ueilin — An eveninj; party at her Majesty's — The 
brother of Maximilian — Audience with their Royal Highnesses the 
Crown Prince and Crown Princess — Their great kindness — Grand 
Court-day^ — 1 coiifjuer China — Baroness Schleinitz — Grand OjK'ra 
Pall — The whole Court present — Carnival in Coblentz — Palls — 

Fancy Pall at Mr. von C 's — A Spanish Quadrille — Fancy Pall 

at General von Ilerwarth's — A fishy Quadrille — Mayence — Prince of 
Ilolstein — Ponn — Professor Dr. Pusch — ist of April — Studying in the 
Hospitals — Salm promoted — Sad forebodings — Return of the Queen 
to Coblentz — Season in Ems — The Dukeof Ossuna — His Majesty the 
Emperor of Russia — Princess Rose Salm- Salm — An unpleasant occur- 
rence—At Prince Solms-Praunfels — Thirteen at the table! — Our set 
in Ems — With his Majesty — The Duchess of Ossuna and her train — 
Prince Albrccht of Prussia — Brilliant misery — Again in Bouii — Ru- 
mours in Ems — Supper with the King— A Review in Ems — Dinner 
at her Majesty's in Cioblcntz — A cafe-tlansanl — Caught in a shower — 
Arrival in Ems — The King ar.d Penedetti — Sensation — Supper with 
his Majesty — How the King lookeil — I tell his Majesty that I shall go 
with the army — Concert at the Swiss house in Coblentz — How the 
King and Queen were received — War declared — Taking leave of his 
Majesty — Affecting scene — The King gives me his photograph — 
I'anic in Ems — Return to Coblentz —The behaviour of the Germans 
— Leave-taking of the Queen — Approval of my resolution — In 
Ponn — I receive a certit cale from Prolessor Dr. Busch — In the Aula 
— Professor Dr. Pusch appointed Surgeon-General of 8th Army Corps 
— I am to accompany him — Arrival of Colonel Corvin— Of Mrs. von 
C^)rvin — Of Princess Miima and Florentine Salm — Preparations — 
Dark forebodings — A conversation between Salm and Corvin — The 
regiment ' Queen Augusta' leaving — Farewell to Salm — A sad mother 
and sad wife. 

On my return to Coblentz I did find the * little bills.' They 
arrived in shoals, but necessity compelled me to go on in the 
usual way. The season was not over yet, and teas, suppers, 
and balls had to be attended. I tried to forget my, troubles — 

The French Camji at Chaluus. 


)lonel, Count 

ijesty's — The 

i^linesses the 

Iness — Gr.ind 

J rand Opera 

:ntz— Balls— 

—Fancy IJall 

:e — Prince of 

lulying in the 

:)f the Queen 

s Majesty the 

easant occur- 

le ! — Our set 

her train — 

Bon.i — Ru- 

ims — Dinner 

a shower — 

Supper with 

lat I shall go 

z — How the 

leave of his 

lotograph — 

le Germans 

;olution — In 

In the Aula 

Army Corps 

Df Mrs. von 

parations — 

orvin — The 

I sad mother 

s.' They 
on in the 
, suppers, 
roubles — 

not to think of tlic future, and to enjoy the i^ivscnt. At n 
great ball given by (Icneral Ilerwarth von IJittcufcld I danced 
every set, and amused myself in spite of all gloomy prosj)ects. 

AVhen, on the i6th of January, it was my turn to give a 
party to the circle, I had the jileasure of receiving our new 
Colonel, Count Waldersee, Colonel von Stiehle having been 
called to IJerlin on some other duty. I was much ])leased 
with our new Colonel, for he was not only a very agreeable 
man, but also a very distinguished officer. He had been sent 
Ihe year before to the French camp at Chalons, where many 
foreign officers were invited to admire the high excellence of 
the grand French army. The effect produced on Count \V;il- 
dercce was by no means a grand one. He was utterly 
astonished at the state of that army, and especially of their 
tactics; saying that they were still nearly a century behind, 
predicting for them a very great defeat if they should dare to 
provoke a war with Prussia. He had ex])ressed these views in 
his report sent in to the War Department. 

The * little bills ' caused me to make a business journey to 
Berlin, and Felix accompanied me. We travelled together 

with Lieutenant-Colonel von G and his wife, my dear 

poetical friend. Her husband had bought an estate with a 
little chateau somewhere in l^ilesia, and with a tooth-breaking 
name, and given in his resignation. On my suggestion, the 
ladies of the regiment had given her a keepsake, which was, 
however, I am sorry to say, a most ugly, paltry writing-port- 
folio, which she scarcely would think worth a place on her 
writing table. I regretted her leaving much, for I lost in her 
a very dear good friend. 

In Berlin we met Baron von D from Kurland, his 

pretty daughter, and Lieutenant-Colonel von O , whose 

marriage we attended on the 20th of January. Before Ave 
went to the dinner in the Hotel de Rome, Countess Haake 
called, informing us that the Queen wanted to see Lieutenant- 
Colonel von G and us next day. 

The father of the fair bride led me to dinner which was 

Next day \^'e drove to the palace, and were received at one 
o'ckx:k by Countess Haake. A little while afterwards came 
the Queen, who gave us her hand, and was as gracious as she 
always was. 





Ten Tears of my Life. 



I had, of course, to make many calls, and go to mnny places. 
On the 24th we went to the C)i)era to see the hallet ' Fantasca,' 
wjiich was beautiful. The Queen was present, and with her 
in her box was Archduke J.ecipold, the brotlier of the Kniper- 
ors of Austria and Mexico. The family likeness of this brother 
brought back to me sad reminiscences of Mexico, and 1 felt 
very much oppressed by the thoui^^ht that 1 should have to 
meet him next day at a party given in his honour by her 

The King, Queen, Crown Prince, and Crown Princess, and 
about one hundred and twenty persons were present. The 
manner in which I was received by all the members of the 
the Royal Family was even kinder than usual, and must have 
been noticed by the Archduke, for when we on his desire had 
been presented to him, he acknowledged our services rendered 
to his brother in Mexico in such ostentatious language, that I, 
though of course much flattered, still felt somewhat annoyed, 
and the more so as many things the Archduke said about 
Mexico grated on my feelings, being made unusually sensitive 
I y the family likeness of th-i Prince to his brother. I was 
gf J when that conversation was over. 

Next day I received a note from the Crown Princess, who 
wanted to see me at seven o'clock p.m., and accordingly I 
drove to the palace. When I had entered the room the attend- 
ing lady of honour and chamberlains were dismissed, and I 
remained alone with their Royal Highnesses, who were so 
extremely kind to me that I felt quite affected. I remained 
about half an hour. When taking my leave the Crown Prin- 
cess kissed me and I kissed her hand. The Crown Prince 
accompanied me to the foot of tlie stairs, and kissed my hand 
before all the servants, an honour which was as much em- 
barrasing to me as it was gratifying. 

On the 27th, in the afternoon, I was in bed before making 
a toilet for the great reception at Court in the evening, when 
by the negligence of the waiter in the hotel, and the stupidity 
of my maid, Baroness Schleinitz was brought to my bedside. 
I felt much annoyed, but the fine tact and amiab lity of her 
Excellency helped me to get over my embarrassu',ent, and I 
accepted with pleasure her invitation for supper alter the 
grand Court ceremony. 

It was the first time I attended such a great field day at 

A F'iiU Day at Court 


Court, and it was only natural that I was agreeably exciter 
and curious. I made of course a very careful toilet, and wor 
a yellow siik dress with a six-feet long train, which is won 
hanging over the left arm. The ceremony took place in llu 
White Hall in the old palace, where are all the Royal stati 
rooms. When all the many richly and elegantly drer.sec 
guests were marshalled in a hall adjoining the White Hall 
according to their rank, their Majesties appeared in full Roya 
state. Our gracious Queen looked most beautifu., and ever) 
inch a Queen. Two young noblemen, in splendid uniform, 
carried her long gorgeous train when she passed before hei 
guests, saying some friendly words here and there. 

In the White Hall, where a concert took place, I at last had 
my wish to see King and Queen sitting on a kind of throne, 
raised some steps above die tloor. To the right and left ol 
their Majesties were sitting on fauteuils the other members o) 
the Royal Family, whilst the guests were seated in rows before 
them. In the first row were sitting the foreign ambassador? 
and ministers, and behind them the Princes and Princesses. 
I was sitting in the third row, right opposite their Majesties, 
at the side of Princess Putbus, and behind me were the mem- 
bers of the Chinese embassy, just then present in Berlin giving 
the whole assembly a particularly interesting character. 

The concert was very fine, and Madame Lucca sang admir- 
ably. In the pauses refreshments were presented, with which 
my Oriental neighbours seemed much pleased. My humble 
person attracted their attention, perhaps on account of my 
yellow dress, as yellow is the Imperial colour of the Chinese, 
and they showed me their respect by attempting to feed me 
with ice cream, an^ with their own spoon. This ludicrous 
calamity was noticed by his Majesty and amused him much, 
and on going tl rough the ranks he came twice to my seat, 
saying a few friendly words. 

When the highly interesting ceremony was over I drove to 
the house of Baron von Schleinitz, the minister of the Royal 
household, and found there several members of the diplomatic 
corps. The ladies put their trains aside, and we had a splen- 
did supper enlivened by a bright conversation, in which the 
incidents of the evening were discussed. After supper we en- 
joyed our cigarettes, and returned home at two o'clock a. m., 
much deliirhted with all we had seen and heard. 








Ten Ycdva of ray Life. 



On Jnnnary 28 took plare one of tlie great Sul)srription 
IJ.ilb; in the Royal Opera House, and as I liad never liad an 
opportunity of attending one we would not miss it. 

'Hiese balls had been introduced many years ago under the 
patronage of the Court, and every season two, or evi* three, 
of ihem took place. 'I'hese balls were very popular, for they 
afforded the public an opportunity of seeing the whole Royal 
Family, who never failed to attend them, for the King of 
Prussia and his Princess liked to mix with the ])eople, by whom 
they are much beloved. These balls are public — that is, on 
api)lying to the intendant of the Royal Theatres for tickets, 
these are sent to as many persons as may move in the house 
without too great inconvenience. No respectable person is 
excluded, and the tickets are to be paid for, each costing, I 
believe, five tiialers. 

1 must say I was not prepared for the splendid scene which 
dazzled my eyes on entering. The Opera House was beauti- 
fully decorated for that purpose. The floor of the pit was 
raised to a level with the stage, the whole forming one immense 
hall, lighted up in the most brilliant manner, and very tastefully 
decorated as a ball-room. From the lar£;e Court box a broad 
staircase led to the hall, and all the boxes up to the highest 
tier and the hall itself were filled with above two thousand 
ladies and gentlemen, all in their best toilets. The many 
different brilliant uniforms, with their glittering decorations, 
moving everywhere amongst the black dress-coats, made the 
whole elegant crowd less monotonous than is th .; case, for in- 
stance, in America, where the black coat alone is to be seen. 

The King and Queen, followed by all the members of the 
Royal Family, always open the ball by leading the polonaise, 
after which they return to the Royal private boxes ; but twice 
more they walk once up and down the hall, speaking on their 
way to many persons they know. As the crov^d is great, and 
everybody desirous of seeing the Royal procession as near as 
possible, the intendant of the Royal Theatre goes ahead, 
followeJ by Count Puckler leading the Palast Dame of the 
Queen. They are followed by the King and the other Princes 
of the family, each leading a Princess or one of the ladies of 
the Court. 

Dancing '.vas rather difficult on account of the crowd, and 
there can scarcely be more dresses lorn and spoilt at a draw- 

SnhfiO'ipt'ion B tJIf^. 



inp-room in Enc;lnncl thin at a Sub'^rripiion Hall in T^crlin 
Supper and refrcshnicnt lialls were arrantjjed, and stalls with 
ice-creams and cooling drinks to be lound in the passages. 

I was sitting in a box together with Mrs. (leneral von 
Witzleben, looking with much interest upon this highly amus- 
ing and lively scene. Her Majesty, knowing that the leave of 
absence of my husband was expired, and that he had to re- 
turn to Coblentz, sent for us to siy adieu. When we left the 
})0x of the Queen we mef Prince Charles, the brother of tlie 
King, who stopped and sj>oke to us ; and afterwards the 
Crown Prince came, shook hands with us, and charmed us by 
his amiability. We had received from him an invitation for a 
ball on the 31st, but as my husband had to leave we had to 
decline, with great regret. 

VV^e left soon after the Queen, at nbout half-past eleven, and 
went to supper at Countess Benckendorft's, meeting there some 
diplomatists, who are always amusing compmy. It was again 
two o'clock A.M. before we reached home. 

We left next day at seven o'clock p.m. for Coblentz, where 
we resumed our usual life. On February 4 I went to a ball 

given by General von S at the military casino, ending 

only at two o'clock in the morning ; and the same evening I 

attended to our circle, where Mrs. von C invited us to a 

fancy dress ball, and next morning we went to Cologne to look 
about for our costumes. The landlord of the Hotel Disch 
gave us all desired information, and sent for a Miss Maria 
Merjack, who assisted us, and whom we engaged to come to 
Coblentz to teach us different Spanish dances ; for Mrs. von 

C and myself had decided on appearing in a Spanish 


On the 9th again was a great ball given by General Her- 
warth von Bittenfeld, when 1 danced every set, with old and 
young gentlemen. 

Another fancy ball at General Von Herwarth*s was decided 
on for February 23, and as I could not possibly exclude myself 
from taking part in it, I joined a sailor or fisherman quadrille 
in the costume of the people of Alsen, in compliment to the 
General (who won a victory there in the Danish war) ; and, in 
an evil hour, we ordered our costumes to be made by Mr. 
Kemp, in Bonn, recommended I do not know by whom. 

Wii had now a busy time with prcDarinc: for the two fancy 








Ten Years of my Life. 



'1 ! 

balls, and practising Spanish dances and the hornpipe ; but, 
besides this, we had to attend to otlier social duties outside of 
Coblentz. Having received an invitation from the (iovernor 
of Mayence, the Prince of Holstein, we went there on the i5ih, 
and stayed at the house of Major Von Bloch, an old friend of 
Felix's. The ball was splendid ; 1 danced every set and many 
extra tours. 

The Prince of Holstein was much liked, though he was very 
strict. When we drove next day to^ the station, and he accom- 
panied me, he saw in the street a soldier who was the worse 
for liquor. The Prince called out at once a thundering ' Halt ! ' 
and had him arrested, threatening him with all kinds of pun- 
ishment. Taking pity on the poor fellow, I said to the angry 
General, in my bad German, ' Durchlaucht, sei l)u ein gutes 
Mensch, und lass das arm Kerl laufen ! ' which amused him so 
much that he laughed, and in this good humour the man got 
off with a reprimand. 

On the 19th the fancy ball at Mrs. von C 's took place. 

The costumes in general were not nice at all, and our Spanish 
quadrille went off very indifferently. I danced with Mr. von 

C , who danced the fandango more like a polish bear than 

a Spaniard, and seemed to have a particular spite against my 

We had laid down a rule amongst ourselves in reference to 
the balls and evening parties given by us ; which was very 
sensible, as many amongst us were not rich. According to this 
regulation, not more than two dishes of meat were to be given, 

and only red and white tabb wine. Mr. Von C , however, 

who was a wealthy man, asserted that a fancy ball was an ex- 
ceptional case, and gave a sumptuous supper and an immense 
quantity of champagne, which caused some remarks from 

General Herwarth. These remarks anno)ed Mr. von C 

so much, that he in his vexation got very drunk and went off 
to his bed. by which I had the advantage of getting rid of him 
as a partner for the cotillion, which 1 danced then with our 
new Colonel, Count Waldersee, who was a far superior dancer 
and man. 

The fancy ball at General Hervvarth's took p^^ce on the 
23rd. We were all in a great flutter, for our sailor dresses from 
Bonn did not arrive until very late in the afternoon. The 
ball was very crowded, and dancing was rather difficult. Be- 




Pi'(t(t'stior Litsch. 


fore it bci^in Count W.ildorseo appro.K hod the old hero, (Icii- 
tTiil von llcwarth, addressed him in nice appropriate verses, 
and dehvcred to hini a laurel crown witli black and white 
streamers. 1 amused myself very much, thou^jh our sailor cos- 
tumes were horrid ; we looked all like fishwomen, and shud- 
dered at ourown u^Hmss. Wc danced, however, our hornpipe 
toh-'rably \^ell, had a good and i)leasant sui>pcr. Count Walder- 
see leading me to it, and we did not go home till morning — 
at three o'clock. 

How I longed for the end of all these balls, and, tha-ik 
Heaven, it came soon, for the one I gave on February 28 was 
the last of tlie season. We liad eighty-six guests, and llie ball 
went of to the satisfaction of everybody. 1 danced every set, 
with young and old, and made myself as amiable as I could. 
When all was over, after two o'clock, and I was at last in my 
bed, I was most haj)py that everything had passed off so well. 

It had been decided on between me and my husband that 
after the balls, &c., of the season were over 1 should go to 
Bonn, to consult one of the celebrated ladies' physicians there, 
and stay for so long in that city as it snould be thought neces- 
sary by him I therefore went to Uonn on March 18, and 
consulted Professor liusch, who had been strongly recom- 
mended to me by the brother of my husband. 

Professor Busch is one of the most renowned physicians in 
Germany, and is almost one of the kindest and best men 1 
have ever known. As he thought it necessary for me to re- 
main under his treatment for a time, I invited a cousin of my 
husband'i*, Countess Constantine Salm-Hoegssra^ten, to come 
and stay with me, and afterwards to accompany me to Cob- 

As my state of health did not require me to stay at home, 
I went now and then to Coblentz, or paid visits in the neigh- 
bourhood, and became also acquainted with the wife of Pro- 
fessor Busch, who has a whole nestful of pretty children and a 
grown-up daughter, in whose company 1 speiit very pleasant 

On April i, I was taken in several times. Amongst other 
things I received, per rail, a large box, in which, carefully 
packed in hay, I found a brandy bottle containing some fine 
French liquor, on the label of which was written, ' To take in the 
mornings, at noon, and in the evenings, one glassfull. Cob- 






. i. 


I t 

¥ VrJiiP 


W ' 


Ten Years of my Lije. 

lenliz, April i, Salm, M.D.' The label itself, made by sonie 
artist, represented a lancscape, with Bonn in the background ; 
a very prominent stork, in the foreground, in a swamp, held in 
his bill — not, as readers might expect, a baby — but a very bi^ 
disappointing frog. 

Whilst I was in Bonn I had an opportunity of satisfying a 
desire I had already formed in Coblentz, on hearing that her 
Majesty would be pleased if the ladies of her regiment occu- 
pied themselves with nursing the sick in the military hospitals. 

Seeing the kindness and skill with which Professor Busch 
and his assistants, Dr. voi: Kiihlewetter and Dr. Von Mosen- 
gail, treated the sick and wounded, I was extremely eager to 
learn from them how to dress wounds, and to assist even in 
operations. The Professor was pleased with my earnestness, 
and it was agreed that 1 should go through a course of surgery 
somewhat later. 

In the middle of April, having returned to Coblentz, the 
colonercy of the crack battalion of our regiment became vacant 

by Lieut. -Colonel von O being promoted to some higher 

command, as was expected long since by Major von R- 

who lioped to be his successor. He was, however, disap- 
pointed, for the order arrived from Berlin that Salm, should 
take command of the * Fusilier Battalion,' This created some 
astonishment in Coblentz,. and General von Hewarth, sup- 
posing some mistake, as Major von R was in fact the 

senior field-officer, telegraphed to Berlin to ascertain whether 
he was correct. The answer confirmed Salm's promotion, 
which he, I think, owed principally to the manner iii^ which he 
had once, in Queretaro, commanded and led to battle the 
famous Cazadores, about which the King had repeatedly com- 
plimented him. 

Though I explained before how we were situated, and this 
was reason enough to feel uneasy and anxious sometimes, it 
was st?ll not a sufficient cause for the deep sadness which over- 
came me very frequently since the New Year. I was some- 
times utterly dejected, and, 'ying in my bed, I cried myself to 
sleep. I felt an indefinable dread pending over me, and a 
foreboding that something very sad would happen often in the 
middle of the gayest company so forcibly .that I involuntarily 

Spring came, and exerted also on me its cheering influence ; 


The Queen lletiivns to Cobienfz. 


2 by son"!e 
:kgroun(l ; 
ip, held ill 
a very big 

iatisfying a 
g that her 
nent occu- 
' hospitals, 
sor Busch 
on Mosen- 
y eager to 
>ist even in 
; of surgery 

iblentz, the 
ime vacant 
Dme higher 

on R , 

iver, disap- 
Im, should 
;ated some 
varth, sup- 
n fact the 
in whether 
IIP which he 
battle the 
edly com- 

d, and this 
netimes, it 
hich over- 
was some- 
i myself to 
le, and a 
ften in the 

influence ; 

we made many excursions up and down the Rhine, mostly in 
agreeable company ; but still this dreadful foreboding of evil 
never left my side, and such pa' :ges as the following, under 
May 15, occur frequently in my diary : ' I am very tired, and 
would like to sleep that long sleep which knows no awaking.' 

Time, however, went on as usual, and the summer season 
promised to be rather gay, for the Queen had returned to Cob- 
lentz, and high guests from all parts of the world arrived in 
Kms. We drove there on May 19, starting already at five 
o'clock A.M., to be in time for the promenade, with us were 
Countess Constantine Salm-Hoegstraeten, and Pr-ncess Re S3 
Salm-Salm, the young pretty wive of Alfred, stjcond son of my 
husband's brother, born Countess Lutzow. 

On the Promenade we met our brilliant cousin, the Duchess 
of Ossuna, and also the Duke her husband, one of the richest 
men of Spain. When in citizen's dress nobody would have 
guessed that the short, rather thickset man, who liked to laugh 
at and to make rather doubtful jokes, was sucn a great person- 
age ; but when in uniform no Chinese mandarian could look 
more magnificent, for his whole body was covered with deco- 
rations and stars of every description. 

After having walked a little while, we were all sitting down to 
rest when his Majesty the Emperor of Russia, who knew the 
Duke very well, as he bad be^n Spanish ambassador in Peters- 
burg, joined us and took a s jat next to me. Salm and myself »vere 
presented, and he was very gracioui:< to us. After haVf an hour, 
which passed in a very pleasant and interesting conversation, 
his Majesty left, quite alone and unattended as he had come, 
except by a large mastiff, which followed him everywhere like 
his shadow. 

The Duke of Ossuna invited us to a very agreeable supper 
in the Kursaal. Rose suddenly felt unwell, and the Duchess 
went out with her in the garden to take some air. When .it- 
ting down for a moment, a man, dresred like a gentleman, but 
ai)pareritly under the influence of liquor, who was pleased by 
Princess Rose's pretty young face, approached and grossly in- 
sulted her. The Duchess was so indignant that she could not 
even say a word, and the poor Princess so frightened that she 
was incapable of rising. At that moment I came with Countess 
Constar.ce, and the fellow sat down on a chair quite close and 
reiterated his insults. I at once expressed to him my indig- 







Ten Years of iivj Life. 

nation about his behaviour to ladies, when he knowingly said, 
* Ladies ! ah well, they are no ladies ! ' The Duke and my 
husband were still upstairs in the room settling the bill, but at 
my call the Prince came at once, and having been informed 
of the behaviour of the stranger, he went up to him asking for 
his card, for, as I said before, the fellow looked liked a gentle- 
man. He had no card, and on this and what he said Salni 
became furious, and his sword, abvays very loose in its scab- 
bard, flashed out at once. When the man saw that, fright 
sobered him, and he ran away as fast as he could. Some 
policemen who were near ran after him. He was a man from 
Hamburg, who had made a bet to drink a great number of 
bottles of champagne within a certain short space of time. 
The authorities obliged him to leave next day. 

On May 22 the Duchess of Ossuna had invited us to a din- 
ner at Rheingrafenstein, in the neighbourhood of wliich her 
stepfather. Prince Solms-Braunfels, had a villa. I was pre- 
sented there to the Prince and Princess, and the Duchess's 
half-sisters. We spent a pleasant day and came home rather 

In the following weeks I was almost always in Bonn, to con- 
tinue my cure and to pursue my studies in the hospital. On 
the 24th I went with the doctors to the operation room, and 
assisted at three operations made by Professor Busch. I was 
not in the least nervous, and saw and noticed everything with 
the greatest interest. On June i I commenced to assist the 
Professor and learn how to dress wounds. I attended also in 
the operation room, and admired the consummate skill of the 
Professor, who cuts off a leg or an arm in an incredibly short 

On June 6 I went to Coblentz to the christening of a child 
in the Englisli church in the Queen's palace. After that we 
dined at the hotel, and it was discovered to the dismay of 
several, amongst whom I was one, that we were thirteen at the 
table ! Amongst these thirteen were my husband and Colonel 
Count Waldersee, who both were dead before three months ! 

As the physician thought it beneficial for me to use the 
waters of Ems, I went there to remain for a time, on the 20th. 
The Duchess recommended to me her physician, Dr. Vogel, 
who called and advised me tc oathe and to drink the water 
mixed with milk 

Oar Royal Escort. 


ngly said, 
e and ray 
)ill, but at 
asking for 
[ a gentle- 
said Salni 
1 its scab- 
hat, fright 
d. Some 
man from 
aumber of 
12 of time. 

5 to a din- 

which her 

was pre- 


)me rather 

[nn, to con- 
pital. On 
room, and 
:h. I was 
thing with 
assist the 
Jed also in 
skill of the 
iibly short 

of a child 
er that we 
dismay of 
teen at the 
id Colonel 
months ! 

use the 

1 the 2oth. 
Dr. Vogel, 

the water 

In the afternoon friends came from Coblentz, and we all 
went to the Promenade at seven o'clock. In our company 
were the Duchess of Ossuna with her sister Mary Solms, Count: 
and Countess Waldersee, and General von Berger. When \vc 
were sitting around a table the King, who had arrived only in 
the afternoon, came and sat down between the Duchess and 
myself, remaining nearly an hour. His Majesty looked ex- 
tremely well, and was in very good humour. 

I had the honour of being every day in his company, for at 
the Promenade he almost always walked with us. On the 
22nd his Majesty invited the Duchess and myself to the theatre, 
and he took his seat between us. 

On the following day I fJt very ill, and telegraphed for 
Professor Bnsch. The good Professor, though his time was so 
precious, came, and I presented him to Elecnore, who wished 
to consult him also. I had to remain in bed for several days, 
and a great number of persons came and called on me. 

On the 28th, when 1 was better, the Duchess called with a 
whole train of admirers, who remained an hour, filling my 
room with smoke. 

Though the weather was not favourable, I went out with 
visitors coming from Coblentz for a short promenade, which, 
however, became a long one, as his Majesty hononred us by 
joining our company. 

In the evening we took supper at the Kurhaus in company 
with Prince Albrecht, the youngest brother of his Majesty, who 
seemed to like our little circle, formed by the Duke and 
Duchess of Ossuna, Count and Countess Larisch, some of our 
relatives coming from Coblentz, the aides-de-camp of the King, 
the Duke of Ugest, Count Perponcher, &c. 

Next morning the Duchess and train again filled my room 
with smoke — the ladies smoking likewise — until I became 

quite dizzy. I'elix arrived with Mr. and Mrs. von C ; 

in the evening we all went to the Promenade, and after it to 
the theatre, his Majesty sitting between Eleonore and myself. 
After the theatre we all took supper at the Hotel Prince of 
Wales, and at eleven Salm and von C returned to Cob- 

On the 30th I attended a dinner at Coblentz, but returned 
for the evening promenade, and looked from the balcony of 
the Kurhaus at some fireworks. His Majesty, Prince Albrecht 





;;« :■ ) 


Ten Years of my Life. 


and several persons of the Court, were present. The fireworks 
over, we all went to the Hotel Prince of Wales, where we had 
the honour of taking supper with the King and his brother. 
I sat opposite his Majesty, who presented each of us ladies 
with a rose. After supper the whole party accompanied the 
King to his residence. 

Though I was not insensible to the kindness shown to me 
by everybody and the distinction bestowed on me by the most 
exalted personages, which would have made many others per- 
fectly happy, I was as sad as could be when alone, a feeling of 
dread always hanging over me like a thundercloud. This feel- 
ing was made worse by reflecting on my position, of which the 
outside contrasted too strikingly with its real state, and which 
perhaps was not guessed at by others. I was treated as an 
equal by persons to whom thousands of thalers were as insig- 
nificant as were to me so many groscbens, and Heaven knows 
what trouble I had to keep up appearances, when even the ex- 
penses for my gloves were more than I could afford. How- 
ever, I was in for it, and could not retreat, though I shuddered 
at thinking of the end. I tried to forget it, and to pursue my 
course with as good a mien as possible. 

It was hard enough, and I was very much vexed when 
Countess Larisch surprised me next morning in a crying fit, 
though I had to shake it off and to go to the Promenade, 
where his Majesty's extreme kindness did not fail to pour oil 
into my sore heart. 

Felix had invited our set to an evening party at our house 
in Coblentz. I had invited also Prince Albrecht, but his Royal 
Highness had to decline, as he had a little party himself. 

I was quite astonished to see in what an excellent manner 
my husband had made all arrangements. Our party consisted 
of twenty-one persons. We had a dance, and all were as merry 
as could be. 

I had, however, an inflammation in my ear, and little Kitty, 
a baby pup of Jimmy's, which I had with me that night, knocked 
against it in such a manner that I became nearly nK*d with pain. 
I went next morning witli Felix to Bonn, where I had to tay 
a whole week, but it was no quiet week either, for Felix's 
brother came with some other relatives, who had been on a 
visit to Anholt, and the hereditary Prince was always there. 

On July 6, the Duke and Duchess of Ossuna, Count and 

Kcephig up Appcavancef^. 


; fireworks 
ire we had 
is brother, 
us ladies 
)anied the 

own to me 
y the most 
others per- 
\ feeling of 
This feel- 
r which the 
and which 
lated as an 
re as insig- 
ven knows 
vcn the ex- 
rd. How- 
pursue iny 

^'xed when 

crying fit, 


to pour oil 

our house 
t his Koyal 
nt manner 
y consisted 
re as merry 

ittle Kitty, 
t, knocked 
with pain, 
lad to tay 
for Felix's 
been on a 
s there, 
^ount and 

Countess Larisch, and Felix increased our company. Whilst 
the rest of us, after liaving seen the sights of JJonn, went to 
dine at the Hotel Royal tlie Duke satisfied his rather curious 
whim to see the dead bodies ready for ilissection in the anatomi- 
cal room, and Felix had to accompanj liim. 

In the afternoon I had a long con, illation with Professor 
Busch,and I went to his new house and in his pretty garden. See- 
ing Mrs. Busch surrounded by such pretty, healthy children, a 
blessed mother and wife, happy in every respect, and compar- 
ing her condition with mine, I felt quite wretched, and had a 
crying fit which made me quite angry, for I was afraid she 
would tell the Professor, who always treated me like a child, 
and would have laughed at me. 

Next morning wlien I was very low-spirited, I received a 
despatch from Felix calling me back. I therefore said good- 
bye to the kind people in Bonn and went to Coblentz, and iu 
the afternoon returned with Felix to Ems, where we arrived at 
eight. On the Promenade we saw the King sitting with our 
usual coin])any. His Majesty rose, shook hands with me, and 
invited me to sit down. After he left we went to supper at 
the Prince of Wales. Prince Albrecht sat at my side. He 
was in a very good humour, and said many funny things. 

Everybody will still remember that summer of 1870, and 
especially the important scenes enacted in Ems, which ha 
such serious and dreadful consequences. The candidature of 
the young Prince Hohenzollern for the vacant throne of Spain 
was then the great topic of the day, and hundreds of eager eyes 
looked into the face of our noble old King to read off from its 
expression the future of the European world. When, on the 
evening of the 8th, his Majesty honoured our company as usual 
and was sitting next to me, he spoke about Spain, and said that 
he did not feel satisfied with Prince HohenzoUern's acceptance 
of the crown of that country, fearing that evil might result from 

On the nth all sorts of rumours were current. We spoki 
with the King only a few moments in the morning, and made, 
with the Duchess, Countess Furstemberg, Countess Larisch, 
and several gentlemen, a delightful party in the woods, from 
which we returned at eight o'clock p.m. We found Felix in 
Ems, and we all made a promenade with his Majesty. On 
coming home I found an order of her Majesty the Queen for 













! 1 


Ten Years of my Life. 

dinner next day, and the same was received l)y the Duke and 
Duchess of Ossuna, and the Counts and Countesses Furstem- 
burg and Larisch. 

Next morning the Augusta regiment arrived at Ems, and 
passed in parade before the King and Prince Albrecht, stand- 
ing with their staffs by chance right opposite my windows. 
That over, we drove to our house in Coblentz, and went to 
dinner in the palace at five o'clock. The Queen was very 
gracious, and gave me a little lecture about ray health, and 

Countess H was quite malicious, making some pointed 

remarks, which, however, did not hurt me. 

The dinner was soon over, for the queen had after it a 
grand cafe-dansant in the garden^ where about tv/o hundred 
people from Coblentz appeared in their best looks and finery. 

We all should have liked to stay to the end of the, 
but her Majesty would not allow us, as we were under medical 
treatment, jestingly saying that she would not deprive his 
Majesty the King of his usual company. She had ordered the 
express train to stop for us near the palace, and about seven 
o'clock we had to leave. 

In walking from the palace to the bridge where the train 
stood, we were surprised by a pelting shower, which made sad 
havoc with our bonnets and dresses, though I did not suffer 
much, for I sheltered myself under the ample petticoats of my 
magnificent cousin, who laughed at my expedient of using her 
as a tent. Our whole party arrived hke drowned rats on the 
Promenade, or like wet peacocks, which seem-^d the impres- 
sion of his Majesty, who joked us about our fine feathers being 
ruffled by the rain. 

Just when the King left us and went away with Count Lehn- 
dorff, the French minister, Count Benedetti, stopped his 
Majesty and said something to him, on which our noble 
sovereign became two inches taller, and his kind face acquired 
an expression that I had never before seen upon it. Making 
an impatient movement with his hand towards Count Lehn- 
dorff he went away alone, leaving the oily Frenchman quite 
petrified. All who were near were very curious, xnd the news 
of this rather strange occurrence ran like wildfire through all 
Ems, creating great excitement. 

On July 13 I was up early, and wert to the Promenade, 
where 1 saw the King walking with General von Treskow, his 

Duke and 
s Furstem- 

Ems, and 
cht, stand- 
r windows, 
nd went to 
n was very 
icalth, and 
ne pointed 

i after it a 
o hundred 
and finery, 
he festival, 
ier medical 
leprive his 
ordered the 
bout seven 

e the train 
made sad 
not suffer 
oats of my 
f using her 
rats on the 
he impres- 
thers being 

Dunt Lehn- 
jpped his 
our noble 
e acquired 
Lnt Lehn- 
man quite 
1 the news 
irough all 

eskow, his 

I'he King and Benedeiti. 


Adjutant-General. His Majesty looked sad, and his conver- 
sation seemed of an important character. After having break- 
fasted in company witli Prince Albrecht and several other 
ladies and gentlemen, i attended to some trilling business and 
made some calls. During my absence Prince Albrecht came 
to see me, I suppose to invite me to sui)pcr, which he did 
aftei ivards together with the rest of our clique, when he met us 
in the evening on the Promenade, 
telixand Mr. and Mrs. von C — 

— had arrived and were 
invited also. We supped in the Knrgarten — about twenty- five 
persons. I was sitting between Count Eulenburg (who had 
arrived from Berlin, instead of Count Bismarck, who was 
expected) and Count Furstemberg. The King looked per- 
fectly calm and serene, and nobody could have seen in his 
lUce that he expected a declaration of war. [ said to him that 
I, in case of war, would go with the army to nurse the wounded, 
and that I fortunately had learnt how to do so already in the 
hospitals at Bonn. 

'Then really you think there will be war?' his Majesty said ; 
* well, if there should be one, I am sure you would do good 
service ; but do not cut off too many ears.' 

1 was in earnest, and wrote next morning to the Queen to 
ask permission to go in case of war with the army as a nurse. 
Everybody in Ems was much excited ; nothing was known yet 
for certain, but it was generally believed that there would be a 
war with France, and this belief was confirmed when it became 
known that his Majesty would return to Berlin. 

In the afternoon I went with a party to Coblentz, to the 
concert at the Swiss House in the Queen's Promenade. The 
concert was much crowded, and all the ladies of our regiment 
and their friends were present and sitting together. When the 
King and Queen appeared they were received with great en- 
thusiasm, the ladies waiving their handkerchiefs and crying at 
the same time. This token of our love seemed to please his 
.Majesty, as well it might, for it came from the inmost of loyal 
hearts ; the Queen was much affected and had tears in her 

The King came and shook hands with me, and when we, 
with Count and Countess Waldersee, had gone after the con- 
cert to Ems, we promenaded with his Majesty and accom- 
panied him to his door. 






Ten Yearn of rivj Life. 

■'"■ I 

Next day, July 15, 1870, was a memorable day, which will 
be remembered in history many thousand years. ^Var bv»t\veen 
(Jermany and France had been declared, and our dear King 
was to leave for Berlin at "Mf^ht a.m. We all went to the 
station to say faiewell to him and give hirn boucjuets. 

Our leave-taking was an affecting scene. The good King 
had tears in his eyes, all the ladies cried, and even the aides- 
de-camp and Cleneral IVesko v were crying like children. The 
Kmg gave Eleonorc, Countess Larisch, Mrs. von Schrecken- 
stein, Mrs. von Pommer-Esche, and myself each his photo- 
graph, and 1 kissed his hand, much against iiis will. 

We breakfasted with Prince Albreclit and General von Her- 
warth, but we all felt very sad and remained so all day. At 
seven o'clock p.m. Countess Larisch fetched me to go with 
Kleonore and others to Lahnstein to see the Duke off. When 
he was gone the Duchess went up to the Castle, but as we did 

not feel in a mood to follow her, 1 with Mrs. von S , and 

the Princes Pliiiij; Croy, Solms, and Hohenloe, returned to 
Ems, where we took supper with Prince Albrecht, his aide-de- 
camp, and three other ladies. His Royal Highness was also 
more seiious and silent than usual. 

Next morning little Ems offered a curious spectacle. Every- 
body seemed to be in a panic. People were running aboiic 
like ants when their hill has been disturbed by a stick. The 
streets were crowded with porters carrying luggage, for every- 
body hurried home. Landlords were distracted and for' ot 

their bills, as did many of their guests. Mrs, von S avps 

(juite frantic, raving about her curtains and furniture, believing 
that the French would be before her in Dusseldorf. Prince 
Croy appeared, and mildly censured her for thinking more 
about her furniture than about her husband, who was, however, 
not very likely to come in too close contact with the French, 
as he was aide-de-camp to an inactive General, Prince Hohen- 

Felix arrived for me in the afternoon, and I returne d with 
him to Coblentz. This city was filling with a crowd of soldiers, 
reservists joining their regiments, who poured in by thousands 
from all directions, mostly anticipating the oiftcial summons. 
Their number was so great that all of them could not be 
quartered, and many bivouacked in the streets or found shelter 
in outhouses and barns. 

German EuiJmsiasm. 


'hich will 


car King 

It to the 

Dod King 
Llie aides- 
en. The 
is photo- 

von Her- 
day. At 
) go with 
f. When 
as we did 

, and 

turned to 
IS aide-de- 
was also 

e. Every- 
ing about 
ck. The 
for every- 
nd for' ot 


[ing more 

le French, 
le Hohen- 

rnfd with 
If soldiers, 
Id not be 
bd shelter 

The Cicrmnns are generally a very quiet, rather plileijtnatic 
people, and I was greatly astonished at the sudden change 
that had come over them. Tlieir enthusiasm was wonderful to 
witness, and still more so wns the manner in which it expressed 
itself. Thee was no mad shouting and bragging to be heard 
anywhere, but the face of each reservist or recruit one met in 
the street showed thct l;e came with a good will ; all were 
fully convinced that they would not have been called from 
their fields and firesides if there was no good cause for it; 
for their confidence in th ir superiors was unbounded, as was 
their love for their country and the King standing at its head. 
F.ven those who did not understand the real cause of the war 
did not grumble ; they were wanted by their King to defend 
his honour, identical with that of his i)eople, their beloved 
Fatherland, and its boundary stream, the Rhine, against its 
nearest neighbour. As this neighbour had i)rovoked the war 
when least thought of, everybody supjjosed that the French 
were fully prepared, and it was therefore believed that tiieir 
columns were already in fuU movement towards the Rhine, 
and that they would reach that river before the Prussian army 
was ready. This circumstance caused much anxiety amongst 
officers and private soldiers, and spurred everyone to the 
greatest possible exertions. Whenever a day passed without 
any new^ from the French it was considertid as a great gain, 
for it was a day won for the necessary preparations. Though 
rather inclined to over-value the efficiency of the French army 
and the bravery of its soldiers, nobody was afraid of them if the 
Prussian army could once gain its position. 

Oti July 17 the Queen took leave of her regiment. She told 
Salm that she had received my letter, and was much j)leased 
with my desire to follow the army, and that I might do so at 
the proper time. I therefore went next day to Bonn to attend 
in the hospitals, and to learn still as much as possible. 'J'here 
I found the Princess Wied, Countess ^enno, and Countess 
Nesselrode, .who remained with Professor Busch in the hospi- 
tal from the morning until six o'clock p.m. to become acquainted 
with the dutv of nurses. 

I had requested the Professor to take me with him in the 
field if he should go, and he consented, giving me at the same 
time a certificate, stating that I had studied one month in the 
dinique, and that I was able to do very good service. 







! . 


I -, II ilE. 



I:'). -J 


Ten Years of my Life. 

Knowinp; ilint the Queen on lier way to Berlin would j^is's 
Bonn, I was of course at liic station, where Professor Husch 
accompanied nie. Her Majesty was cheered enthusiastically 
on her arrival. I showed her my certificate, " ' \c was very 
gracious, giving ine her hand, and saying tha. .. , shouli meet 
again soon. 

Next mopving I was already, at seven o'clock a.m., in the 
hospital, where other ladies also arrived, and we all dressed 
wounds and assisted in the operation-room. 

At eleven o'clock I went with Mrs. von Loe to the Aula of 
the University, where the Professors had invited the students 
to a meeting. We two were the only ladies present in this 
great gathering ; but I am glad that I was there, for 1 shall 
never forujet that scene. Several Professors addressed the 
students in short speeches. Professor Busch, who was ex- 
tremely popular with them, suggested the idea of forming a 
corps to assist the wounded on the battle-field. His speech 
and proposition were received with enthusiastic applause and 
cheering by the hundreds of fine youths who are the flower of 
the nation, and who were all ready to go. 

In the afternoon Professor Busch brought me the very wel- 
come intelligence that he had been appointed Surgeon-General 
of the 8th, the Rhenish, Army Corps, for now I was sure of 
having the best opportunity of nursing my husband in case of 
his being wounded. 

When I returned to Coblentz, in the evening of July 21, 1 
found, with Felix, Corvin, who had arrived from London, and 
stayed with us in our spare room. They had refused him a 
through ticket to Cologne in London, believing that the French 
would make the passage impossible. He was going with the 
army as a war correspondent for the ' New Free Press of 
Vienna/ the ' Gartenlaube/ and some American and English 

Next day my cousin, Princess Minna Salm-Salm, arrived 
with her eldest son, Florentine, a boy of about seventeen, who 
was still in the college, but entering the battalion of my hus- 
band, the King having made him a lieutenant. Mrs. von Cor- 
vin arrived at the same time from Hamburg. She had at- 
tended there in the hospitals, and intended going to the field 

It was then a busy, thrilling time, and there was no house, 

^'arroi'j Eacape. 

)Ul(l p.iss 
or Jkiscli 
was very 
ul'i meet 

ki., in the 

1 dressed 

2 Aula of 

t in this 
or I sh;\ll 
.•ssed the 
I was ex- 
forniing a 
is speech 
lause and 
tlovver ol 

very wel- 
sure of 
ui case of 

uly 21, 1 
idon, and 
ed him a 
le French 
witli the 
Press of 

een, who 

my hus- 
von Cor- 
e had at- 

the field 

10 house, 

no family in Coblentz, nor, in fact, in all (icrmany, where ])re- 
parations for the war were not being made ; the wives and 
mothers trying to overcome their very naturally sad forebodings 
and feelings. 

In my little home everything was topsy-turvy, for both of us 
were to leave it for an indefinite space of time. Salm was i. 
high spirits, and busily preparing for the field. His things 
were packed and lying about in the rooms. All these prepi- 
rations were near being made useless, for when he, with Corvin, 
went out for a walk, and passed agate in the fortifications which 
workmen were putting in order of defence, two large beams 
fell down with a crash six inches before their feet ; one step 
more and both would have been killed. 

On Monday, the 2 5tli, Count Waldersce had assembled the 
whole Regiment Augusta on t he Exercierplatz. All the re- 
servists, many of whom had been more than a year away at 
home, had entered and swelled its strength to the normal 
number of three thousand men, and the Colonel wished to see 
whether they still remembered what they had been taught. 
He went through all the mancjcuvres of a mimic battle, and 
everything w-ent off in such an excellent manner, without the 
slightest mistake or fault, that Salm and Corvin returned home 
quite enthusiastic with admiration, mo/e than evv. convinced 
that troops like these would not find their equals in the world, 
and that they need not fear a contest with any army. 

When Salm in the afternoon was with me and Corvin in his 
room, busy at his writing-table, and .seemed puzzled about 
something, the Colonel asked what troubled him. * Oh,' he 
answered, laughingly, ' I am undecided whether I shall take 
with me my best cigars I brought from Havana, or an inferior 
field sort.* * Take the best,' answered Corvin, ' for if you are 
shot you have at least had yourself the pleasure of smoking 
them.' * Indeed,' said Salm, ' this time I shall be killed, I am 
sure of it.' ' Why,' asked Corvin, ' what makes you think so ? 
You have gone through the whole American war unharmed, 
and the Liberals before Queretaro did not fire with dumplings 
either.' ' It is different this time ; after all they have written 
about me in the papers and said here, many eyes will be upon 
me, and I am under the necessity of exposing myself more 
than I should perhaps do otherwise. I am only sorry,' Salm 
continued, * for the poor boy, my nephew, and almost regret 






H \ 

no J. 

Ten Years of my Life. 

that I induced liis mother to send him v.ilh me. He is a 
brave, ;iml)itious boy, and I am sure he will be always near 
lie and will be killed also.' 

Listening to this conversation my heart rose to my throat, for 
I had felt long ago what my husband said ; I was almost sure 
that I should never see him again alive. 

On Tue.sday, July 26, the vhole army commenced its move- 
ment towards the French frontier. The French marshals had 
made a great mistake and loe^t precious time, fooled by the 
skilful manteuvering of the garrisons of Saarlouis and Saar- 
brucken, which succeeded in making them bclitjve that the 
whole Prussian army was close behind them, when it was slill 
forming many hundreds of miles off. General Moltke wouKl 
rather run the risk of letting the French advance to the Rhine, 
than that oi a defeat if meeting them prematurely with insuffi- 
cient forces. 

The regiment Augusta was to march Jso on that day. T 
had wished so r.iuch to go with the regiment, to be near my 
husband, for 1 always imagined that nothing could happen if I 
was with him. Count \\'air''.-rsee was willing, and said if I 
really wished to go I might go in the hosj)ital waggon, but 
Salm was decidedly against it and I had to submit. 1 suppose 
he was right, for warfare with the Prussian army was indeed 
a far different thing from what it war. in the United States or 

Though all preparations were made already the evening be- 
fore, I rose at three o'clock A.M., for the regiment was to 
march at half-past five. 1 never in all my life felt so wretched 
as I felt on that morning. I had said good-bye many times 
before to my husband under similar circumstances, but never 
had apprehended that anything would happen to him ; an 
inward voice telling me always that we should meet again. 
This time it was diflerent. Suddenly was revealed to me the 
meaning of that dread which had hovered around me since the 
commencement of the year. I walked about like one in a 
dream, and whoever saw me might have imagined that I felt 
but little, for the greatest grief is silent. I might have remem- 
bered that thousands of loving wives perhaps had at that time 
feelings similar 10 mine, but in the moment of parting such re- 
flections aftbrd no consolation, for nobody thinks of making 
them, as sorrow dwelling in the heart and not in the brain 

He is a 
vays near 

throat, for 
iiost sure 

its move- 
•shals had 
ed by the 
ind Saar- 
that the 
t was sill I 
ke wouKl 
he Rhine, 
th insuffi- 

Lt day. I 

near my 

ippen if I 

said if I 

pgon, but 

I suppose 

IS indeed 

States or 

ening be- 
was to 
iny times 
jut never 
him ; an 
et again, 
o me the 
since the 
one in a 
lat I felt 
hat time 
such re- 

he brain 



does not roflort. In tliat dreadful moment I could not even 
feel for poor Minna, who had to j)art from her boy, and wliose 
heart was as heavy as mine, for siie also liad the feeling that 
she should never see him again. 

When clasping my brave Felix for the last time in my arms, 
it was like a leave-taking on a death-bed ; and when he was 
gone, and even the sound of the horses had died away ; it 
■seemed to both of us, Minna and myself, that we had heard 
;he rattling of the funeral car. 

Silently we fell into each other's arms in a close embrace, 
•ningling our tears ; and our fervent prayers for husband and 
.an. went up together to the throne of the Almighty. 




m ■ 

I >■ 


My preparations for the field — Miss Louisa Runkel — Leave-tating in An- 
holt — Prince Alfred and three sons in the war — Difficulties about a 
horse — I iry impossibilities — Make them possible — With General von 
Steinmetz, chief of the first army—£n ro7fte — My defeat — Hermeskeil 
— Treves — Disappointment — Saarlouis — Imprudent ducks — Henswei- 
ler — Gloious news — In a brewery — Prince Adalbert of Prussia — An 
Admiral on diy land — The distant thunder — Of Spichem— Saarbruck 
— Meeting Corvin — Entering on my duties — The starving French 
prisoners — Confusion — The battle-field — Arrival of the King -A raid 
on the Royal kitchen — Carrying off my booty — Caught by his Majesty 
— My confusion — In the Hospitals — The i8th of August — Fearful 
dreams — Vague rumours — Starting for the front — Felix killed — 
Florentine killed — How my husband died — letter of Rev. Mr. Parmet 
—Letter of Salm's servant — My vow — Going on a sad errand — A 
fearful n'ght in Remilly — Ars sur-Moselle — A melancholy task — 
* Mother Simon ' — How I found my poor husband — Bringing home 
the bodies — Funeral in Anholt — Last words of love. 

Time and occupation are the only effective remedies against 
sorrow. I had no leisure to indulge in the * luxury of grief 
— which is, however, only a luxury for the weak. As I was 
to go with the army also, or at least to follow it as close as 
possible, I had to finish my preparations, and next to consult 
with Professor Busch. Mrs. von Corvin and I left at nine 
o'clock in the steamboat for Bonn, where we found Miss 
Louisa Runkel, who was to accompany and remain with me 
in the war. She had been recommended very highly by 
Princess Wied, and after having seen her at Coblentz I 
accepted her as a companion. She had also attended the hos- 
pitals and learnt how to nurse the wounded, and was desirous 
of going with me, because her two brothers ,were officers serv- 
ing in tlie army of which Professor Busch was surgeon-general, 
and of course she wanted to be as near to them as possible. 


Confasion in Oberhauseii. 


mg in An- 

ies about a 
ieneial von 
— Henswei- 
rnssia — An 
ng French 
ig -A raid 
lis Majesty 
st — Fearful 
^ killed — 
Ir. Parmet 
errand — A 
>ly task — • 
ging honae 

'S against 
of grief 
As I was 
close as 
at nine 
id Miss 
with me 
ghly by 
:>lentz I 
the hos- 
ers serv- 

Princess Minna arrlvcu in Bonn later in the day. After 
supper Mrs. von Corvin left for Franktbrt at twelve o'clock 
P.M., and thus closed that very sid day. 

Next morning Dr. Bu.sch came and gave me a letter for 
Prince Alfred, my brother-in-law in Anholt, and instructions 
in reference to another which I was to write to Prince Pless, 
whom the King had placed at the head of the sanitary com- 
missioners formed by the Johanniters, Knights of Malta, and 

I left Bonn together with Minna, who returned to her Castle 
Rhede, near Wesel. We had to remain three iiours in Oher- 
hausen, waiting for a train to take us farther, «7id I profited 
by this opportunity to write my letter to Prince Pless, 

There was great confusion in Oberhausen, for a great num- 
ber of people for miles around had collected to see the trains 
pass, all filled with soldiers, and following each other nearly 
every hour. It was a most lively scene. The soldiers were 
in the best spirits, for the enthusiasm with which they were 
greeted by the people on their whole way throughout Germany 
could not but produce the most cheering effect. The whole 
journey from the Vir east of the monarchy to the Rhine was 
an uninterrupted festival. There was no window on the road- 
side from which the soldiers were not cheered, and even from 
houses that scarcely could be seen from the road handkerchiefs 
waved them a farewell. One could see the heart of the peo- 
ple was in the war, and foreigners who happened to be at that 
time in Germany were struck with admiration. 

Princess Minna left me in Wesel, and I took leave of her 
ind of dear old Jimmy, who was to stay with my cook in 
CasUe Rhede. I was very sorry to part with my faithful com- 
panion, who had been with me in two wars ; but now he had 
become rather old and spoiled, and the hardships of a cam- 
paign would have been too much for him ; moreover, he was 
always frightened out of his senses on hearing a shot. 

I arrived in Anholt at half-past one a.m., and found the 
whole iamily up to receive me. As I had to leave at five 
o'clock, and Prince Alfred also, we did not go to bed at all. 

Though I had gone to Anholt to say good-bye to the family 
I also went there in hopes of getting from my brother-in-law a 
horse, as he had so many in his stables, and VcVw had taken 
with him his two and also my horse. I was, however, much 



^i i 




■*1 i 


Ten Years of my Life, 

rM ' t 


Jit '' 

disappointed in my expectations, for my brother-in-law bad 
really no liorse to spare. His eldest son, who was an ofik:er 
in the reseive, and attached to the staff of General von Goe- 
hen, mounted himself out of his father's stables, as did two 
otlier sons who were both oflicers, and the father himself, who 
was a Knight of Malta, went with the army. 

Whilst Alfred stayed in Cologne with the Knights of Malta, 
I went on to Bonn, where I arrived at three p.m. dead-beat. 
It was good luck that I arrived at all that day, for in Cologne 
I was told that no passenger trains would leave for several 
(lays. Seeing, however, a train ready to start, and inquiring 
I heard that it was an extra train for the Hereditary Princes 
of Hohenzollern and Weimar. The Prince of Hohenzollern, 
a very agreeable, unpretending gentleman, was the innocent 
cause of this war, as is generally known. As I was well ac- 
quainted with i.' n he permitted very readily my travelling with 
him, and presented me to the Hereditary Prince of Weimar, 
who was going to join the head-quarters of the Crown Prince 
of Prussia. The latter was still a very young gentleman. 
Prince Hohenzollern, who was a colonel, went also to the 
Crown Prince. 

On the 30th I received an answer from Prince Pless, telling 
me to go to President von Bernuth in Cologne to receive from 
him a ticket of legitimation, and I started at live o'ciuck p.m., 
accompanied by Prince Leopold Salm-Salm, whom I had seen 
frequently in Bonn. As no passenger train was lunning we 
had to go in a transport train. I received from the President 
von Ber.iuth the first legitimation card issued in Cologne and 
also the white band with the red cross. We returned cc Bonn 
at ten o'clock, sitting with the conductor in ihc caboose jf 
another transport train. 

I had still to accomplish several veiy difficult things, ::jki 
that in a rather short tune, viz., to procure a legitim.uion ticket 
for Miss Runkel, :o procure a horse, and lastly but by no 
means leastly the permission to take one with me, and to re- 
ceive forage for it, which was rather important. Having heard 
from Prince Leopold that Baron Oppenheim in Colonge had a 
horse, which he might perhaps be inclined to sell, I called on 
that gentleman, but I was disapi)ointed, as he dared not sell 
me the horse, because it was rather unmanageable and a run. 
a way 

General von Steinmctz. 



-law bad 
in officer 
^'011 Goe- 
did two 
self, who 

Df Malta, 
ir several 
^ Princes 
) well ac- 
ling with 
n Prince 
:> to the 

s, telling 
live from 
jck P.M., 
lad seen 
ining wc 
gne and 
joose jf 

igs, ajKi 
n ticket 

by no 
d to re- 
g heard 

had a. 
lied on 
not sell 

a run. 

I went on August i, to Coblentz, where Mr. A'on Pornmer- 
Esche gave me most readily a ticket of legitimation for Miss 
Runkel. If I had intended to go only as a simple nurse to 
the war, I might have done so now ; but that was not my in- 
tention. I wanted to be in a position to do more and to be 
officially attached to the staff of the army like an officer. 
Everybody to whom I spoke about it shrugged his shoulders 
and declared such a thing to be impossible. It is however my 
belief that the only way to success is not to believe in im- 
possibilities, and further it is one of my practical rules, if I wish 
a thing always to ask it directly from the highest authority. 

The highesL person in the army in which Dr. Busch was 
surge9n-general was General von Steinmetz, its commander-in- 
chief. He had been described to mc as an extremely strict 
and rough man, of whom everybody was afraid. My experi- 
ence taught me that these rough men are frequently very rea- 
sonable, and I was resolved to try my luck with the dreaded 

Early in the morning I went to his head-quarters, where my 
request to see the general jeemed to create quite a conster- 
nation. Not being trightened at all I insisted, and an officer, 
though shaking his head and shrugging his shoulders, was in- 
duced to take ill my card, and cu the surprise of everybody I 
was admitted 

The commander jt the Fir.'^t Army, General von Steinmetz, 
was a very kind little man with snow white hair, with large 
blue eyes, and a look like that Oi the eagle. When we sat 
down I commenced to explain what I wished, namely to be 
permitted to accompany the staff on horseback and to be al- 
lowed forage and quarters for my horse and myself I of course 
supported my rather extraordinary request — almost unheard 
of in a Prussian army — with all reasons and statements at my 
Jisposition, and in the most wonderfully broken German. The 
general did not say a word, but -uddenly rose and rang the 
bell, — not 10 show me out as I leared for a moment, but to 
send for his quartcrmalcr- general. When that officer ap- 
peared the general asked whether it was possible to grant my 
request, and it was granted on the officer's declaration that it 
certainly could be done if his Excellency would order it. 

Well, I had my permission, but I had still no horse, and there 
was not to be had a saddle-horse in the whole city. The pro- 

>' < 






i, 'ii 

) ( 


Ten Years of my Life. 

prietor of the Triersche Hof had however a double-pony, which 
I thought might do, though he never had a saddle on his back. 
Mr. Mars was persuaded to part with it for two hundred 

This care off my mind I left Coblentz at three o'clock with 
Miss Jtunkel and my pony, and was very glad to find in the 
train Professor Biisch. At six o'clock we arrived at the Vic- 
toria Hotel in Bingen, where we stayed the night. 

Next morning we left at ten o'clock a.m., and arrived at 
four o'clock in Birkenfield, a little quaint place belonging to 
the Duchy of Oldenburg. From there we went straight to Her- 
meskeil, Dr. Busch mounted on his beautiful mare ' Norma/ 
and I very proudly on my double-pony. Now I have ridden 
all sorts of horses in many different countries, and had the re- 
putation of being rather at home in my saddle ; but this queer 
pony seemed to despise all my equestrian art, and to have de- 
cided on my humiliation He plunged and kicked in the 
most atrocious munner to get rid of the strange thing on his 
back. Not succeeding in it, however, he was struck with a 
bright idea on seeing a very convenient deep ditch. He 
jumped into it with a sudden determination, rolling over in de- 
light, and propelling me on to the opposite side, where I per- 
formed sundry acrobat movements to the astonishment of the 
spectators. Much satisfied with his success, the pony got up 
and showed his exultation at my deieat by jumping and kick- 
ing like mad. He was, however, secured, and when I got up- 
on his back again he beiiaved henceforth quite reasonably, 
kicking only once the Old Schimmcl o. Dr. Busch ridden by 
his servant. 

The whole village of Hermeskeil was filled with troops, but 
we succeeded in finding a room which I shared with Miss 
Runkel, Everybody was much excited, for the repor^ cir- 
culated that the French had taken Saarbruck. 

We had been ordered to go to Treves, where we should 
find the head-quarters of General von Steinmetz When \ve 
arrived at 6 o'clock p.m. in that old city we were greatly dis- 
appointed on hearing that the general had left, and nobody 
could tell where he was. Dr. Busch sent out telegraphic des- 
patches in all directions to find out the general's headquarters, 
but we had to go to bed without being the wiser. 

In the night at 2 o'clock a.m., somebody knocked against 


y, which 
is back, 

Kk with 
i in the 
the Vic- 

•rived at 
nging to 
to Her- 
e ridden 
1 the re- 
is queer 
have de- 
l in the 
g on his 
k with a 
:h. He 
fer in de- 
I per- 
t of the 
got up 
nd kick- 
got up- 
dden by 

Dps, but 
th" Miss 
ori cir- 

hen we 
.itly dis- 
lie des- 



German Successes. 


my door. I was rather heightened, for I thought the French 
were in" the city ; but it was Prince Leopold, my nephew, v. ho 
had arrived from General Steinmetz's head-quarters, and thus 
relieved uie much. 

Next morning at five o'clock we left per rail for Saarlouis, 
a little fortress near the French frontier. It was August 4, 
and we found the people much excited and very busy, for the 
French were expected every moment to appear before the 

While waiting near the station I saw two nice plump ducks 
waddling most incautiously before my eyes, and anticipating 
the scarcity of victuals always to be found where large masses 
of troops are collected, and remembering my old campaign 
principle never to be short of provisions, I took information, 
most dangerous for the welfare of the said ducklings, and ac- 
quired them from the owner by means of persuasive words and 
silver, and the skilfully thrown-out suggestion that the expected 
French were extremely fond of fowl. 

We rode from Saarlouis to Hensweiler in company with my 
nephew, who left us here for the head-quarters of General von 
Goeben. We managed to dine in that village, and then con- 
tinued our march to Tholey the head-quarters of General 
Steinmetz, who received us very kindly. The threatening 
movement of the French against Saarbruck had compelled him 
to advance at once, and that was the reason why we did not 
find him in Treves. After much trouble we found a room in 
the house of a notary, whose wife gave us a supper for which 
Dr. Busch paid amply by saving her dangerously ill baby. As 
there was only one bed in the room we divided its contents, 
Miss Runkel remaining in the bed and I establishing myself 
on the floor. 

Next day the news of the battle of Weissenburg was received, 
and on the following arrived the still more glorious of Worth, 
which caused much rejoicing. 

On Saturday the 6th, we were for the first time billeted in 
a large beer brewery in Hensweiler, where Prince Adalbert of 
Prussia was also quartered. The Prince had arrived the day 
before in Tholey, where I had paid him a visit which he re- 
turned. His Roval Hipfhness was the Admiral of the Prussian 
fleet, but as he liked to see the fighting he joined the army, 
as he did in 1866, where an aide-de-camp vv'as killed at his 




■1 , 


I • 

i li 


Ten Years of my Life. 

Th^ Prince was, however, not only a lover of good fighting, 
he appreciated good eating also ; and, by no means willing to 
starve or to feast only on French frogs, he had taken with him 
his cook and a large kitchen and provision-fourgeon. But 
alas, the kitchen batteries did not move as fast as the rest of 
the Prussian batteries, and had not arrived in Hensweiler, to 
the vexation of ihe Prince and us also, for he had invited our 
sanitary party to dine with him. As a dinner without any- 
thing to eat is still worse than Hamlet without Hamlet, I sug- 
gested to the Prince a picnic dinner, priding myself on my 
two ducklings, which the notary's wife in Thoiey had roasted 
for me the day before. 

It seemed, however, as if the animal creation had contrived 
to drive out my conceit ; my pony had commenced by humbl- 
ing me, and now my ducklings put me to shame ; instead of 
being ducklings they proved to be patriarchs of their tribe, 
and to judge from their toughness they must have been the 
very duck couple which Noah took into his ark. The gallant 
Prince tried in vain the merit of his teeth — whether genuine 
Hohenzollerns or Abbots I do not know — when our painful 
exertions were interrupted by a sound I knew only two well, 
the booming of guns some miles off. The Prince, who was 
somewhat deaf, as an admiral generally is, would not believe 
in a cannonade, and said that the sound came from the cellar 
of the brewery where the empty barrels were having a ball. 
Everybody knows now that the glorious battle of Spichern was 
fought on that day, prematurely brought about by accident, 
spoiling the programme of Moltke, who had planned it for the 
next day- 
Next morning we left at eight o'clock for Saa:-bruck, where 
we arrived at noon. The scenes there have been described 
by hundreds of able pens, and will still be remembered by 
almost everyone, therefore I need not describe them, and shall 
restrict myself to my particular department. 

Riding into the yard of an inn I had the pleasure of meet- 
ing Corvin, who had arrived before me. He went off to the 
battlefield, and I attended to my duties with Dr. Eusch, with- 
out changing my riding dress. We visited at once nearly all 
the greater hospitals ; but in fact the whole town was changed 
into a hospital, and wounded soldier.s were lying in every yard, 
in every house. The preparations were inadequate to the great 

d §ghting, 
willing to 
1 with him 
eon. But 
the rest of 
sweiler, tr) 
ivited our 
;hout any- 
ilet, I sug- 
elf on my 
id roasted 

by humbl- 
instead of 
heir tribe, 

been the 
'he gallant 
r genuine 
)ur painful 
' two well, 

who was 
ot believe 

he cellar 

g a ball, 
chern was 


it for the 

ck, where 


bered by 

and shall 

of meet- 
ff to the 
5ch, with- 
learly all 


the great 



quantity of people who required immediate lielp, and though 
the many surgeons did their utmost their number was insigni- 
ficant, and the whole sanitary machinery still disorganised. 

The inhabitants of Saarbruck did all they could, but the 
immense number of troops in and around that town had nearly 
eaten up all their provisions, and food of any kind, even bread, 
was becoming very scarce. The wounded suffered most for 
want of food, for they could not look about for it themselves, 
and many of them were utterly forgotten and in a state of star- 

Seeing that my assistance as a nurse was but of little avail, 
and that I could do more good in another manner, I made it 
my especial business to hunt for provisions. I applied at 
once to the Johanniters, but their store-rooms were still empty, 
though plenty of supplies were on the road, and expected to 
arrive any moment. 1 therefore went to private persons and 
houses, and had tolerably good success. 

It was very natural that our own soldiers had the first claim 
to our assistance, but there were also in the town a g ^"at num- 
ber of French prisoners and wounded who needed it just as 
much. Penned up in a yard were about four hundred of them, 
officers and men, who had eaten nothing for about two days, 
and who were nearly mad with hunger. 

Some people of Saarbruck and especially ladies showed their 
sympathy with the French in a rather injudicious manner ; 
and, as caution was much required, the enemy being so near, 
orders had been given to prevent the communication of these 
sympathisers with the French prisoners. When therefore a 
number of ladies arrived with a great quantity of bread for 
them, they were iefused admittance. I fortunately arrived at 
that time, and seeing that the distressing state of the poor 
French made delay very cruel and fatal, I used my authority 
and had the bread distributed amongst them. I shall never 
forget that scene ; I had never seen the like before. With 
eyes starting out of their sockets, and with trembling hands the 
bread was snatched from us and devoured with an avidity 
which was quite distressing to look at. 

Those wounded who had found a place in hospitals or bar- 
racks were bedded well enough, but hundreds of others who 
had been brought into poor private houses or sheds, were 
lying on the bare floor not rarely even without a little straw. 






1 1 


; I 

I ' 


Ten Years of wy Life. 

"" I'd 

'!'he doctors comi)lained that the wounded were dying under 
iheir hands for want of stimulants and food and other neces- 
sary things. Under these circumstances I remembered an 
offer made to me when 1 was last in Cologne, trying to buy a 
horse from Baron Edward Opj)enheim, the most wealthy 
banker of that city. lie was a member of the central com- 
mittee of the association, formed lor uie assistance of the sol- 
diers in the field. Hearing that I was going with the Surgeon- 
General of the 8th Army Corps, he invited me to apply at 
once to him if I was in want of anything for the wounded. I 
therefore telegraphed to him for 250 hair mattresses, and in 
fin incredibly short time, sent by an extra train, they arrived, 
with many other useful things, for which, as I heard afterwards, 
the Baron paid out of his own pocket. 

August 8 was a busy day, for from the morning until ten 
o'clock at night I was dressing wounds, and comforting and 
nursing the dying. I am not very sentimental, but the sights 
I saw and the scenes 1 witnessed, would have pressed tears 
out of a stone. Habit, however, soon blunted the edge of this 
feeling sufficiently not to interfere with my duty : had this not 
been the case I could not have endured it three days. 

On the 9th, I dressed the wounds of twenty men, whom I 
found quite alone, without a doctor or a nurse, in the citizens' 
casino. In the morning my brother-in-law, Prince Alfred, 
arrived, and I brought him to the Hotel zur Post, where we 
were quartered, until me moved a short time aftei to a very 
comfortable private house at the Schlossplatz. 

After dinner I rode over with Dr. Busch to the village of 
Spichern to visit the wounded P'renchmen, of whom we found 
one hundred and eighty, destitute of everything. We returned 
to Saarbruck, riding over the battlefield of the sixth, and 
looked with astonishment at the bastionlike projecting steep, 
and high hill which our brave soldiers had scaled after a five 
times renewed attack, led by the renowed fortieth regiment, of 
whom two companies held at bay for several hoiirs twenty 
thousand French on August 4. 

Most of the dead had been buried already, and burying was 
still going on. The dead were much disfigured, with the 
exception of a poor boy, whose face had a happy, smiling 
expression as if he was sleeping and had a most happy dream ; 
his eyes were closed and his parted lips showed two rows of 
pearly teeth. 

Dijjicnllies of Trans2)ort. 


riGj under 
icr neces- 
bered an 
[ to buv a 
i wealthy 
itral com- 
f the sol- 
i Surgeon- 
) apply at 
mded. I 
2S, and in 
y arrived, 

until ten 
)rting and 
the sights 
;ssed tears 
dge of this 
d this not 

, whom I 
;e Alfred, 
where we 
to a very 

village of 
we found 
ixth, and 
ing steep, 
ter a five 
iment, of 
rs twenty 

rying was 
with the 
, smiling 
y dream ; 
D rows of 

Returned to Saarbrucken I took at once possession of an 
enii)ty waggon I encountered in the street, and drove with it 
to the depot of the Johnniters, which was well filled now with 
])lcnty of provisions. The principal difticulty arose now from 
the scarcity of means of transportation, for horses, cars, wag- 
gons, and men were very rare. My waggon was soon filled 
and Miss Runkel drove with it to Sj)ichern, to distribute the 
most welcome supplies amongst the French wounded, whilst I 
visited the hospitals. 

1 was much astonished to find rowhere any of the nuns or 
sisters of mercy from whose assistance we expected so much. 
The fact is they were very slow in coming and much neede(!. 
I wrote down what was wanted in the different places, and 
took care myself that the things were procured and delivered 
into the right hands. Where things were required which were 
not to be found in the depots I gave money to buy them. 

His Majesty the King, Count Bismarck, and General Moltke 
arrived in the evening, and my brollier-in-law and his son 
Leopold, who had accompanied us from Spichern, paid at 
once their respects to the King. 

I sent next morning a note to Prince Radzivil, to come and 
see me, but instead of him another aide of the King, Count 
Waldersee, the brother of our colonel, came, and brought me, 
from the King, Count Bismarck, and the aid-decamp, about 
120 thalers in gold, to be applied to the benefit of the wounded. 

On August II, I was all the morning with the professor in 
the hospitals assisting him in some wonderful operations. As 
many of the wounded in the citizens' casino required good and 
strong beef soup, and other strengthen' ^ food, and Dr. Busch 
said, * they must have such things or die,' c went to the kitchen 
of the King and coaxed the head cc»ok, who at once promised 
to attend to my wishes, and after a time I went over with a 
soldier carrying some large pails, which the brave chief of the 
royal kitchen batteries filled with delicious broth, fortified by 
good beef merged in it. As nobody was at hand to carry it, 
and the royal head-quarters were not far across the street from 
the casino, I carried two of the pails myself. Just when ,1 
was crossing the street, a carriage swept round the corner with 
His Majesty the King in it. Though not ashamed of my 
work 1 felt rather embarrassed at being caught thus, and put 
the pails down behind me, screening them with my dress, when 





Ten Years of wy Life. 


llie Kini^, who liad seen inc, stopped tlic canlajjje and des- 
cended. He came towards me, gras[)ed my hand, and said 
very kind words wliich 1 shall never forget. Smilingly look- 
ing around me to discover the cause of my embarrassment he 
saw my two pails, and when I told him that I had stolen them 
from his kitchen for his dying brave soldiers, the expression of 
his face became still kinder, and he said that I had done (juite 
right, and that I was at liberty to rob his kitchen to my heart's 

On August 12 Dr. Busch and myself drove to the convent 
of Neudorf, where thirty severely wounded men w^re nursed 
by the nuns, who gave me a long hst of things required. I 
sent them next day forty mattresses and a whole Wciggonful of 

When we went again to Neudorf Professor Busch made some 
operations, in which he was assisted by some Wurtembergian 
medical students, who were however not sufficiently used to 
the horrors they saw around them ; for when one of them as- 
sisted the Professor in the resection of an elbow, his hand 
trembled so much that Dr. Busch put him imi)atiently aside, 
and requested me to assist him, which I did with a steady hanci 
and to his satisfaction. 

Thus I was busy from the morning to the night and Miss 
Runkel assisted me faithfully. We went several times to 
Spichern, where we tound the French wounded lying on straw 
sacks placed on the ground in stables, which made us very 
angry with the doctors, who had been too lazy to send to 
Saarbrucken for bedsteads. Dr. Busch took care that thev 
were sent. 

To the many wounded were soon added a number of sol- 
diers suffering from a dangerous dysentery, of which many died 
in a few hours. 

This malady seems always to prevail in armies in the field, 
and we had it also in America. 

I had caught a very severe cold and had to remain iwo days 
in bed with a very painful swollen face, which made me very 
impatient as it prevented me from attending to my duty. ' 
'J'hough there was plenty for me to do everywhere, the longing 
to go nearer to the front, in order to be nearer to Felix, be- 
came so strong that I made up my mind to -go alone, if Profes- 
sor Busch should be retained much longer in Saarbrucken. I 

J and dcs- 
and said 
ngly look- 
ssrnent he 
;olen them 
)ression of 
done (luite 
my heart's 

le convent 
ere nursed 
quired. I 
iggonfLil of 

made some 
tly used to 
)f them as- 
', his hand 
;ntly aside, 
teady han<i 

t and Miss 

times to 

ig on straw 

ide us very 

to send to 

that they 

ber of sol- 
many died 

ti the field, 

n .two days 
J me very 
my duty. ' 

he longing 
Felix, be- 
if Profes- 

rucken. I 

^1 Fearful Dream, 


mnde in(]uirics about the trains going to Mctz, wliere we heard 
tliat fighting was going on ; but the information I received was 
very unsatisfactory, as I was told it would require eight days 
to go to Nancy. 

On August 1 8, the day of the battle of Ciravelottec — of 
which we then of course knew nothing — my feeling of dread 
became alarmingly opjjressive, for I had had the most fearful 
dreams nbout battles, and felt almost sure that something had 
happened to my husband. Until the 20th, we heard in 
Saarbrucken only vague rumours, but when I went on that 
day with Dr. Busch to Saarlouis, where we had to wait at the 
station several hours, many trains with wounded arrived from 
the battlefields near Metz. There I saw a wounded soldier 
from the Augusta regiment ; he belonged to the battalion of 
my husband, and told me that they had been in tiie battle of 
the 1 8th and behaved extremely bravely, but he pretended not 
to know whether Felix v/as wounded. I however felt an in- 
discribable anguish, and when we late in the evening returned 
to Saarbrucken, and I went to bed, I saw in a half-awake 
vision, poor Felix dead at my side, with a fearfully still, pale 

Early in the morning on August 21, I called on Mrs. von 
Berenhorst, who was in Saarbrucken to nurse her brother, 
Major von Nettlebeck. She had also a son in the troops be- 
fore Metz, of whom she heard that he was wounded, and she 
was going to the front with us, for at last we were ready to 

When I was about leaving my quarters Professor Busch came 
and told me that my poor husband was killed ! He was mor- 
tally wounded on the iSth and died after three hours. Poor 
little Prince Florentine was dead also. 

I shall not attempt to describe my feelings, for words would 
be insufficient. All I can say is that I wished to be dead also, 
for I felt utterly alone and forsaken, and life a burden. I had, 
however, to fulfil a sacred duty, a promise made long ago in 
America, and repeated solemnly when my husband left me. 
He wished that in case he should be killed I should bring his 
body to Anholt, and have it buried at the side of his father 
and mother. 

In Saarbrucken I found laeutenant von Arnim, who was 
severely wounded, and also the colour-sergeant of Felix's bat- 






Ten Years of my Life. 

talion ; from them and from others afterwards I heard the 
details of his "^Morious dcatli. lie could not die otherwise, and 
nothwithstanthiig my misery I felt proud of him. 

When the Prussian (iuards attacked the stroncj position of 
the French at St. Privat, my husband at the heatl of his brave 
fusileers remained on liorseback, a convenient target. A sliot 
struck his horse, which became unmanageable and ran away 
towards the French. My husband succeed in getting off its 
back, and in joining his troops on foot, when a bullet broke 
his right arm. He would not leave the battlefield, but took 
his sword in his left hand. Thus he remained twenty minutes, 
when a second bullet pierced his breast, and a third struck his 


Poor Florentine had been killed already at the first volley 
by a shot in his head. He died on the spot. Count Walder- 
see was wounded about the same time as Felix by a shot in 
his body. He was carried back, but on hearing that my hus- 
band was lying wounded on the field, he gave orders to carry 
him to the rear. Volunteers were called out for that purpose. 
When they laid Salm down for a moment, a shot struck the 
man who volunteered first to carry him. My husband ordered 
them to remove the waterproof in which he was wrapped, and 
to cover with it the poor honest soldier. 

Salm's last moments were described to me in a letter, which 
I received from the reverend priest who attended liim. I 
shall give this description : — 

'Doncourt, August 21, 1870. 

*On the l8th August, in the afternoon, the second division of the 
Guards, to which I have the honour to belong as Catholic division chap- 
lain, entered into the battle against the strongly fortified Saint Marie 
aux Chenes and Saint Privat la Montague. About seven o'clock, your hus- 
band, severely wounded, was brought to the V'^erbandplatz. A bullet had 
pierced his breast and gone out at his l)ack, a second one had pierced his 
arm, and a spent bullet contused his leg. Insupportable pain made him 
groan. Taking hold of my hand, he requested me to administer to him 
the last comforts of our holy religion. The doctor had given him before a 
dose of opium. Then I administered to hini absolution and the holy oint- 
ment ; he requested to be laid in a bed ; his servant stood weeping at his 
litter. In the village St. Ail, which was forsaken by its inhabitants, all 
doors were locked. They were opened with axes and crowbars. I found 
a bed, and we carried there the severely wounded man, who, in dying, 
still pressed to his heart the covering of his colours'. He requested me not 
to leave him, and I readily promised it. We cut off from his body his uni- 
form, to be able to dress his wounds the better. He asked for chlorofcrm. 

Felix and Florentine Killed. 


heard the 
rwise, and 

osition of 
f his brave 
:. A sliot 
ran away 
ling off its 
illct broke 
[, but took 
:y minutes, 
. struck his 

first volley 
lit Walder- 
y a shot in 
lat my hus- 
jrs to carry 
at purpose. 
; struck the 
nd ordered 
ippcd, and 

;tter, which 
;d him. I 

|iist 21, 1870. 

'ision of the 
|ivision chap- 
Saint Marie 
Ick, your hus- 
]a bullet had 
*} pierced his 
n made him 
lister to him 
Jhim before a 
|he holy oint- 
;eping at his 
liabitants, all 
irs. I found 
10, in dying, 
lested me not 
)ody his uni' 

but the doctor tlioujjht him"^elf ()l)li.c:;cd to refuse, and on my soothliicj wonU 
he suppressed his pp'n. Ho com|)lain«.'(l of l)urnin^; thirst ; tlurt' \va^ no 
water in the village. I gave him my licld lla^k wiili red wine, which he 
emptied eagerly. To his faithful servant he handed his money and liis 
watch, to transmit to your Highness. A doctor came. It was dark ; we 
had no candle. I searched all the dwellings, and at last got from a soMior 
a little end of a candle. The wound was examinc«l, newly cooled. The 
opiate commenced to have efl'ect, and he became somewhat calmer. He 
asked me how his nephew had died ; he had receivee a bullet in his head. 
Then he caught my iiands, and entreated of me to write to your Highness, 
and to support him in the hour of death. Whilst he was sleeping I was 
again called off to the Verband[)Iatz, where the dying wanted my aseisiance. 
I returned as soon as possible ; he was a corpse. I gave his pocket-book to 
his servant, and directed his notice exprosly to a paper contained in it, which 
was the acknowledgment of a banker, statingthat the I'rince had deposileil 
with him about 9,000 thalers. A soldier brought the revolver of your luis 
band to me in the horse-stal le, where I slept that night; the souvenir of 
Maximilian of Mexico I gave, on the 19th, likewise to his servant, and al- 
so his sword (if I am not mistaken, without scabbard.) The sword of iho 
young prince has been taken care of by the division. I also ordered the 
servant to draw off the rings from the corpse, and to deliver them to your 
Highness. I think there were three of them. He died as a Christian at 
peace with God, as a hero on the field of honour. The last (luotion he 
isked me was about the stale of the battle. When I told him that the 
jnemy retreated slowly, his face brightened, and he thanked God. " I 
jhall die, and am willing to die ; only procure me some chlorofcjrm and 
jomfort my wife." Tliese are the last words I heard iVora his pale 


'Division-Chaplain Second Guard Division.* 

My husband's faithful servant wrote to me as follows : — 

'When we, on the i8th, at four o'clock p.m., became engaged, the bul- 
.ets whistled about my head, so that we thought nobody would remain 
ilive. We had scarcely been under fire, when I'rince Florentine fell, the 
second or third man, by a shot through his mouth, and was dead at onc-j 
»vithout pain. Half an hour later, my good comrade, our other servant 
Klein, was killed on the spot. Immediately afterwards a bullet 
grazed my thigh, which did not do any harm, only hurt somewhat. And 
vvhen we had been about an hour and a quarter under tire, somebody called 
jut, ' His Highness is wounded.' I went at once with the horse I still had 
CO the spot ; there I cried aloud when I saw my good master so severely 
wounded. I gave my horse to some other man, who was slightly wounded, 
ind assisted in carrying him, and urged the others on till we came out of 
die fire. When we were out of it we put him on a cart and brought him 
to the Verbandplatz, and then I ran to fetch the doctor, and whilst his 
wounds were beiixj dressed I told the chaplain, who administered to him 
the sacraments. Then we carried him to the village, and laid him on a 
bed. I nursed him as well as I could, and believed he would recover, for 

1 !'! r 


.i i 

I; u 

I ! 

' I, 




Ten Years of my Life. 

Ihe doctor (I suppose, to comfort him) said the bullet had passed under 
the ribs and was not fatal ; but he said in two hours, ** I must die ;" and 
then I was alone with him, and he told me (hat he received the shot through 
his arm twenty minutes before that through his breast, but for that wound 
he would not leave his troops ; and the sword and torn coat I should give 
to his brother as a keepsake ; but I was not able to do so, as the things are 
kept he.e, and will be sent soon, as I was told. And several time he asked 
whether we had conqvred ; and I could tell him still that ours were vic- 
torious. I was to greet the officers of our regiment, and many times hi.» 
brother. This he has repeated to me several times ; and his wife and all 
relatives ; and several times he inquired after little Prince P'lorentine ; he 
could not speak much for pain. Then he said I should have a coffin made 
and a cross on it with his name, which I have done, but with great trouble, 
as there were no people in the village, but three soldiers have constructed 
one. Thus he died quietly shortly before eleven o'clock. I called to him 
the names Jesvis, Marie, and Joseph, and have prayed for him. And then 
I remained with him until he was buried, when his Highness Prince Leo- 
pold was present also. 

'Jos. KOESTER.' 

The servant, when questioned afterwards relative to the 
paper contained in the Prince's pocket-book, which had been 
read by the chaplain, wrote about it as follows : ' At the funeral 
of his Highness, which was attended by the Hereditary Prince 
Leopold, I trasmitted to the latter a portemonnaie and pocket- 
book, remarking that in the letter was contained a paper re- 
commended to me as being of great importance. The Prince 
received these objects, and gave me a gratification. Prince 
Lepold will certainly remember it, for he has looked into the 
paper, and has read it doubtlessly.' Prince Leopold does not 
remember anything about such a paper, and it has disappeared 
altogether. The whole affair is a mystery to me, as I really 
do not know from whom poor Salm could have received a sum 
so considerable fo*- our circumstances. 

The sacred duty I had to accomplish sustained me and pre- 
vented me giving way to my grief, blunting thus its too keen 
edge, for it required all my energy. The knights of St. John, 
the officers, and my brother-in-law Ptince Alfred, all tried to 
dissuade me from carrying out my purpose, assuring me that 
it would be impossible in the present moment, and suggested 
that I might at least wait some time, or still better until after 
the war. All of them remonstrated in vain ; I would have 
gone to the grave of my poor Felix, if I had had to walk on 
loot all the wa;- 

assed under 
I die ;" and 
hot through 
that wound 
should give 
e things are 
ne he asked 
rs were vie- 
y times hi.- 
rt'ife and all 
rentine ; he 
coffin made 
eat trouble, 
illed to him 
And then 
Prince Leo- 


^e to the 
had been 
he funeral 
iry Prince 
id pocket- 
paper re- 
he Prince 
into the 
does not 
IS I really 
^ed a sum 

and pre- 
too keen 
St. John, 
I tried to 
y me that 
mtil after 
uld have 

walk on 

Going on a Sad Errand. 


We started at midnight. Miss Runkel was with me, and 
also IMrs. von Berenhorst, who did not kno~vV that her son was 
killed, believing him only to be wounded. 

At Forbach we went in an excellently well-arranged hospital 
train sent from Wurtemberg, and slejU in beds, of which there 
were two hundred in the train for severely wounded, besides 
accommodation for fifty more slightly wounded. 

Prince Alfred, not having found me in Saarbrucken, arrived 
just before we started from Forbach, and as he did not succeed 
in detaining me, he resolved to accompany and assist me. 

We arrived on the 23rd in Remilly, which was crowded to 
excess with troops and with wounded, and we could not find 
any other shelter for the night than in a railroad car, in which 
not only cattle, but also sick soldiers, had been conveyed, and 
which was in a most horridly filthy state. We succeeded, how- 
ever, in procuring some mattresses, with wliich we covered the 
bottom of the waggon. In this abominable place Prince 
Alfred, Professor Busch, Dr. von Kiihlewetter, Mrs. von 
Berenhorst, Miss Runkel and myself, and the old valet-de- 
chambre of Alfred, passed the night ! 

The next night we remained in a little chateau, near Covny, 
belonging to a Madame de Wendel, and on the 25th we 
arrived in Ars-sur-Moselle, where 1 obtained a room in the 
house of the apothecary, and at once ordered zinc coffins to be 
made. The man who first had accei)ted the order, bribed by 
the price offered, became however afraid after reflection, and 
refused to attend to it, fearing that the French, if they returned, 
as was confidently expected, would hang him, because he had 
raade coffins for Prussian officers. I was therefore obliged to 
use compulsion, to remain in '.is workshop and watch him 
whilst he unwillingly made the coffins for my dear Felix and 
Florentine, which was indeed a very melancholy task. 

Professor Busch was quartered in a very fine large house, 
situate in a beautiful garden in Jouy-aux-Arches, opposite Ars, 
on the other bank of the Moselle. We went there in the even- 
ing and succeeded in finding a room in the same house. When 
next day I went on foot to Ars with Prof. Busch, we met Col- 
onel von Berenhorst with his daughter-in-law, who had heard 
that she also was a widow, for poor young Berenhorst was not 
only wounded, but killed on the iSth, not far from St. Privat, 


« >l 



1 hi 


Ten Years of my Life. 

the Saxon troops to which he belonged standing next to the 
Prussian Guards. 

Ir the evening of the 27th several members of our family 
met in Joiiy, all being with the army before IVIetz. There was 
Prince Alfred, his sons Leopold and Florentine, the latter 
serving in a regiment of jaegers ; the Counts Alfred and Otto 
Salm-Hoegstraeten, and Prince George Croy, a knight of 

On Sunday August 28, the zinc coffins were finished, and I 
stari'^d with them for St. Mary-aux-(^henes. It was a rainy, 
cold day, weather quite in accordance with my dismal errand. 

Finding an abode in a kind of shed built by the k lights of 
St. John, and serving as their hcad-quartc-rs there, I saw in an 
adjoining compartment a rather stout, middle-aged woman in 
a plain black-dress, busily employed with cooking. She was the 
generally respected Mrs. Simon, a Saxon, who has won in that 
war a well-merited fame-by her practical good sense and energy, 
employed with great success for the benefit of the soldiers. 
Conquering all opposing difficulties, however great, she suc- 
ceeded in being allowed to be always with the front of 
the army, accompanied by a well-trained body of nurses, 
provided with everything required for the wounded on 
the battlefield, where indeed help was most needed. The 
activity of * Mother Simon,' as she was called by the 
grateful soldiers, who were all full of her praises, cannot be 
sufficiently appreciated. She furnished the most striking 
evidence that the leading knights of St. John committed 
a great mistake in placing difficulties in the way of nurses and 
voluntary sanitary associations, who wished to go on the battle- 
fields and not to be bullied and treated contemptibly by ^r ,hs 
several miles behind the front. Great complaint wa:> iwdde 
everywhere about this mistake, which caused a great xitl otf 
suffering, which might have been prevented Those soldiers 
who were wounded in a manner which permitted their trans- 
portation to the depots behind the front were tolerably well 
cared for, but those who were wounded too severely, and who 
had to remain on the battlefield, were sadly neglected. They 
had to lie in yards or filthy peasant houses on the bare fioor, 
often even without straw, without any food, and not rarely even 
without water. It was therefore not to be wondered at if, of 
those who had undergone amputation on the battlefield such a 


t to the 

r family 
lere was 
le latter 
nd Otto 
night of 

, and I 

a rainy, 


tights of 

,w in an 

Dman in 

; was the 

n in that 

I energy, 


she sue- 

front of 


ded on 


Dy the 

mot be 



rses and 

e battle- 

>y -r hs 


a* Otf 

r trans- 
jly well 
nd who 
•^e fioor, 
ly even 
t if, of 
such a 

A Palnfal Styht. 


frightful proportion died in the hosj^itals • for having been with- 
out food or any stimulant, their little remaining strength, already 
taxed to the utmost by the amputation, became utterly ex- 
hausted by the cruel and rough transportation on common 
peasant cars, in which they lay often for many hours, huddled 
one upon the other like calves sent to the market. Many, I 
am sure owed their lives to * Mother Simon's ' being on the 
spot. I hope the lesson taught by her will not be forgotten 
whenever another war shall occur. 

We soon found the ^rave in which the officers of the Augusta 
regiment had been buried together. Un the top of them stood 
the rough deal coffin in which my poor Felix had been laid, 
together with Florentine ; it was only slightly covered with 
earth and a corner of it protruded. 

When the men had laid the coffin bare, I insisted on the 
removal of its lid, notwithstanding the remonstrances of my 
brother-in-law and others. I wished to look once more on the 
face of my dear, beloved husband, believing myself stronger 
than I was. When the men complied with my request, and 1 
saw instead of the dear face only a black mass, my strength 
failed me and I fainted. 

I must noi speak of these moments. Every feeling reader 
will understand them. I had the coffins with the two bodies 

placed in a waggon which followed the carriage of a 

knigjit of St. John, who kindly accompanied us on this sad 
journey. Thus we returned to Ars-sur-Moselle. There I had 
to remain a day longer to wait for wooden cases, which had to 
be made for the zinc coffms, according to the sanitary regula- 

Meanwhile an order from the head-quarters of the king had 
arrived, placing at my disposition an extra train, and on it 1 
started for Anholt, accompanied by Mrs. von Berenhorst and 
Miss Runkel, my brother-in-law remaining behind, as he 
wanted to be near his two sons, in case anything should 
happen to them. 

The night of the 30th we passed in a little hotel in Lune- 
ville, the following in the train, arrived on September i in 
Mayence, and on the 2nd in Anholt, where the two bodies 
were placed first in the little chapel. 

On September 3, the obsequies took place, with all the 
funeral pomp becoming the family. The two coffins were 

' «i 




iM I 


Ten Years of my Life. 

carried to the church, which was draped in black, and high 
mass was celebrated. Minna, the mother of Florentine, hi'd 
arrived. All the daughters of my brother-in-law were present, 
and also Prince Alfred, junior, who having left recently the 
Austrian service could not take part in the war and remained 
at home with his wife. Princess Rosa. Let me pass over de- 
tails. It is too painful for me to dwell long on this sad period. 

When all was over, and poor Felix placed near his fatlier 
and mother, together with Florentine, in the family vault, it 
was as if a great load had been taken off my mind. I had 
faithfully fulfilled my duty and kept my vow. I felt that my 
dear husband's soul was at rest now, and peace came over 
mine also. But I felt that I must not trust it ; that it was 
dangerous to ponder over my woes. Had I, as my brother- 
in-law desired me to do, remained in Anholt until the end of 
the war, I should have gone mad. I knew that I must forcibly 
tear myself away, and battle against the inclination of nursing 
my grief, and that I could only conquer it by help of great 
activity. Therefore, I had resolved to return to the army 
immediately, and attend still more assiduously than before to 
my duty. 

The last token of love I received from my dear husband 
was a postal card, written immediately before the battle of 
Gravelotte'. Here it is : — 

* In one hour we begin the great battle. With God we will be re- 
united ; but if I should be killed, darling, beloved Agnes, I beg your 
pardon for every trouble I ever have made you, and that I always have 
loved you, and that I take tAts only love with me in my grave. My 
brother will take care of you. Keep me in your kind remembrance. 
From all my soul, 

* Your true and loving husband, 

• Felix. 

* (Kiss little Jimmy). 

* In the field, near Metz, the i8th of August, 1870. 

' Dear, God bless you. 1 hanks for your love and everything you have 
di iQ for mc' 

■■•; y; 


nd high 
ne, hi;d 
Uly the 
Dver de- 
[ period, 
is father 
/aiilt, it 
I had 
that my 
ne over 
.t it was 
i end of 
of great 
le army 
)efore to 

jattle of 

be re- 
beg your 
ays have 
lave. My 

t ELIX. 

you have 


Returning to the war — In Cologne — The Knights of St. joiin— bar n 
Edward Oppenheim — In Jouy-aux-Arches — Voluntary nurses — Re- 
forms — Gifts from Cologne — My siore-rooms — Prince Alfred — Miss 
Runkel — Shells — Surrender Metz — Theft — Bad conscience — A rude 
doctor — A princely box on the ear. 

Prince Alfred, my poor husband's elder brother, was, as I 
said before, a knight of Malta. The especial duty allotted to 
him had been to accompany the sisters of mercy and voluntary 
nurses to the different places were their services were required. 
On my resolution to return to the field he made himself free 
from that duty, in order to be near me and take me undex his 
protection. Having had until then no occasion for his horses 
he had left them at home, but now he wanted me to bring some 
with me. 

I went next to Cologne, where I procured the necessary 
tickets of legitimation and permits for the free conveyance of 
my carriage, horses, and whole party. Having attended to 
this, I left Anholt with a carriage, two fine coach-horses and 
my brother-in-law's English favourite mare. Miss Runkel, Mr. 
Frank, Prince Alfred's English coachman, and my orderly, 
August. The latter was a soldier detailed to my service in 
Saarbruck, who remained with me during the whole campaign. 
He was by trade a tailor, from Koenigsberg in Prussia, and as 
he was not very strong the army could spare him. 

I remained two days in Cologne, where I visited the hospi- 
tals, which were under the excellent direction of privy coun- 
cillor Dr. Fisher, and admired greatly all the sanitary and other 
arrangements superintended by the Oberpresident von Ber- 
nuth, who was the chairman of the central committee in Co- 






Ten Years of my Life. 



i \ 

3 i 


logne. Everything there was perfect. The immense stores 
were well filled, and supplies arrived regularly. Applications 
made from different parts were carefully and liberally attended 
to and answered with a promptitude which was especially 
praiseworthy and beneficial. Men, mostly selected from the 
mercantile members of the associations, accompanied such 
convoys — people who had business habits and who understood 
how to distribute the things with order and in a judicious man- 
ner, and compared with whom the knights of Malta and St. 
John were at a great disadvantage. 

These knights have been much abused and ridiculed, and, 
though it cannot be denied that they offered many weak points 
and furnished ample material for ridicule and censure, it is 
only just to consider what can be said in their defence. 

They were all noblemen, and mostly wealthy ; owners of 
great estates ; princes, counts, and barons with a long pedi- 
gree, living mostly in their castles. L tving the management 
of their estates and households and ine care of their broad 
acres almost always to their stewards, they lived an easy 
life, were used to command as masters, — in a word, were 
aristocrats to the core. It is true all of ther i had been soldiers, 
but it was mostly long ago, and if they retained any habits of 
their soldier life they were not those of a private or corporal 
or poor plodding subaltern officer, who had to turn every 
ihaler six times in his hands before he spent it. The war of 
1 866 was so very short that not much experience could be ac- 
quired in it by such knights as attended it. Now they were 
called to fulfil the traditional duties of their order, of which 
perhaps only very few, if any, had a definite idea. To expect 
such services of them as were required centuries ago from 
members of their order was out of the question. They were 
now great lords, and Christian humility is not the first among 
their virtues. If they condescended to accept an office it 
could be only one becoming their social position. Many say 
that it was a mistake to place them as they were placed, assert- 
ing that they did more harm than good ; an opinion held espe- 
cially by the medical gentlemen, who perfectly understood 
their busir. . js, and knew exactly what was required for wounded 
and sick, having acquired ample experience in attending all 
the year round in hospitals, which was of course by no means 
the case with these knights. 

Knights of St. John. 


e stores 
rom the 
ed such 
)us man- 
L and St. 

ed, and, 
.k points 
are, it is 

wners of 

•ng pedi- 


ir broad 

an easy 

rd, were 


labits of 


n every 

e war of 

d be ac- 

ey were 

f which 

) expect 

50 from 

ey were 

t among 

office it 

any say 

Id espe- 
ding all 


There were amongst them many who earnestly wished to do 
good service, and even some who made themselves extremely 
useful, descending from their stilts and using their hands and 
feet like other men ; but, alas, with most of them the will was 
better than the capacity, and the more they did the mure 
harm and confusion resulted from it. 

Most of the stores and magazines were placed under the 
care of some knight of these orders. An immense quantity 
and variety of things were sent in, and it was expected that 
they should be distributed judiciously. To arrange and keep 
in order such stores, and receive goods and send them oft", 
required a, certain business routme and exertions which were 
utterly out of the depth of most of these noblemen, and any 
clerk of a mercantile house would have beaten them in this. 

Many were satisfied with having their stores always well 
filled, not daring to distribute anything b^^ore fresh supplies 
had arrived to keep them so, not caring whether here or there 
something was urgently required. Used to patronize, they 
often distributed the stores more according to favour than to 
necessity ; and complaints about partiality and injudicious 
division were very frequent, creating great dissatisfaction 
amongst the many associations, who at last found it more to 
the purpose to send practical men with their convoys of goods, 
who judged for themselves where help was required, instead 
of delivering their things into the depots of the knights, and 
leaving the distribution to them. 

The ladies I found employed in Cologne in the different 
hospitals and establishments for the support of the soldiers in 
the field, vied successiuUy with the male members of the 
associa'.Ion. Everywhere they kept the most perfect order, 
and, being good housekeepers, they applied ^ their domestic 
rules to their establishments. AH I saw busily'employed there 
wore the same simple dress, which did a great deal to remove 
the ureasy feeling produced by mixing with persons belonging 
to a different social sphere. 

Baron and Baroness Oppenheim and other ladies belonging 
to the committee gave me an immense quantity of things: which 
I knew were most required in the hospitals before Metz, and I 
left Cologne with three railroad cars, one loaded with the car- 
riage and forage, the second with the horses, and Mr. Frank 
and August, and the third containing Miss Runkel and myself 


I !l 


• a 


Ten Years of my Life. 

and all the welcome gifts from the central committee ot 

1 was lucky enough not to be detnineH anywhere long, and 
we arrived after eight days at Jouy, for all the stations were 
extremely crowded and the rails stopped by tranis with 
wounded or provisions for the army. Those who before 
never learnt patience did so in travelling that time to the 

Requiring, first, quarters for men and horses, which care 
my brother-in-law kindly left over to me as I had brought 
them along, I called the morning after my arrival on the privy 
councillor, Sulzer, who stood at the head of the commissariat 
or quartermaster's staff. He was an extremely able and prac- 
tical man, whose services have been highly acknowledged by 
the Government. He very readily answered to my n.^quest ; 
I was billeted with Miss Runkel, Mr. Frank, and August and 
four horses, in the large house where Dr. Busch was quartered ; 
and my brother-in-law was lodged there also, as well as dear 
Jimmy, whom I had taken with me. The poor dog had so 
pined for me and his master that he had become quite lean 
and nearly blind. When he was again with me he recovered 
soon, and the film covering his eyes disappeared also. 

I urged on Dr. Busch the necessity for work, and asked 
him what there was to do and what was wanted. ' We have 
here five hospitals,' he said, 'crowded with men severely 
wounded, and everything is wanting.' The poor wounded had 
no properly cooked food, and it was my first care to establish 
kitchens for them. The difficulty was to find proper female 
assistance, for though there were plenty of voluntary nurses, 
they were for the greater part mere voluntary nuisances, with 
their crinolines, plumed bonnets, and mincing manners. They 
were, I might say, female knights of St. John, for what I have 
said of these was still more applicable to most of those female 
Schlachten bum?nier, who never forgot that they ' volunteered ' 
a duty, and despised rules and orders ; and above all discipline 
and punctuality. Instead of arriving at seven o'clock in the 
morning, they came at ten or eleven, or remained away, just 
as they pleased, making earnest doctors .wish that they had 
remained at home altogether, though others flirted with and 
protected them. 

These fine ladies^ amongst whom were some with a * von ' 

•' h 


nttee ot 

ong, and 
ins were 
ns with 
3 before 
s to the 

Ich care 
the privy 
md prac- 
;dged by 
K^quest ; 
gust and 
Liartered ; 
I as dear 
y had so 
luite lean 

[ asked 
e have 
ided had 
r nurses, 
It I have 
e female 
nteered ' 
:k in the 
vay, just 
hey had 
vith and 

a * von ' 


Baron Edward Oppenhelni. 


!)erore their nnmcs, were quite indignant if I expected them to 
assist in the kitchen, to cook, or to perform other duties, by 
wliich they thought themselves degraded. They were always 
quarrelling amongst themselves, and tlie hospitals in wliich 
they attended were far different from that one in which four 
sisters from Coblentz were nurses. 

I told Professor Busch that I wanted regular sisters of 
mercy, instead of voluntary nurses, and it was resolved to pro- 
cure them. I therefore applied to Count Hompesch, a knight 
of Malta, who was stationed in Covny, and most readily com- 
plied with my request. Sisters from the order of St. Vincenz 
de Paul ar/ived soon, to replace the voluntary nuisances, and 
things improved in a wonderful manner. These sisters did 
not flirt and look out for husbands, for they had done with the 
world ; they were not ashamed to do menial services, and did 
not quarrel amongst themselves. Quietly and obediently they 
did what was required of them by their superiors, and even 
those doctors who were inclined to take the part of the volun- 
tary nurses had to admit that they themselves and the wounded 
profited greatly by the change. 

Now I arranged that in each of the hospitals a kitchen was 
established, and also a store-room, from which the patients' 
wants could be satisfied at once, whilst formerly the nurses had 
always to apply to some Johauniter, which caused delays and 
other disagreeable thiiigs. 

Not long after my return from Jouy and Ars sur-Mosellc, 
Baron Edward Oppenheim arrived froui Cologne, with a great 
omnibus filled with many things, which I had told him were 
especially wanted. He showed himself very zealous, visited 
all the hospitals, even the typhus hospital, and convinced him- 
self of the shortcomings and wants, and the manner in which 
the voluntary gifts of the people were used and distributed. 
The youngest brother of the baron was a lieutenant on the 
staff of General von Kummer, whose troops were stationed 
very near Metz, and Baron Edward, curious to see everything, 
went round with him, exposing himself more than was prudent. 

The things which he brought with him were not taken from 
the stores of the committee in Cologne, but bought by him and 
paid for out of his own pocket. As he was better pleased with 
my manner of distribution than with that of the knights of Gt. 
John, he confided them all to me, and they were the first 




■f ' 


Ten Years of my Life. 

'$>! ' 


foundation of the magazine I established, for the example set 
by liaron Oppcnheim found many imitators. Deputies from 
Ell)crfL'ld, Ilarmen, Hamburg, Bremen, Crefeld, and other 
places, arrived with an abundance of supplies. There was an 
immense number of bottles of fine wines, barrels of spirits, bales 
of tobacco, cigars, woollen and linen clothes of every kind, &c. 
The knights of St. John became rather jealous and annoyed 
when these gentlemen arrived with the special order to deliver 
their gifts into the hands of the Princess Salm, and under no 
circumstances into those of the knights, who had made them- 
selves rather unpoi)ular by the supercilious manner in which 
they often treated the brave men who volunteered to bring 
these supplies to the army, which was by no means an easy or 
a pleasant task. My stores were therefore replete with every 
kind of good thing, whilst the depots of the knights remamed 
distressingly empty. Many of them reproached me with ac- 
cepting those provisions instead of letting them be sent to 
their depots, which had been established to receive them, but 
as many of the delegates declared that they would rather take 
their supplies back if I refused them, I should have acted very 
fooHshly in doing so. Some of the knights condescended to 
request me to lend them part of my abundance, as they were 
ashamed of the emptiness of their store rooms, and I did so ; 
but not one of them demeaned himself so much as to remem- 
ber such debts. 

It was natural that sometimes the donors of voluntary gifts 
desired that they ^ould chiefly benefit the soldiers from their 
city or district, and so it happened that those whose homes 
were near the Rhine were well supplied, whilst the soldiers 
from Pomerania, East and West Prussia, or Silesia, were 
neglected in this respect on account of the great distance. I 
therefore took care to make up for this disadvantage whenever 
I had goods at my disposition for general use. How well 
supplied my stores were, may be judged from the fact that I 
twice supplied a whole brigade of the second army corps, — 
General von Fransecky's Pomeranians, — with tobacco, cigars,, 
and spirits. 

Indeed the German people took good care of their army ; 
but as their gifts were voluntary they were supposed to have a 
right to inquire into the manner in which they were applied, 
which offended the pride of the knights of St. John, who were 

sample set • 
(Utics from 
and other 
sre was an 
)irils, bales 
' kind, &c. 
1 annoyed 
■ to deliver 
I under no 
lade them- 
r in which 
;d to bring 
an easy or 
with every 
s remained 
lie wi'Ji ac- 
be sent to 
them, but 
rather take 
acted very 
tscended to 
) they were 
i I did so ; 
to remem- 

intary gifts 
from their 
ose homes 
le soldiers 
esia, were 
istance. I 
How well 
act that I 
y corps, — 
CO, cigars, 

leir army ; 

to have a 
e applied, 

who were 

General von Steinmetz. 


not always willing to acknowledge the merit of those who gave 
especially if they were rich men. ' It is their duty to give, for 
the soldiers protect their strong boxes,' they said. If these 
rich men happened to be Jews they earned still less thanks, 
tor these Christian nol)lcmen hated Jews, though they nevei 
had been too i)roud to borrow money from them, or to drink 
their good claret and champagne. 

Though 1 attended now and then in the hospitals and at 
operations, 1 made it my principal business to organize and to 
procure provisions. The success I had in it was soon noticed, 
by which my influence and power to do good was increased. 
I was well supported by Prince Alfred, though he applied him- 
self chiefly to attending and nursing the wounded and sick, 
selecting for this purpose the dangerous typhus hospital. I 
must not forget to mention Miss Runkel either, who justified 
greatly the recommendation from Princess Wied. She sup- 
ported me most willingly and ably, and was very useful in the 
hospitals, where she worked together with the good nuns, 
though this was somewhat against the regulation. Her good 
nature and good humour made her everywhere a favourite. 

Dr. Busch complained that the wounded in the hospitals 
had no bedsteads, but were lying on mattresses placed on the 
floor, which made it extremely tiring and difficult for the 
doctors to dress the wounds, and increased also the sufferings 
of the wounded. As he was only Surgeon-General of the 
8th, the Rhenish army corps, he was not the highest medical 
authority, but over hiin stood the officer attached to the staff 
of the whole First Army He consequently had not the power 
to do all he wanted. I therefore was induced to interfere, and 
try my influence with General von Steinmetz. I called on him, 
drew his notice to this great mconvenience, and suggested 
means to alter it. I proposed ic him to send me with proper 
authority to Nancy, where I would soon i)rociire bedsteads, 
or to order that every house in Ars should supply one, or thai 
boards should be supplied and bedsteads made. The general 
was rather indignant, and after having expressed his displea- 
sure with the neglect, he ordered at onoe measures by which 
it was corrected. 

I had no cause to complain that my services were not 
acknowledged, and I was grea y gratified by the manner in 
which it was done. General von Fransecky gave a dinner to 












Ten Years of my Lip. 



\) \ 

tne *vhicli I could not refuse, though I was in deep mourning, 
and not in a irame oi mind to attend festivals. Exceptional 
circumstances, however, justily excei)tions, and make them 
even necessary. I accepted an invitation to another dinner 
which was given in the head-quarters of the First Army, which 
I attended in company with my brother-in law. 

My activity was not only restricted to jouy and Ars, I went 
now and then to Maric-aux-C!ienes, and other i)laces around 
Metz, lo distribute supplies, where they were wanted in the 
difierent hospitals. 

Fightmg was meanwhile going on around Metz continually, 
and we were by no means secure in Ars, which for that ])uri)Ose 
was much too close to Fort St. Quentin. One of the hospitals 
war> right in the hne of the shots, but as it lay rather deep all 
shots passed over it. The wounded in the beds, weak and 
nervous Irom sickness, were frightened and excited by the 
noise oi the shells to such an extent that it caused the deatii 
ot some oi them. 

Several shells struck buildings belonging to the railroad 
station and one carried away the funnel of a locomotive. 

When I was one day in the garden of the house in which 
Were my stores, and an aide-de-camp of General von Fran- 
secky with me, taking supplies, a shell struck ten paces from 
us, but tell fortunately in a ditch. My tailoring ^oldier August 
dived at once into the house, and was much ashamed when I 
called him from his hiding-place. But when a short time 
afterwards another shell tell again in the neighbourhood, we 
all thought it prudent to retreat until the shower was over. 

At last Metz surrendered, and though the weather was very 
bad and we all were wet to the skin, 1 saw the French march 
out. It was a glorious but also a sad sigh;. 1 shall noi 
describe it, as it has been done frequently, but only mention 
the general belief in our army that Bazaine was by no means 
forced to surrender, but that he sold Metz and acted as a 
tiaitor to his country. » 

As Princess Croy had written to request me to make inqui- 
ries about some French officers, her relatives, who had been 
in Metz, after having informed General von Fransecky about it, 
I drove on October 30, with Dr. Busch and Dr. von KUhle- 
wetter to that city. With great trouble I found one of t))e 
officers. \^ount Man. who told me that the two others were 

Theft of CJnlHseitotf^. 


ike ihcni 
ler dinner 
ny, which 

rs, I went 
t:s around 
ed in the 

It ])uri)Ose 
: hospitals 
r deep all 
weak and 
;d by the 
the dealii 

e railroad 
e in which 
/on Fraii- 
)aces from 
ier Augusr 
d when 1 
lort time 
hood, we 
was very 
ch marc! J 
shall not 
no means 
cted as a 

ake inqui- 
had been 
f about it, 
n Kiihle- 
me of the 
lers were 

safe and well. He gave me telegrams for his wife and family, 
which I sent by post to i'rincess Croy. 

When returning to jouy and passing the gate of Metz I saw 
there a whole heap of chassepots, thrown awiy by the Frencii, 
and two J'russian soldiers standing as guard near them. Now 
everybody wanted to have a chassepot ai that time, and I also. 
I therefore stopped the cariage and recpiested the sentinels, 
who knew me, in my bad (ierman, to turn Uieir l)a(ks, because I 
wanted to .1 a -hassepot. 'I'he manner in which 1 expressed 
myself must have been very funny, for they laughed like mad 
and turned round, whilst Frank, the coachman, took two 
cliassepots and put them in the carriage. 

When next evening we were sittmg at supper, an orderly 
with a gun in his hand entered the room, addressing himselt 
to me. I was ([uite frightened, for I thought my theft had 
b'ien discovered, and die soldier had come to arrest me. But 
no, General von Fransecky, remembering my wish to have a 
chassepot, and not knr ving that I had helped myself already, 
sent his compliments, togeiiier with ihe desired object, which 
1 gave to Al'red. 

'V\\^ surrendv.r of Metz of course made a g'^eat change in our 
arrangements. The hospitals were evacuated as soc n as pos- 
sible, and 1 di'tributed my clothes amongst the soldiers who 
were going home. Poor good iellows, when they said good- 
bye to me, they had tears in ' eyes, and expressed tiieir 
thanks for what 1 had done ^or them in simple, heartlelt 
words. ^ 

Whilst in Jouy 1 received letters of condolence from Her 
Majesty the Queen, the Grand Duchess of Biden, Princess 
William of Baden, and many other kind per on^^ges. I of 
course answered that of Her Majesty at once, but most of the 
others I could not answer then for want ot time or other causes. 

I drove with my brother in-law on November i to Metz to 
see Count Man, the relative of Princess Croy, and found that 
he had already left with his general. When we were lunching 
in the hotel in Metz I had a little adventure which I shall 
mention, because it was the only instance of my ever having 
been annoyed by rudeness during the whole war. Though I 
had to mix everywhere with soldiers and other persons in the 
camps and in the hospitals, I never had to complain of any- 
one ; I was always treated with respect. 





* ■ 






Ten Years of my Life. 

f. t 



Prince Alired and I were sitting in a room, separated fa-om 
the general dining-room by a glass door. In the latter were 
many officers assembled, of. whom several knew me, and 
amongst them was a general. 

When the Prince went away tor a few minutes and I was alone 
in the room, a doctor from the 8th army corps approached the 
door, and looking through tue glass, made signs and faces at 
me. I looked away ind tried not to take any notice, for the 
doctor seemed to be somewnnf- under the influence ot wine. 
At last he entered and addressed me. I answered him indig- 
nantly, and told him ihat he was mistaken — -I was not, as he 
supposed, a Frenchwoman. On this my brother-in-law came, 
and the importunate doctor re-entered the g .neral room ; but 
seeing that something had .^iinoyed me the Prrice inquired, 
and 1 told him. He became very angry, at once followed the 
doctor and addressed him before all- the officers, asking 
whether he knew who the lady was to whom he had spoken, 
and being answered in an insolent manner by the doctor that 
he did not care a straw, the Prince gave him a box on his ear ; 
and on hearing the case the general and officers said that he 
had rightly deserved it. Tl^e thing had no consequences, for 
the doctor had to pocket the blow and to apologize into 
the bargain. 


ted from 

tter were 

me, and 

was alone 
iched the 
d faces at 
;e, for the 

ot wine, 
lim indig- 
not, as he 
law came, 
3om ; but 

lowed the 
s, asking 
d spoken, 
octor that 
n his ear ; 
id that he 
lences, for 
Dgize into 



Marching orders — Death of Count Waldersee — On the march — Lost < 
the road — Brabant — In search of quarters — In a shej^herd's house 
How we passed the night — A wonderful snoratorio — Vienne li 
Chilteau — An ecclesiastical cat — In Rheims — Ville aux Bois Jouchery 
— A Frenchified German — Madame la Baronne de Sachs. Attichy — A 
* particulier ' — Compiegne — The rooms of E^mpress Eugenie — Monti- 
dier — The 'terrible' things — Battle of Moreuil — P"og — Straiige mis- 
take — Miss Runkel taken for a ' Frotzkasten ' — ^Jimmy — My pigeon — 
After the battle — General von Kuminer — Amiens — In Boves — Colonel 
Cox — The international commission — Starting for Rouen — La Feuilie 
— A sacked chateau — In Rouen — Dangerous looking people — Visit to 
General von Manteuffel — Leaving Rouen — Le Heron — Order to pre- 
pare lor battle — The battle of Querri^re — Our Verbandplatz — The 
room for the fatallv wounded — Short of provisions — Fed by the 
English — My assistance —Under fire — Dangerous curiosity — Rev. M.. 
Gross wounded — End of the battle — Supper on the amputation table 
— Returning to Amiens — A busy night — Miss Runkel's Samaritan 
work — My birthday — Count Luttichau and Captain Voelkel — Tele- 
graphing for their wives — Captain Voekel's death — Arrival of his 
wife — General von Blankensee — His wife — His death — In Albert — 
Captain von Marien — Bapau'iie- -General Count von der Goeben — A 
distracted cook — The wounded — Captain von Butler —Dead — Hospi- 
tal in the convent — I discover an old acquaintance — And make the 
acquaintance of the black small-pox — Returning *:o Amiens — Arrival of 
officers' wives — I lall ill with the small-pox — Marching orders — Four 
days in bed only — In Peronne — General von Memerty — My prophetic 
talents — Three hundred wounded and nothing to eat — Again our 
English friends — Prince Alfred's exertions — Miss Runkel's exhaustion 
— Jimmy catching a Tartar — The glorious battle of St. Quentin — • 
Shoes and stockings left in the mud — In St. Qucntin — The Hdtel 
Cambronne — Adoctorless private hospital — Miss Runkel's glory — My 
five hundred boarders — Howl managed for them — Aimistice — Going 
home — Acknowledgments — General von Manteuffel proposing me (or 
the iron cross — Thanks in the name of the 1st army by letter of 
General von Goeben — Letter of General von Fransecky. 

On November 3 we received marching orders, that is, the notice 










Ten Years of my Life. 

u> make ready. On the 4th we saw in Metz the 8th army 
«:orps pass, and spoke to many of our friends from Coblentz, 

namely General v. S , who told me of the death of Count 

Waldersee, who was wounded at St. Privat, and killed before 
Paris a few days before he had returned again to his command 

One or two days before our departure gentlemen from the 
city of Crefeld arrived with supplies, which they handed over to 
me, and I resolved to take my provisions with me and to use 
them in time of need. Privy Councillor Sulzer allowed me nine 
waggons and eighteen horses for them, and when we left Jouy 
on the 7th we formed quite a respectable caravan. We passed 
our first night at Jarny and the following at Etain. The weather 
had become fine, and after the busy and yet monotonous time 
before Metz the change of scene was agreeable and refreshing 
to all of us. 

On leaving Etain next morning we found the road much 
crowded with waggons and troops, and we could progress only 
very slowly. Prince Alfred, who was on horseback, suggested 
a by-road, but we lost ourselves, and it was dark when we 
arrived at head-quarters, where we ought to have been at two 
o'clock. There we received the rather distressing mlelligence 
that our party had been detached to another village, Brabant, 
some distance off, which we did not reach before eight o'clock 
p.m. In that village existed only one respectable house, the 
chateau, where we were billeted ; but on arriving we found our 
quarters occupied by General von Kummer and his staff, who 
had believed that we had remained with the head-quarters, 
staying out beyond any reasonable time. 

As we of course could not insist on our right and disposses 
the general, we- looked out for other quarters. When we nearly 
despaired of finding any and thought of passing tne night in 
our carriages, we discovered at last the dwelling of a shepherd 
who lived with his '' ife in two extremely dirly rooms on the 
ground floor, with v/hich we were compelled to be satisi od, 
envying almost our horses which had found excellent 
ill the shed where once the sheep had been, transformed long 
ago by the natural process of eating into the substance of two- 
legged lions, commonly called there ' ks sacres Prussiens.* The 
front room in which stood a small cooking stove, looked so 
disiiial and uninhabitable that vve all cro^vded into the back 
room, which was adorned with an immense four-post bed 
filling up one corner. 

In a Shepherd's House. 


8th army 


of Count 

led before 


> from the 

led over to 

nd to use 

;d me nine 

; left Jouy 

We passed 

he weather 

)nous time 


oad much 

)gress only 


: when we 

?en at two 



;ht o'clock 

house, the 

found our 

staft', who 


we nearly 
night m 
ns on the 
satis, cd, 
med long 
ce of two- 
ns.' The 
ooked so 
the back 
post bed 

The shepherd and his wife were quite bewildered, but I at 
once won the good graces of the latter by presenting her with 
a few bottles of wine, a ham and some other eatables. When 
I expressed a wish to have the stove in the back room, she, to 
our surprise, lifted it, heated as it was, and carried it in. 

After Miss Runkel had superficially cleaned our abode, she 
made some good coffee, whilst I cooked some ham and eggs 
for supper, and Prince Alfred brewed a hot whiskey punch. 
Rather enjoying our strange situation, we sat on benches 
around the table, eating and drinking with a very good 

Then the momentous question turned up how we should 
pass the night, and it was resolved that we should all remain 
in the warm room, the gentlemen on straw on the floor, and 
Miss Runkel and myself with Jimmy in the four-poster. ^^ A 
ia guerre comme a la guerre f " The litter was soon made ; three 
gentlemen. Prince Alfred, Prof. Busch, and Dr. von Kiihle- 
wetter, lay down on it, while I and Miss Runkel escaladed the 
high four-poster. 

In an adjoining compartment the shepherd had 
from the stable a goat and a lamb, which seemed much dis- 
tressed with their change of quarters, for the lamb was bleating 
all night most pitifully, and its mother hushed it now and then 
with a comforting quaver, which displeased Jimmy who growled 
and snar^'^d. 

Such trifles did not matter, however ; the three gentlemen 
evinced already some signs of sleep when the shepherdess 
hurriedly came in to correct a great neglect, that is, to bring 
me and Miss Runkel two of her nightcaps ; for to sleep with- 
out a nightcap seems a perposterous idea to a Frenchwoman. 
The good creature was quite stupified by the uproarious laugh- 
ter produced by her thoughtful kindness. 

When the effects of this intermezzo had died away all set- 
tled again for sleep. Prince Alfred soon tuned a hymn in hon- 
our of Morpheus in a fine baritone snore ; and Dr. von KUhle- 
wetter accompanied him in a sentimental juvenile treble; 
whilst Professor Busch snored an equally cadenced deep bass, 
speaking of a peaceful, evenly balanceii mind, and becoming 
the dignity of his position. It was a wonderful snoratorio 
rather improved by the bleating of the lamb, the quavering of 
the goat, and the growling of Jimmy. 




r^ i 


]l ^1- 


Ten Years of my Life. 

% ■■> :; 





'. ■ 




M fv'' ' 







Miss Runkel and I tried to follow the example thus given, 
and we thought we should succeed, when a surprised * Oh !' of 
Miss Runkel showed that she was still awake. I need not to 
ask the cause of her ejaculation, for I felt it at the same mo- 
ment, and Jimmy's impatient movements, which shook the 
four-poster, revealed to us undoubtedly the alarming truth that 
we were in the camp of a blood-thirsty, hostile army. Whether 
the French fleas were conscious that we \^ere Prussians I do 
not know, but the most ferociou;, franctireurs could \ot have 
treated us more cruelly. 

Well, even a night like that has an end, and thinking how 
the poor wounded had to suffer for their country, we meekly 
submitted to our fate ; though we were glad when morning 
dawned. It was, however, a very bad morning, the rain pour- 
ing down in sheets. 

We passed the night of the iot>. in Varennes, and the fol- 
lowing in Vietine le Chateau, where we arrived early in the 
house of a pastor, who gave us good rooms and a good dinner. 
We had a roast ; the meat tasted somewhat like chicken, and 
we guessed that it might be a French rabbit, but we were 
rather astonished to hear that it had been a French cat I It 
was the first I ever ate, and I trust it was the last, — though it 
was rather good. After all, such a deceit from a clergyman 
grieved me. 

Passing through Suippe, where we had very good quarters 
in a fine villa, and were treated extremely well, we arrived on 
November ii in Rheims. We remained in that old city until 
the 17th, and had ample time to admire the fine cathedral, the 
triumphal arch. &c., and to discover that we had at home much 
better champagne than they sold at a rather high price in this 
home of that wine. 

On November 17 we arrived in Ville aux Bois Jouchery, 
where we were quartered in a pretentious chateau, situated 
in a very tastefully laid-out and well kept park, belonging to 
Monsieur le Baron de Sachs. A gorgeously liveried footman 
opened the door of a saloon, announcing with great emphasis, 
* Madame la Princesse !' On entering we saw a fat old lady, 
Madame la Baronne de Sachs, dressed up like an English fri- 
gate on the birthday of the Queen, each of her fat fingers 
covered up to the third joint with sparkling rings, who looked 
rather perplexed when she saw two insignificant persons, in 

hus given, 
d ' Oh !' of 
eed not to 
same mo- 
shook the 
[ truth that 
5sians I do 
d \ot have 

nking how 
we meekly 
1 morning 
: rain pour- 

md the fol- 
iarly in the 
)od dinner, 
licken, and 
t we were 
h cat! It 
—though it 

)d quarters 

arrived on 

city until 

[hedral, the 

ome much 

ice in this 

lu, situated 
jlonging to 
Id footman 

|t Old lady, 

English fri- 

fat fingers 
[ho looked 

)ersons, in 

A ' Partkuller! 


black woollen dresses without any flounces, and a white ])and 
with a red cross on their arms, enter, whom she probably took 
for two chambermaids preparing her for the arrival of Hor 

I am sure the pleasure of these pompous people was much 
spoilt by our simplicity, and on seeing my brother-in-law 
Allied in his shooting jacket their thoughts about German 
pripxes were not improved. We had an excellent lunch, but 
being quite disgusted with the Frenchified behaviour and 
speeches ot these German re; ,gades, I found pleasure in dis- 
appointing them by not appearing at dinner, pleading sickness 
and remaining in my bed. 

The 1 8th of November we stayed in Braisne, and reached 
on the 19th Soissons, where we arrived at twelve o'clock, and 
were quartered in the house of a real French baron, de Sahume. 
The fine manners of the baroness, and the style of his hospi- 
tality, formed a striking contrast with that of the Baroness 

Soissons showed still many tokens of the recent siege. One 
of its suburbs was entirely in ruins, having been destroyed by 
the French themselves. 

Sunday, the 20th, we arrived in Attichy. We were quartered 
in a house belonging to a tradesman, who, after having made 
some little money, settled as a ' particulier.' The French are 
a very sensible people in this respect ; they do not live to 
work ; they work to live. Their great ambition and desire is 
to earn enough to live independently of being obliged to work. 
As long as they are in business they are very industrious ; they 
work day and night until they have made money enough to 
retire and to become * particuliers.' As the habits and taste 
of the middle aiid lower classes in France are very simple and 
economical, it is not very difficult for steady people amongst 
them to save the few thousand francs which are required to 
live such a simple and frugal li^c as makes them contented and 

Our landlord was so much affected by the honour done to 
his house by having a Prince and Princess as guests, that he 
trembled all over and shed tears when I looked at him or ad- 
dressed him. We had very good and comfortable rooms, and 
the proprietor and his wife waited in person upon us, for they 
did not keep a servant. 






1 1 



Ten Years of my Life. 




At six o'clock we dined. We were six at table : the *par- 
ticulier/ the ' particiiliere,' and her aged father, my brother-in- 
law, Miss Runkel and myself. The dinner, a soup with the 
meat in it, was placed on the bare table. The ' particuliere * 
cut the bread and gave it to each in her hand, and with a 
smiling face. Our simple repast was illuminated by a solitary 
tallow candle, which was snuffed every few minutes by the 
same fingers which gave us the btead. I liked this dinner bet- 
ter than many very fine ones I had in France, in chateaux 
whose proprietors were base enough to fein German sympa- 
thies, whilst this poor honest man and patriot bravely said that 
he would rather die than see Prussia take one square foot of 

Passing next morning in fine weather through magnificent 
woods, we arrived early in Compiegne, where we were splendidly 
quartered in the villa of a M. Sauvage, who was fortunately 
absent in Paris, eating, probably, horse steaks and roast rats, 
whilst we were sitting at his sumptuously provided dinner- 
table, drinking Prussian healths in excellent French cham- 

We remained in Compiegne four days, and visited, of course, 
the palace, and the once splendid, but now somewhat spoilt, 
rooms of the Empress Eugenie, wondering at their luxurious 

On the 25th we left Compiegne with the staff of General 
von Goeben, and overtook on the road General von Manteuffel 
and staff, with whom we entered Montidier. We had very 
fine rooms in the house of a gentleman, who was much affected 
in showing us from the window a place where five * terrible ' 
Prussian guns had been placed, which had fired five * terrible ' 
shots, which offered a most ' terrible ' sight, and after which 
* terrible ' event the place surrendered. 

Saturday, the 26th, we remained in Plessier-Rozainvillers. 
Next morning, Sunday, the 27th November, we marched early 
towards Moreuil. The weather was foggy, and soon became 
so dark that we could not see many paces around us. When 
wo came to a turn in the roi^d leading to our allotted quaiters, 
which were in a little place somewhere between Moreuil and 
Amiens, we heard suddenly the rolling of musketry not far 
from us. Aides-de-camp were running about frantic, their horses 
looking in the fog like dromedaries. The whole column 

In a Battle, 


' : the *par- 


Lip with the 

(articiiliere * 

and with a 

y a soHtary 

utes by the 

dinner bet- 

;n chateaux 

nan sympa- 

ily said that 

jare foot of 

J splendidly 
I roast rats, 
led dinner- 
nch cham- 

, of course, 
vhat spoilt, 
■ luxurious 

of General 
had very 
h affected 
' terrible ' 
* terrible ' 
ter which 

hed early 
n became 
s. When 

)reuil and 

y not far 
eir horses 
J column 

halted. All waggons and carriages were ordered to the rear. 
I would not part with mine, and I had my will as usual ; the 
aides-de-camp having no time to persuade me. The French 
had taken advantage of the fog, and attacked us. At last I 
had my wish, I was in a battle ; but, alas, I did not see it ; I 
only heard the din of battle and the strange noise of the shells, 
and the malicious sharp sound of the chassepot bullets. Our 
triend from the staff, Major von Strantz, arrived in hot haste. 
* Princess,' he cried, * away, away, in the name of God, or you 
are lost !' I could not see it, and did not go ; but we were 
ordered to a near place behind a cluster of bushes in a dell, 
where we might be considered comparatively secure, but where 
we saw less than nothing. My brother-in-law's blood was up, 
however. He wanted to see the battle, and cantered off to- 
wards the front, allured and guided by the roll of musketry. 
If he was killed or wounded they at home would have charged 
me with his misfortune, I knew, and as his idle curiosity in 
that fog was foolish I sent an orderly after him to beg him to 
return ; but he pshawed and got indignant at the presumption 
of restricting his liberty of making a target of himself, and went 

Meanwhile, poor Jimmy was a picture of despair. That he 
did not die of fright was a wonder ; he drew in his tail as close 
as possible, and took shelter between my feet. 

My pet pigeon began fluttering in its basket, and I took il 
out on my fingers ; but on hearing all the strange noises ir 
flapped its wings and looked alarmed ; I therefore put it again 
in its travelling place. 

I have not yet said a word about my pigeon, which was a new 
pet of mine, called by some a new nuisance, on account of its 
harpying habits I got it in a manner which is worth relating. 
An officer from Dresden, Lieutenant von Lavil-re, had been 
dangerously wounded, and his arm had been amputated. 
Miss Runkel and myself nursed the poor boy, and she wrote 
letters home for him, etc. He wa^, v^ry much affected by our 
manner of treating him, and he expressed to Miss Runkel his 
wish to snow me in some manner his gratitude. His landlord 
had presented him with a young pigeon ; he had nothing else, 
and sent it to me — for breakfast. Had it been dead I would 
have eaten this sacrifice in a goddess-like manner ; but as it 
was sent alive I could not kill it, though at that time 1 might 





Ten Years of my Life. 

have found it in my heart to kill a Frenchman. I resolved to 
keep it, and Professor Busch taught me how to feed it with 
soaked peas, which I took in my mouth. Alfred, who had an 
uneasy foreboding, urged the Professor to stuff the little 
nuisance to death ; but the good Professor did not, neither 
did I, and the Prince fed it himself out of his own mouth. 
It was an intelligent thing. Every morning it came on my 
bed, and if I weie still asleep it gently pecked my eyelids or 
face to awaken me. 

But to return to the battle. Professor Busch, the other 
doctors, and myself, tried hard to be permitted to go to the 
Verbandplatz, but we were told that we could not, as we would 
have to pass through a cross-fire. Moreover, we were ordered 
to keep as quiet as possible, and to comply promptly with tiie 
directions given, to move so many paces to the right or left, 
or forward or backward, as was required by the movements of 
the troops. 

Standing near the bushes in the dale we saw the staff of 
General von Manteuffel, at a distance before us, on an emi- 
nence. Looking round towards us, and seeing through the fog 
only indistinctly my carriage and our mounted servants, he 
believed us to belong to the reserve artillery for which he had 
sent, and the officers jokingly said that he had mistaken Miss 
Runkel, who had remained on her seat in the carriage, for the 
Protzkasten (caisson). 

The battle lasted from eleven o'clock a.m. until six o'clock 
p.m., and we all felt exceedingly hungry, for since our cofiee 
at six in the morning v/e had eaten nothing. As our march of 
that day was so very short we had not taken anything to eat 
with us. By great favour we got at last some black bread and 
a slice of raw bacon, and I feasted on it with delight. 

At last the fight was over; I am afraid we had to make a 
retrograde movement, but I had my quarters at Moreuil in a 
cap store, called au boii diable. 

After a batde, we were of course always very busy. At 
eight o'clock next morning I went to the hospital established 
in the school-house, where I found some old nuns, who assisted 
me in dressing the wounds of an officer and ten private 
soldiers, after which I drove with Alfred, Professor Busch, and 
Dr. von KiJhlewetter, to see another hospital in Sains, where 
we found many wounded from the battle, and others who had 

K>a'ire7uier of Amiens. 


esolved to 
^ed it with 
ho had an 
the little 
ot, neither 
'n mouth, 
le on my 
eyelids or 

the other 
go to the 
; we would 
•e ordered 
y with the 
;ht or left, 
ements of 

he stafif of 
I an emi- 
^h the fog 
rvants, he 
:h he had 
iken Miss 
;e, for the 

ix o'clock 
yuT coftee 
march of 
Jig to eat 
)read and 

make a 
reuil in a 

isy. At 
) assisted 
isch, and 
IS, where 
who had 

had nothing to eat since yesterday morning. I therefore went 
to General von Kummer, who gave me at once an order for 
meat, meat extract, and other things required ^ but to provide 
for the moment I, with the permission of the kind-hearted 
general, robbed his own kitchen. He said his staff might live 
on half-rations for a day, and I answered it would serve him 
and them right, and that I was glad they had to do pennance for 
having robbed me, two days ago, of my quarters, exposing me 
to attacks of a whole army-corps of ferocious little French 
brown hussars. 

On November 29, after having attended to the wounded in 
Moreuil, I went to Amiens, of which the citadel was not yet 
in our hands ; it surrendered, however, the next day, after its 
brave commander had found the death desired by him, in 
mounting on the crest of the wall, making thus of himself a 
target for our sharp-shooters. 

I was quartered in the house of an eminent lawyer, where 
we had very good rooms and were extremely well taken care 

On December i, Dr. Busch and I drove to Boves, where we 
found only twelve of our wounded, but two hundred woimded 
French soldiers,, under the care of French doctois, who were 
very polite and kind to us We breakfasted at the ccateau of 
Boves> belonging to Bareness de Vaubert, who did a great 
deal for the wounded. 

We viiited, in Boves^ th ^ English Colonel Cox and \vr> wife, 
who had there a dcj^ot of the International Society for the aid 
of the wounded Though the sympathy of these English was 
said tc be more with tT\e French than with us I cannot com- 
plain that they showed any partiality, but have only to acknow- 
ledge their readiness to assist us, and their doing so with no 
tint, but in tl. most liberal manner I received from them, 
amongst otl. ^ things, several fine surgical instruments and 
also a splendid ; iii)iitation case, which I gave to Dr. von 
Kiihlewettcr, P'-ofcssor Busch's skilful assistant. ' 

Colonel Cox was a tall, thin, particularly English-looking 
Engl'.hman, and Mrs. Cox a little, very active, English lady. 
I ^hall have to mention them on another occasion, where they 
rendered us the most important services in great need. They. 
gave us now a whole waggon-load of excellent things, amongst 
which were many delicacies and a good quantity of very v^li? 

>" , I 







I ^ 





Ten Veai of my Life. 

I fi 





able condensed milk, all of which I sent to the hospital in 
Sains, were still were one hundred and eighty severely wounded. 

General von Manteuffel visited all the hospitals, and spoke 
kindly to the wounded, convincing himself that they were 
cared for. There were four hundred in the Mi.scum ; a most 
beautiful building, built by Napoleon * 111., containing very 
fine pictures and statutes, of which many were gifts of the Em- 
peror and Empress. The library had nlso been fitted up as a 
hospital. With these wounded in Amiens, Moreuil, and Sains, 
we had always plenty of occupation. 

On December 7, we all started for Rouen, and arrived in 
Granvillers m a great snowstorm : it was very agreeable for us 
that we got good quarters in a hotel, for we needed refresh- 
ment. We met here a clergyman, the Dh'isiofis Prediger 
Ciausius, who was excellent company, and nodespiser of good 
champagne, which agreed very well with his cloth, especially 
as he did not like to drink it alone. 

Next day we came to Lgi Feuille, where we were quartered 
in the chateau belonging to Baron Gaston de Joubert, which 
offer'=>d r sad spectacle, for it looked like a plucked hen. All 
the or!rc? were broken open, and over the floor were scattered 
a gr^.A v-ariety of things, as dresses, bonnets, shawls, slippers, 
children's toys, books, and hundreds of other objects too long 
to mention. 

An old man-servant of the house was very sorry for his 
masters. With tears in his eyes he fetched from a corner a 
picture representing a beautiful lady, saying, ' Look, this is my 
sweet mistress ; and God knows what she will do when she 
returns and finds her home destroyed in this manner.' I do 
not know what troops committed this act of barbarity, or the 
reason of it. 

The mayor sent us supper and bed-linen, but we felt very 
cold and desolate ; for in the room in which I was sleeping 
with Miss Runkel the stove was worse than no stove, for it 
smoked and no fire could be made. 

We arrived in Rouen on December 9, late in the evening, 
and had to dislodge three officers who had taken possession 
of our quarters. When we went out next day to look at the 
cathedral we were struck by the appearance of the people, 
who stared at us with such burning hatred in. their eyes that it 
was quite painful. The streets were crowded with hundreds 

General von Manteuffel. 


hospital in 
ly wounded. 
» and spoke 
: they were 
jm ; a most 
:aining very 
; of the Em- 
ted up as a 
1, and Sains^ 

i arrived in 
eable for us 
ded refresh- 
Hs Predigcr 
iser of good 
, especially 

e quartered 
ibert, which 
d hen. All 
re scattered 
^Is, slippers, 
:ts too long 

)rry for his 

a corner a 

this is my 

when she 

ner.' I do 

irity, or the 

ve felt very 
as sleeping 
ove, for it 

le evening, 
look at the 
he people, 
jyes that it 

of beggars, who all looked more like robbers. Most of them 
were workmen out of work, and the citizens were very much 
afraid they would plunder the city if we left it. 

In the museum we found a portrait of a Prince Croy, who 
had been archbishop of Rouen, and \ hose tomb, with a beau- 
tiful monument, is in the catliedral. 

Sunday, the nth, I called with Miss Runkel on General 
von Manteufjel to ask him for an order for woollen things, of 
which the wounded were much in need, as it was very cold. 
Though I had seen the general often, this was the first time I 
spoke with him. Hearing that the want of cigars was badly 
felt by the officers, and having still about seven hundred left, 
I proposed an exchange for woollen things, which were easily 
to be had, as they were manufactured in Rouen, and he 
accepted, much amused with my talent for trade, giving me an 
order for the things I required. 

Our staying in Rouen was by no means pleasant, for the 
people hated us intensely, and, if they really had had an idea 
how weak we were, they might have captured all of us, for, in 
fact, there were no soldiers in the city except the staff and the 
wounded. ' » 

We all were glad when we had Rouen behind us without 
shots being sent after us, for it was believed by several that we 
should not be permitted to pass the gate. 

We marched out on the 17 th, and near Le H^ron we were 
quartered in the house of M. Auguste Renard, the mayor, an 
old man of seventy-two, who had been taken by our troops 
and condemned to be shot as a spy ; but General von Goeben 
had investigated the case, and he came off with the fright. On 
the 1 8th we vvere in Marseille-le-Petit, and the following day 
in Bretuil, from whence we next day were to return to Amiens 
to re-occupy it. The citadel had always remained occupied by 
our troops. 

On December 23 we received from headquarters the notice 
to prepare ourselves for a battle. The French barred our 
road, and had taken a rather favorable position in the village 
of Querriere and the heights behind it. We advanced on the 
main road leading to that place, but when arrived at a house 
which was about six miles from it, we were ordered to stay 
there and wait for further orders. It was towards eleven 
o'clock, a.m., when we had to advance again until we saw the 



t li 

! f I 




Ten Ycdi'.s of r/i// Life. 

village of Qiierriore about a musket-shot before us, and our 
troops forming for the attack. It was as wonderful a winter 
day as I have ever seen. The sun was shining brightly, though 
it was cold, and the snow appeared like sparkling silver. The 
columns of our inlantry advanced in the regular and steady 
manner I had seen often in our manoeuvres near Coblentz 
and Cologne 

Professor Busch looked out for a ])roper site to establish a 
' Verbandplatz.' There stood a little house on the road, a 
shoemaker's shop, which seemed convenient ; it was in every 
way a better place than any in the field, oftering protection 
against the cold, which would have rendered any operations 
nearly impossible. The house had already attracted the 
attention of some other ambulance party arriving before us, 
but after much deliberation, hastened by some bullets, it was 
considered too near the front and given up. Professor Busch, 
howtver, seeing no other place near, decided on establishing 
ourselves there, trusting to chance and good luck. 

Some slightly wounded were already there, and, as the 
place was very confined and they had to remain outside, 
where they were exposed tc being wounded again, the pro- 
fessor wished to have them carried back to the place where we 
had stopped at first for further orders. No means of transpor- 
tation being at hand, I offered my light carriage, and Frank, 
the coachman, drove several times to the house on the road, 
and went afterwards even on the battle-field, in he rear of 
our advancing troops, to pick up some wounded. 

Our house was very small and consisted of only two narrow 
rooms. .We had, of couise, brought with us all necessary 
things, and arranged these rooms as a * Verbandplatz.* The 
floor of one of them was covered with straw, being reserved 
exclusively for those who v;ere wounded beyond any hope and 
must die. In the other room were placed the tables tor 

The wounded were brought in in great numbers, and 
amongst them were sixteen deadly wounded, who were laid in 
1 he afore-mentioned room to die. These were mostly those 
that had received wounds in the body, and who bled inwardly 
to death. They did not suffer so much as those whose limbs 
were shattered, and had, therefore, no idea of the danger of 
I heir situation 

^l Sad Case. 


and our 

a winter 

ly, though 

ver. The 

id steady 


stablish a 
: road, a 
in every 
icted the 
3efore us, 
ts, it was 
or Busch, 

!, as the 
the pro- 
where we 
d Frank, 
the road, 
rear of 

z.' The 
lope and 
bles tor 

irs, and 
laid in 
tly those 
se limbs 
mger of 

Amongst those doidly wounded a young soldier 
wounded by a piece of a shell in the abdomen. "The i)ro- 
fcssor saw at once that there w:is no hope ; he theicfore only 
stulk'd as much lint as ])ossible into the fcnrlul wound, and 
liad him laid a.ide on the straw. The poor man, 'vho did not 
feel much pair., believed himself neglected, and when I canie 
to look after him he complained to me that the wounds of the 
others that came after him were dressed ; he \\ anted to be 
dressed also, and to be sent back to the hospital at Amiens, 

Poor fellow ! It would have been too cruel to tell him that 
he must die ; and the Professor told me to give him some 
morphine and whatever he wanted to drink. 

Alas, we had notiiing to drink, neither wine nor brandy ; 
and it was so much required by the wounded and others too, 
tor it was, as I said, very cold. There arrived help at the 
right moment ; an English captain, sent by Colonel Cox, 
brought us a wiiole wap;goii-load oi good things, as port wine, 
sherry, brandy, whiskey, biscuits, condensed milk, etc., not 
forgetting warm blankets and warm clothing. This Interna- 
tional Society was indeed a blessing to us, and they were 
everywhere at the dilferent ' Verbandplatze.' 1 am sorry that 
I have not retained the names of the genllemcn who rendered 
us such good services ; but in fact 1 was too much occupied 
always to inquire, and did not know even the names of many 
with whom 1 worked together for weeks. 1 remember, how- 
ever, that of an American, Mr. Goodeiiough, also belonging 
to the International Society, and the person, though not the 
name, of a young Englishman of some noble family, who 
made himself very useful. 

The English captain did not bring provi^uons for the 
wounded only ; it had not been forgotten that other people 
would require refreshments also, and there was plenty. 

We all had our hands full of work, for Professor Busch had 
to perform nine 'amputations ; and in the other room on the 
straw were lying sixteen mortally wounded, who all died there. 
I assisted at all the amputations by chloroforming the men ; 
made hot water, washed off the blood, and cleaned the 
sponges, knives, and other surgical instruments, etc., whilst 
soldier servants carried in the wounded, fetched water and 
what else was required. 









Ten Years of my Life, 

We were too busy to pay much attention to the sound of 
shells passing over our house, for Professor Busch said it 
would be time enough to think of our security when a shell 
should strike the roof, which, however, fortunately did not hap- 
pen. The things going on outside were interesting enough to 
attract my curiosity, and whenever I had a moment to spare, 
wanting some fresh air, I went outside to see how the battle 
was going on. This was, however, a rather dangerous ci:ri- 
osity, which cost much to the division pastor, Rev. Mr. Gross, 
from Coblentz. He had attended to his merciful duty, com- 
forung some dying, and went to the corner of the house to take 
some air, when he was struck by a bullet and rather severely 

The scene was a most lively one, for every moment wounded 
arrived, or officers of the statf running with messages to e'lfferent 
places, stopping for a moment at our house and accepting 
gratefully some tnuch-needed refreshment. 

Our house became soon too full, and many poor wounded 
had to remain for hours outside in the bitter cold, until rough 
peasant carts arrived to carry them to the hospital in Amiens, 
where Miss Runkel had remained. Professor Busch and all 
of us felt the greatest pity, and were quite distressed when we 
saw the poor amputated carried like sheep in these rough vehi- 
cles, in which they suffered immensely on their long drive to 
Amiens, which was more than ten P^nglish miles off. 

I regretted much ihe want of such ambulances as we had in 
America, and which were so immensely useful. At some other 
part of this work I have spoken about them and other Ameri- 
can sanita'*y arrangements, to which I refer. 

Querriare was taken by our troops, and darkness ended the 
battle, but not our work ; but much could not be done by the 
light of the candles which we found amongst the provisions 
brought by these kmd, thoughtful English people. We were, 
however, utterly exhausted ; wrapt up in our work, we did not 
feel that we were hungry and thirsty ; but now nature would 
have its due. A tired and hungry doctor from some other sta- 
tion dropped in, and so did several officers ; we were about a 
dozen persons in the little room. 

I rinsed the kettle I had used, and with condensed milk I 
made some splendid chocolate. The ariiputation table was 
superficially wiped with straw; and sitting and standing around 

sound of 
;h said it 
ill a shell 
d not hap- 
enough to 
t to spare, 
the battle 
irous curi- 
^Ir. Gross, 
iuty, com- 
ise to take 
r severely 

L wounded 
o different 

■ wounded 
ntil rough 
i Amiens, 
h and all 
when we 
)ugh vehi- 
j drive to 

we had in 
)me other 
er Amcri- 

jnded the 
ne by the 
Ve were, 
e did not 

e would 
Dther sta- 

about a 

i milk I 
able was 
g around 

Birthday Celebration. 


it we enjoyed our chocolate and English biscuits, whilst in the 
next room were sixteen dead and dying, and in the corner of 
our room a heap of cut-oft arms and legs. 

It was past eight p.m. when we, tired as hunters, arrived in 
Amiens, not however to rest or sleep, for much work awaited 
us in the museum. Of course the wounds had been dressed 
on the battle-field in a hurried manner, and had to be re- 
dressed again now. Poor surgeon-general Dr. Wagner, of the 
second army corps, who died afterwards of typhus. Professor 
Busch, some other doctors. Miss Runkel, and myself worked 
until^three o'clock a.m., when we went to our well-earned rest, 
— but only for three hours. At six o'clock next morning we 
were up again, for a renewal of the battle was expected ; but 
as there was only slight skrimishing going on, and doctors 
enough in the field. Dr. Busch thought diat his presence would 
be of more avail in the hospital. 

Amongst the many wounded was an artilleryman, whose 
face was one black mass, a hardened crust covering it like a 
vizor. One hand was also burnt, and his foot was pierced by 
a long shaft of iron, torn off from the carriage of the gun 
when the caisson exploded, being struck by a shot. The Pro- 
fessor feared that he would lose both his eyes, but gave him in 
charge of Miss Runkel, who, with the greatest patience, 
bathed his poor eyes with a sponge to sofien the crust, and 
after many days she at last succeeded in removing it. Lifting 
with a little lint the much swollen eyelids. Miss Runkel was 
delighted on hearing him exclaim that he could see. His eyes 
were indeed saved, and his other wounds also healed. 

The 25th of December was poor Felix's birthday and mine 
also ; it was the first I had passed without him, and I Was 
extremely sad. To overcome ray thouglits, I worked all day 
in the hospital. Somebody had told my good landlady that it 
was my birthday, and she invited all my friends to a celebra- 
tion dinner at seven o'clock p.m., but I could not take part in 
it, though my brother-in-law was rather angry with me, for my 
non-appearance grieved the kind people of the house. Next 
day, however, when the birthday of Prince Alfred was cele- 
brated, I could not refuse. 

I had arranged in Amiens a kind of private hospital of r^ ^ 
own, where were lying officers ill with typhus, to whom, after 
the battle, were added some wounded. Amongst these latter, 

i! I 



4 in 

i ■*■■ I 


Ten Years of my Life. 




■III '■ 

but in the ' Petit Lvce'e ' hospital, was a young officer from 
Coblentz, a friend of ours, Count Luttichau, and also a Captain 
Voelkel. Both ol them had young wives, and their only 
thought was with them, and ever and again they wished to 
have them near their bed. I therefore promised to telegraph 
for them ; but found it very difficult to keep my promise, fori 
had to go to many i)ersons and at last to apply for permission 
to the commander of the army himself. 

The wounded were happy when I told them that I had tele- 
graphed, and they counted the hours. Whenever poor 
Luttichau heard me he opened his large black; eyes and asked 
with such a longing voice whether his dear wife had not ar- 
rived yet. Travelling in that time, was, however, a difficult 
thing, depending on chance and taxing patience to the utmost. 
Both Countess Luttichau and Mrs. Voelkel lived in Coblentz. 
The latter being retained by some circumstance or other, the 
countess started alone, and arrived on the morning when poor 
Captain Voelkel died. About twelve hours later in the middle 
of the night, when I was already in bed, somebody knocked 
at my door ; it was Mrs. Captain Voelkel ; I felt so very sorry 
for the poor young wife, who was quite stiff with cold, for the 
weather was very severe, and I gave up my bed to hei. 

The young widow wanted to take the body oi her husband 
home ; and I had to run about to the prefecture, the head- 
quarters, to order a coffin, etc., and all the people employed 
in that sad aftair came to me. Countess Luttichau was more 
fortunate, she had the happiness to nurse her husband and see 
him recover. 

J.n the commencement of January we received notice to 
provide proper accommodation for General von Blankensee, 
who had typhoid fever. The general, who had been suffering 
already some time from ftjver, would not admit that he was ill, 
but at last when he became delirious, he had to go to Amiens. 
On his arrival, and descending from the carriage, two soldiers 
offered to assist him, but he shook them off impatiently, saying 
that he was not so ill and weak that he could not walk alone, 
and collecting all his strength he really did ; but he was so 
wasted and pale that it was pitiful to look at him. 

As he felt uncomfortable in the narrow hospital bed and 
wished for a wider one, I tried to satisfy Him, aivl could not 
manage it in any other manner than by enterin^^ with some 


)fficer from 
J a Captain 
their only 
wished to 
o telegraph 
omise, for I 

I had tele- 
lever poor 
and asked 
had not ar- 
, a difficult 
the utmost. 
\ Coblentz. 
other, the 
when poor 
the middle 
y knocked 
► very sorry 
)ld, for the 

r husband 
the head- 
was more 
id and see 

notice to 
1 sufferim? 
le was ill, 
o soldiers 
ly, saying- 
Ik alone, 
was so 

bed and 
lould not 
Kth some 

Voluntary Thanks. 

n- 1 

soldiers an hotel and helping myself to a good convenient bed. 
The landlord lavished a whole flood of French exclamations 
and complained at the prefecture ; but the prefect, Count 
Lehndorf, did not deal very severely with me, and the general 
retained his bed. He was indeed very ill, and I nursed him 
with great care, myself evoking for him. He, however, 
wanted to see his dear good wife, and the thought of her did 
not leave his mind for a moment. As he was so dangerously 
ill, we telegraphed for her ; but she lived far away in Germany, 
and day passed after day, each probably appearing to the poor 
general like a week. At last she arrived after eight days, and 
tne joy of her husband was great ; he repeated over and over 
again, * I knew she would come, I knew it.' I arranged a 
small adjoining room for her, and he had at last the consola- 
tion of dying in the arms of his beloved wife, a few days after 
her arrival. The poor woman was nearly heartbroken, and her 
J "^erings opened all the wounds of my heart; it was almost 

.yond my strength. 

All these ladies wrote afterwards kind letters to me, thank- 
ing me for the care I had bestowed on their husbands, and the 
litJe services I was enabled to render them. Though I did 
not go to the field to satisfy my vanity or earn any praise, I 
felt gratified by such letters, of which I received many even 
from private soldiers, who, when at home amongst their 
families, remembered that I had dressed their wounds, taken 
care for their comfort and spoken kind words to them. 

In the night of January 4, we were ordered to Albert, near 
which place a fight had Occurred in which the 8th regiment of 
cuirassiers had been engaged. It was bitter cold when Pro- 
fessor Busch, Dr. von Kiihlewetter, Prince Alfred and myself 
drove there. We found in Albert, Captain von Marien, of the 
8th cuirassiers, who lay in a private house. He was very 
badly wounded, and the Professor decided that he must sufter 
an amputation. Whilst the Professor cut off his leg I chloro- 
formed him, and afterwards the captain requested me to 
telegraph to Deutz for his wife, whic'- ' s Hone from Amiens, 
where I, however, could not go myseu ds ^^ j were wanted in 
Bapaume. A fight had taken place neai mat town on the 
2nd and 3rd, and on evacuating it the French had carried off 
our wounded. 

As we entered Bapaume the alarum was sounding, fur it had 




" I 

J 111 




Ten Vears of my Life. 

been reported that the French were advancing. Whoever has 
not seen such a scene cannot imagine it. The place was only 
occupied by cavalry, commanded by General Count Groeben. 
When we entered his headquarters the General had left, but 
we found in the kitchen his distracted cook, the roast on the 
spit and a good meal in preparatwn. When 1 saw him pack 
up the half-cooked meat, and everything he could grab in his 
hurry, I stopped him, requesting him to run if he liked behind 
his general, but to leave us the victuals, foi Bapaume looked 
as if there was nothing eatable to be had in it. The cook 
defended manfully his general's dinner, but yielding to my 
persuasion and perseverance we at last secured a sufficient 
supply. The French, however, did not come that time, and 
Count Groeben had been airing hiniis^Tall day for nothing. 

We heard that the French had carried our wounded to a 
village not far off, where they were left, the French having 
evacuated. These wounded, about one hundred, we found in 
the most miserable state. They had been carried off from 
Bapaume on horseback, or thrown pell-mell into carts, and 
though many of them were very severely wounded their 
wounds were not dressed for several days. Amongst them was 
Captain von Butler, who had a shot through his lungs. After 
having examined him Professor Busch told me that there was 
no hope, rnd requested me to give him a dose of morphine to 
comtort him, and do what was possible, but die he must ; and 
so he did. 

The wounded were all brouglit to a convent, forming a part 
of a Iniilding used as a bo: rack, and in communication with it. 
After the wounded haa had their wounds dressed, my first care 
was to look out for something for them to eat. I found ii 
the kitchen a man, Heinrich, whom I had often seen, as he 
was head-waiter at Perron's, a fine restaurant in Bonn, and 
who had volunteered to go to the war as a cook. I knew him 
to be a practical, handy man, having met him before in the 
war and admired the good care which he took of the wounded 
in a hospital to which he was attached. He was very service- 
able now ; he cooked for the poor wounded, and assisted me, 
and I was always pleased when I saw him occasionally at 
Perron's, where he is still head-waiter. 

Looking about in the convent serving us as hospital, I en- 
tered a darkened Uttle room, where I found a bed w".th some- 


oever has 

was only 


left, but 

St on the 

him pack 

ab in his 

,'d behind 

le looked 

rhe cook 

ig to my 


time, and 


ded to a 

:h having 

i found in 

off from 

;arts, and 

ded their 

them was 

;s. After 

lere 'vas 

Dhine to 

lust ; and 

ng a part 
n with it. 
first care 
found ii 
n, as he 
)nn, and 
new him 
; in the 
5ted me, 
nally at 

[al, I en- 
th some- 

Return to Amiens. 


body in it. On examining the patient, I started back rather 
frightened, when looking in the black face of a Frenchman, 
left there ill with the small-pox. 

We remained a night and a day in Bapaume, when again 
came news of an advance of the French, and General Groeben 
left with his troops. We started several hours after him, and 
the French arrived, only much later, having ascertained that 
the Prussians had evacuated the place. 

I returned to Amiens. I found plenty of work in the 
museum, where we had about five hundred wounded brought 
from different places, mostly in a state of exhaustion, and 
the Professor urgently demand-^d that they should be well 
nourished and have between their regular meals each, bread 
and butter, with meat, and a glass of wine, which gave Miss 
Runkel and myself enough to do. 

Poor General Blankensee died, as I mentioned before, and 
Mrs. von Blankensee wanted to take home his body. Mrs. 
Captain von Marien had also arrived, accompanied by Mrs. 
von L , her friend, and a nun, with a letter of recom- 
mendation from Colonel von Wedell, the staff commander of 
Cologne, an old friend of mine, who sent everybody to me. 
Though I had scarcely a minute to spare and my usual duties 
were fatiguing me to the utmost limit of my strength, I had 
not only to comfort these poor afflicted wives, but also to ad- 
vise them and to attend to their most trifling afFi.\ir.s, as they 
were amongst us like the babes in the wood. 

Mrs. von Marien, who was very delicate and nervous, of 
course wanted to be with her wounded husband in Albert, but 
on hearing that it was again occupied by the French, she be- 
came frightened and undecided, went many times out and in 
the carriage, until at last her love conquered, and she went off 

with the nun ; her friend Mrs. von L , whose husband was 

also a captain in the cavalry, remained behind, and Count 
Lehndorf kindly provided quarters for her in the town-hall, 
where she had the pleasure of seeing her husband, whilst her 
friend nursed and comforted Captain von Marien, who died 

Calling one day on Count Lehndorf on some business, I 
had a pain in my back and a dreadful headache. The Count 
on looking in my face exclaimed, quite alarmed, * For God's 
sake, Princess, what is the matter with you ? Have you not 





i )| 


Ttn Years of my Life. 


*■ 5 

seen your face ? Go home at once, and to bed, for you are 
very ill.' 

I had not seen my face that morning, for I could do my 
hair and toilet without a looking-glass ; it was red and inflamed 
all over, and returning to my quarters I at once sent for Pro- 
fessor Busch. When he looked at me he made a rather long, 
serious face, for I had caught the small-pox in Bapaume from 
the Frenchman who had been left behi'.d in the hospital. 

Prince Alfred was quite beside himself. The Professor did 
not give me any other medicine but hot milk, as much as I 
could drink, and I am happy to say that the tning turned out 
better than any of us expected, owing, as the doctor said, to 
my healthy blood and good condition. I did not get the 
black small-pox, but a more harmless kind, which left only 
three little marks on my face. 

When we en the i6th of' January received marching orders 
for Peronne, where a skirmish had occurred, and a battle was 
expe^ned, I had been in bed only four days, and Professor 
Busch said, if I got up and caught a cold I should die. I did 
not, however, care if I did, and left also for Peronne, where 
General von Memerty was severely wounded, and lying in a 
private house. He had a shot in the same place as that from 
which poor Captain von Marien died, and when Professor 
Busch examined the state of the wound he said that it was too 
late for amputation, and ordered a plaster of Paris bandage, 
which I prepared. When it was done. Dr. von K^ihle^^:etter 
asked me in a whisper, * What do you say. Princess, will he 
die?' I shook my head and said confidently, * He will live.' 
The doctor believed in my faculty for seeing life or death in 
the face of a patient, having been always correct in my pro- 
phecies. I cheerod up the general who eagerly looked in my 
eyes, and told him that everything would go well with him. 
He said afterwards, that the expression of my eyes had given 
him great comfort and confidence, adding some comphments 
to these eyes, which of course pleased me because they were 
honestly meant. 

We found in Peronne about three hundred wounded, all in 
a very miserable state. Professor Buscli said that they must 
be taken to Amiens, but have something to eat before leaving. 
There was nothing to be had in that utterly devastated place, 
and we were in despair, when again our good English friends 

In Peronne. 


, for you are 

could do my 
and inflamed 
sent for Pro- 
L rather long, 
ipaume from 
Professor did 
iS much as I 
g turned out 
ctor said, to 
not get the 
ich left only 

ching orders 

a battle was 

id Professor 

I die. I did 

onne, where 

d lying in a 

as that from 

n Professor 

at it was too 

is bandage, 


ess, will he 

e will live.* 

or death in 

in my pro- 

oked in my 

with him. 

had given 


they were 

ided, all in 
they must 
)re leaving, 
ated place, 
lish friends 

came to our assistance. They brought us a great qunntity of 
good things, especially potted meat, which was higlily welcome 
and much needed. Finding in the kitchen of a barrack three 
large boilers, I had them filled with water, put in the meat and 
every crust of bread we could find, and with this I made a good 
soup with whicii Prince Alfred and Miss Runkel fed the poor 
wounded. Prince Alfred was untiring in his merciful duties '^s 
a knight of Malta ; he was always on the spot day and night, 
and doing the most menial services, in nursing, not only the 
wounded, but especially those ill with typhus or small-pox, of 
whom there were a great number amongst the French. All the 
patients we found in Peronne were placed in carts and con- 
veyed to Amier 

People reading at home in the papers of battles and of the 
number of dead and wounded, cannot easily imagine the sights 
we saw, the heartrending scenes through which we had to pass, 
and the immense deal of work we had to do. When evening 
came we were often utterly exhausted. One night, when Prince 
Alfred by mere chance passed a yard, he saw in the snow a 
dark human form, and coming near he found Miss Runkel 
senseless on the ground. Having worked all day, she was sitting 
at the bedside of a wounded man, when the smell, added to her 
exhausted state, becime too much for her ; she went out to have 
some fresh air and fainted. 

Jimmy the dog had a better life than we had. In Amiens 
he did not hear any firing and was happy ; but I suppose he 
was ashamed at being so idle, or the war-fever raging around 
seized him, — he wanted to fight the French on his part also. 
One day, when coming with me out of the hospital, h^ met a 
large Fr nch dog, of the Newfoundland breed, carrying a basket 
in his mouth. Jimmy scarcely saw him bef ^ he charged. 
The large Frenchman, quietly putting down his basket, caught 
poor Jimmy by one of his ears, and having t^rn out a piece, he 
took up his basket again and trotted off, leaving Jimmy pro- 
fusely bleeding in my arms. Though I sympathized greatly 
with my favourite's defeat, I could not but admire his big enemy, 
which was the most dignified Frenchman I ever saw. 

On J nuary 19, 187 1, General von Goeben beat the French 
in the battle of St. Quentin, in the most decided and glorious 
manner. They were commanded by General I'aidherbe, re- 
placing General Bourbaki, who was left to be beaten somewhere 








Tcu Years of my Life. 

When we went to St. Qucnlin we pa.ssed over the battlefield, 
which was still strewn with dead and all kinds of arms. The 
ground in consequence 'of rains, was extremely soft, and the 
French found it just as hard to run away as the Prussians to 
run after them. Evidence of this was found in the many boots 
and even stockings we saw sticking in the mud. 

Arriving in St. Quentin we did not find General Goeben, as 
he was in pursuit of the nimble-footed enemy. We took up 
quarters in a little hotel and commenced work. A hospital had 
I'cen established in I ^"etii Lycee, where we had nearly five 
hundred wounded. 

When General von G^cben v.^Mrned to St. Quentin he re- 
quired the little hotel for head-quarters, and we had to look 
out for some other house. It was found by Prince Alfred in a 
splendid place, discovered by the knights of St. John, who had 
established there their depot, and had still room enough for 
Professor Busch and his whole party. 

This house belonged to the family of Cambronne, and had 
been locked up since the death of its last proprietor. It was 
very spacious and provided with a very well supplied wine- 
cellar and othei provisions. Amongst other things I discovered, 
behind a carefully-locked door which attracted my attention, a 
great quantity of preserves, fruit, jellies, and jams, which I ac- 
quired in the regular way of requisition for my wounded ; and 
the same was the case in reference to the wine-cellar, from 
which a good number of bottles were used for the hospital 

I have already said that there was not much love lost between 
the knights of St. John and the doctors The former assumed 
an authority to which the doctors would not submit, as it 
became indeed sometimes very troublesome and hindering ; the 
knights indignant at this want of respect, could not forbear 
showing their displeasure, and annoying the doctors whenever 
they had an opportunity. 

M. von Brinken, in charge of the depot in the Hotel Cam- 
bronne, in order to show that the knights of St. John were not 
as ignorant and unpractical in reference to the arrangements 
required for a hospital as these irreverent scientific leeches as- 
serted, had resolved to establish a little hospital of his own, 
which was intended to become a kind of .pattern hospital. As 
it seemed, however, a pity to place the wounded in the mag- 
nificent house itself, the hospital was established in a rather 

A Dudorless Private Hospital. 

e battlefield, 
irms. The 
^ft, and the 
Prussians to 
many boots 

Goeben, as 

Ve tuok up 

hosuital had 

nearly five 

mtin he re- 
lad to look 
; Alfred in a 
m, who had 
enough for 

e, and had 
or. It was 
►plied wine- 
attention, a 
which I ac- 
mded ; and 
ellar, from 
St between 
er assumed 
mit, as it 
lering ; the 
lot forbear 

[otel Cam- 
were not 


ieches as- 

his own, 

Ipital. As 
the mag- 
a rather 

dlsmal-lookin[!j outhouse, wliich might liave served as a manu- 
factory of some kind or other. As Professor Buscli and others, 
however, found that the site of this outhouse was by no means 
heakhy, M. von IJrinken had to make bonne mine an niaui'aisjtu, 
and transfer the wounded, mostly if not all Saxons, to two 
splendid halls of the mansion itself, which were arranged for 
that purpose. M. von Brinken, had, however, counted with- 
out his host, as he found out very soon, for the doctors, who 
had their hands full at the great hospital in the Lycee refused 

attend the private hospital in the Motel Cambronne. — 
Though Professor Busch lived in the same house, and now and 
then visited the wounded lying there, he had m* e important 
dunes, which occupied him nearly all day sonj.w precise; 
id M. von Brinken had no other assistance tha that of Miss 
Runkel, who for longer than a week worked herself nearly to 
death. She wash d herself the feet of her twenty .iix patients, 
who arrived mostly in a most filthy state, before ihe placed them 
m the clean beds, and dressed their wounds to ner best ability. 
She had also to cook for them all, and even to carry the water. 
Only much later she got a French woman to assist her in these 
menial duties. I could do for her but little, as I had more than 
enough on my hands with my five hundred wounded in the 
official great hospital. 

The end of the thing was that Tie knight had to give in and 
to break up his doctorless hospital, removing his wounded to 
the Lycee, where Miss Runkel took especial charge ot the 
officers' ward. 

At the head of the depot of the knights in the Hotel Cam- 
bronne was, as said before, M. von Brinken, who was followed 
later by Count von Sierstorptf, and besides him were at times 
other knights in the house, as Count Schafgotsch, Count 
Finkenstein and others, with whom we passed some most 
pleasant hours after having attended the duties of the day. 
Mine were by no means ear,y. Leaving the dressing of the 
wounds to the doctors and the nurses, I made it again my 
esj)ecial duty to provide for the nourishment of my five hun- 
dred people. I created order in the large kitchen, and took 
care to have my larder always sufficiently supplied. 

Before I left in the evening I gave out what was required 
for the first breakfast, and ordered what was to be cooked for 
dinner next day. Early in the morning a carriage furnished 



Ten Years of my Life. 

by the Prefect fetched us from our house. Having convinced 
myself first that all my orders had been executed, I prepared 
myself the lunch. I, with two assistants, cut bread for all the 
five hundred, buttered it, and put on it some meat or jam. 
Before 1 left for my own dinner I went to the kitchen, super- 
intended the cooking and tasted the dinner tor my wound d, 
giving my orders for special cases. 

After dinner, when the w unded had had their c f I 
took with me a good supply ot cigars from the stores Oi the 
knights, and went through the different wards distributing the 
cigars myself, not trusting always the attendants, who coveted 
this much desired article, which commenced to get scarce. 
On this occasion I spoke to the men, inquiring what they had 
had for lunch and dinner, thus making sure that my orders 
had been carried out properly. Then I superintended the 
preparations for supper, and having made my arrangements, 
for next day, I went home, mostly dead beat. If I had much 
work and trouble I at least had the satisfaction that the com- 
missary department ot the hospital was in excellent order, and 
that everything went on like clock-work. 

Miss Runkel attended, as I mentioned before, to the 
wounded officers. When she had ascertained from me all that 
was to be had next day lor dinner, she went with this pic u 
to the officers to hear wha each of them might prefer, z.'^'X 
communicated it to me. 

Thus the hospital was carried on, from the 20th of January 
until the loth of February when I left for Germany. At that 
time the p- 'stice had been concluded, and my brother-in-law 
wished to l^o home to look after his family and his private 
affairs, and his eldest son Leopold was to take leave of 
absence. They were of opinion that I could not well stay 
alone behind. 

The doctor wished Miss Runkel 1 3 remain at least, promis- 
ing to see her home safely after peace was concluded ; but 
having become much attached to me, and her family not wish- 
ing her to remain alone with the army, she consented to return 
and to stay with me as my friend and '^ompanion. 

With this my activity in the war ended. I did my duty to 
the best of my ability, and if I may trust to the expressions of 
thanks in many letters which I received, I am justified in 
believing that my services were of some avail. 

Dcco rations. 


or all the 
t or jam. 
;n, super- 
wound :d, 

c f. I 
cs Oi the 
lUting the 
) coveted 
et scarce, 
they had 
ly orders 
inded the 
had mueh 

the com- 
>rder, and 


to the 
le all that 
his mc ti 
efer, a^d 


At that 



leave of 

veil stay 

ed ; but 
lot wish- 
o return 

duty to 
sions of 
tified in 

The commai'der of the army to which T was attached, Gen- 
eral von Manteuftel, who had observed my activity both in the 
hu. itals and in the battles of Moreuil on November 27th, 
and in that of the a3rd of December near Querriore, ordered 
the surgeon-general of his army, Dr. Westphal, to take infor- 
mation in reference to my behaviour and activity as a nurse. 
He therefore applied officially to the surgeon-general of the 8th 
«,rmy corps, Professor Dr, Busch, and after having received a 
report from him and submitted it to (xeneral von Manteuffel, 
1 latter asked for me from His Majesty the order of the iron 
cross, which request was forwarded to Versailles by an especial 
courier. He received, however, the answer that this order 
could only be given to men, but that a decoration for the 
women who had distinguished themselves in the war would be 
awarded and that I should receive it. This decoration was 
bestowed on many thousands of women throughout all Ger- 
many, whether they worked on the battlefield, or hundreds of 
miles away from it ; and as it could only be awarded according 
to the reports made by local authorities, it has now and then 
been given to persons who had some local influence, although 
their exertions for the army were rather trifling. 

After General von Manteuffel had gone south, General von 
Goeben commanded the 2nd army, and I had the pleasure of 
receiving from him the following letter : 

* Amiens, the 5th March, 1871. 

* In reply to the letter received from your Highness, I, on your parting 
from here, feel urged to express in the name of the 1st army the thanks 
which the same owes to you. During all the war until peace your High- 
ness has with the utmost self-sacrifice uninterruptedly kept in view the 
difficult task which you undertook voluntarily at the commencement of the 
war, and has benefited the sick and wounded irvthe most efficient manner. 
The army thanks you for this generous devotion from thousands of hearts, 
and as I have the honour of commanding now the 1st army I beg to be 
allowed to express to your Highness this thanks in the name of all, and 
especially of those whom the careful hand of your Highness has nursed and 
solaced in the hard days of suffering. 

' Requesting your Highness to accept the assurance of the greatest respect, 
I have the honour of remaining, etc. 

* (Signed) von Goeben, 

' General of Infantry.' 



Ten Years of ii\ij Life. 


Having asked the gallant commander of the 2nd army corps, 
Cleneral von Fransecky, tor his photograph for my album of 
the war, I received trom him the following letter, which I piil)- 
lish more on account of its distinguished amiable writer than 
for my own satislaction : 

' The kind ktter with which your Ilighnes- f.ivoured me has been duly 
received the day before yesterday here in Strasburg. where I have been 
since a few days, in my new positioa as commanding j^eneral of the newly 
formed I5tli army corps. Thaniiing you for it vixy 1 .Lily I need not 
add that its reception^ as a visible token of your continued Uvour and 
grace, makes me very happy. I have ft en rememV>cred 'he ime, in 
which I saw your Highness work with such devo^^*! and self-sacrificing, 
with such eflective and benefi ial activity for our s and wountled in the 
hospitals and depots at Ars-sur-Moselle, and never ceased greatly admiring 
and thanking you for it ; and I am sure that at liome many grateful heart:j 
will still remember you for a long time afterwards, and jiroclaim your 
praise thankfully and honouring you. None of «he many noble women, 
who like you have undertaken to care for and nurse the wounded in the 
field hospitals, have equalled you in zeal ; none have been able to surpass 
you in success, — of this I have been a witness ! The reward of heaven 
will and cannot fail you, aiul the dear gracious God who took from you 
your husbind will from henceforth let spring from those works of Christian 
charity the richer blessings ! He will be your protector and comfort'.^r, 
when and where you should feel yourself alone ! ! 

* It was very amiable and gracious of you to follow with your thoughts 
myself and the Pomeranian Army Corps on the ways which fate led us ju^t 
before Paris, and then to the Swiss frontier, and that you bestowed yoiu* 
sympathies and praise on the leats of arms of our soldiers, which were 
favoured and rewarded with success by good luck. Please to accept '^^r 
this likewise my heartfelt thanks. It is a fine reward • a soldier to hear 
from the lips of a pretty and noble lady the acknowledgment of having 
done his duty. And thai we have done all — but not more! 

• Understanding fully your grief in breaking up your h ^mcr in Coblentz, 
I sympathise with it fiom the dep'h of my heart. In the bosom of your 
relatives m Anholt I hope you will find that rest and com! ^t you reqn e 
so much, after the hard ^imes you had since the summer of la *• year. Also 
your grief will be soothed there, where all feel it so def/^ly wi h you ! 

' Since your Highness has shown such friendly mt^rest 'n my fortunes 
during the war, I may suppose that my transfer from tlie 2nd to the 1 5th 
Army Corps and its meaning vvill not have escaped -our notice. Kis 
Majesty the Emperor and King in placing me at the head of tliis new 
army corps and these newly acquired countries, intended f> giv«? me a 
proof of his particular confidence, and in this expression I feel spurred on 
anew to do everything in my power to make myselt worthy of this confi- 
dence. The task which I found tc be accomplished herti is, however, 
very difficult — and ui>til now I do not see anything around rne but chaos ! 
I feel, however, stron^^ in my good will and confidence and re lance in 
myself — and what is still the principal thing, in (iod. With His assistance 
I hope to pull through ! 

army cor p«?. 
^alburn of 
hich I pul>. 
vritcr than 

Ids been duly 

1 have bct'ii 
of the newly 
' I need not 

tivoixr and 
'le inie, in 
indcd in the 
fly admiring 
iteful heart:; 
oclaim your 
l)ie women, 
ided m the 

2 to surpass 
of heaven 

<■ from you 

►f Christian 

comfort '.'r, 

ir thouijhts 
Jed us juKt 
owed your 
I'hich were 
accept f">r 
er to hear 
of having 

n of your 
3u reqi» -e 
sar, Also 
you I 
y fortunes 

the J 5th 
ice. Kis 
this new 
ive me a 
'urred on 
his confi- 
It chaos ! 

tance in 

General Fransethjs Letlcr, 


Herev.-, h I bepj to forward the ordered pho^ogrnphs; I hope to replace 

hem soon hy better ones It has l-ccomc usual in Ihr worl.l to .-xchanue 

photograph for photogrnph ; will your iri.i;hness present me with yo s as 

an evidence of your favour? Vou will f.,ll.,w at least graciously tin^u 

„n'!^«^'?..r.^rr'"^ ^^ ^''^' «^-^-^ ^-I-' -^>J ^-<^t.on/l have th • 


honour c: signing as 

* Your HighnL'Sb's most obedient, 

• istrasburg, April yth, 1871/ 


• General of Infantiy. 






i^' ' 


GoinjT to Germfiny — T,-. Anholt — My husband's debts — Different views — 
Re'.;iuing to my deserted home — Sympathisers — Pestered t.- death — 
A last appeal to a brother — A princely ctnswer — What 1 . ^solved to 
do — Baron Edward Openheim— Gomg to Berlin — A priv.i' .mdienct- 
with his Majesty the Emperor — What happened i it — Genera' vor 
Treskow— My offer accepted — Audience with my gracious Empress — 
Moving to the Augusta hospital — Noble nurses — Visit of Emperor 
and Empress — A present from Her Majesty — Lost — Called home — 
Mo' ing to Bonn — Persecutions — A forgd signature- -Law suit — My 
heath failing — In Luzern — Going tf Clarence — To Pisa — To Naples 
— Lri.ption of Mount Vesuvius — I want to see it very near — Jimmy's 
di. tress — Pomp^'ii. 

E.3C0RVED by my nephew, Prince Leopold, and accompanied 
by Miss Riinkel, Jimmy, and my pigeon, which I intended as 
a present ici my youngest niece, Princess Flaminia, m Anholt, 
I left Amiens Before returning to my so long deserted, once 
happy home in Coblentz, I had resolved to pay a visit to An- 
holt, in order to consult with my brother-in-law in reference to 
my future. My poor husband had in his letter recommended 
me to x^rinre Alfred's care, and the latter had assured me re- 
peatedly thi.t he would assist me as a brother. 

When the war broke out so suddenly, and we had to leave 
Coblentz, it was impossible to make any arrangements. I was 
afraid to return there unprepared, for I knew very well what I 
should have to ehcounter. Necessity had compelled me to 
renounce the heritage of my husband, and I did so under the 
advice of my brother-in-law, as I was unable to pay all his 
debts, of which the greater part were contracted before he 
married me. 

There existed, however, debts which had been incurred 


j-Tj-wsat^liy ; •<mmffvpsr<v0'm~'-'-''' 

Mu Hitsbamrs Debts. 


lat 1 
e to 


during our life in Coblentz, and amongst them a great number 
of unsettled household bills owing to servants and tradespeople, 
which 1 felt in honour bound to pay, even if I should have to 
make the greatest personal sacrifices. I knew very well that I 
was not bound by law to do so, but there are laws superior 
even to those managed by the courts and lawyers. These 
debts were com[)aratively trilling, amounting in all to a few 
ihousaiid thalers, and I expected from Prince Alfred that he 
would enter into my views and assist me in carrying them out. 

Prmcc Alfred had assisted his brother frequently. Though 
not compelled by the laws of the country to do so, other laws 
to which I alluded above made this assistance a duty. The 
trifling appanage to which Felix, as a younger brother, had 
been entitled by the law of the country, was applied to the pay- 
ment of debts made when in the Austrian service. On his 
return from Mexico, Prince Alfred allowed him out of his own 
pocket twelve hundred thalers a year, and paid part of his 
djbts, for which a life assurance policy served as a security. 
It was paid to Prince Alfred, and thus his sacrifices were con- 
siderably dimfrj'shed. Moreover, by the death of poor Felix, 
the annuity \i welve hundred thalers and the regular appanages 
exi)ired. I \.m far from blaming Prince Alfred for acting with 
circumspection, fcr ^< had himself many children. 

The Prince did nor think it necessary for the honour of his 
family to pay usurers and sharpers who had profited by the im- 
providence of the young prince his brother, and his views in 
this respect 'vere approved by other men who are better judges 
than myself in reference to such a subject ; and these views 
were not repugnant to my feelings either. 

But far different was it in refrence to straightforward, un- 
questionable claims, debts contracted with tradesmen who had 
furnished us the necessities of life, people who lived by their 
honest trade, as grocers, butchers, bakers, tailers, shoemakers, 
&c., not to speak of house-servants, whose several claims it was 
impossible to settle before leaving for the war. There my views 
differed from those of my brother-in-law, who maintained that 
I was not bound to pay them, and refused to lend me the 
money to do so. 

During my short sojourn in Anholt I did not succeed in 
altering his opinion, which disappointed me much. By his 
brave behaviour in Mexico, jnd his glorious death, my poor 


I !| 







Tc'Ti F(?ars of my Life. 

husband had done more for the honour of his family than any 
of its members for several hundred years ; and I imagined that 
the head ot that family might perhaps be inclined- to honour 
his memory bv sacrificing a few paltry thousands, and the more 
as he, as mentioned before, received the sum for which Felix's 
life was insured, and had no longer to pay his annuity. 

J shall not say more about it, but only state facts necessary 
to justify the course I was compelled to pursue in consequence 
of this refusal. 

The prince offered me rooms and free station in his castle, 
where I might have lived to the end ot my life by his grace. As 
I had, however, my pension from His Majesty the Emperor of 
Austria, which I did not owe to the family of Salm but to 
myself, and moreover, a small pension as the widow of a 
Prussian major dead on the battlefield, and for other reasons 
I declined that offer, and returned, with rather bitter feeling 
in my heart, and only about 200 thalers in my pocket, to 

When I entered my old home, the first I had since my 
marriage, and where I had passed a happy time, I felt as a 
mother who has lost her babe may feel on first entering the 
empty nursery and seeing there the toys with which her darl- 
ing once played. Opening my husband's writing-table and 
looking around in his room, every trifling object reminded me 
of some little occurrence or some words spoken by him ; and 
my grief, for which I had, as it were, no leisure during the 
ardent duties of the war, broke out now with renewed force. 

The sympathy shown me by the ladies of Coblentz and all 
my friends there was indeed a soothing balm, but it could not 
make me forget my loss, nor prevent me from reflecting upon 
my isolated and wretched situation, which did not even allow 
me the melancholy luxury ot grieving in peace. Rude reality 
knocked at my door in the shape of clamouring creditors. 

Poor people ! they were perfectly right to ask payment for 
thmgs they had furnished, mostly on my own orders, for which 
they had paid their own money, earned by their own industry 
and work. Who can blame them if they did not understand 
my sad and desolate condition ? Used to look upon princes 
with a certain respect, they could not imagine that a princess 
should not be able to pay a few thalers, or at least to procure 
them froni the family of her husband, to save his memory 

Pestered to Death. 

S(i .') 

ban any 
led that 
he more 
I Felix's 



s castle, 
ace. As 
)eror of 
I but to 
w of a 
:ket, to 

ice my 

?lt as a 

ring the 

|er darl- 

le and 

ed rne 


ng the 


jnd all 

Id not 

; upon 




nt for 


us try 







from the dishonour of robbing poor tradesmen. I cannc/t 
blame them that they perhaps ascribed to my unwillingness or 
meanness what was the result of utter incapability to satisty 
them, and if they expressed their opinion rather freely. It 
may be a certain class of people wiU shrug their shoulders at 
my unprincely weakness in caring for such things ; but the fact 
is, that I felt utterly unhappy and wretched ; for to such 
humiliations I had never yet been subjected. I was in a con- 
stant fever, for whenever the bell rang I expected another 
creditor, or when I looked through the window, I saw one 
standing opposite, watching the house with angry eyes. 
Madame von Corvin, though sad also because she had just 
lost her mother, came from Frankfort to Coblentz to comfort 
me ; she was a witness to my humiliations and my fear, and so 
was Miss Runkel, who did all she could to press oft' from me 
these excited creditors, of whom I was the more afraid the 
more I vvas convinced of the justice of their demands. 

I felt certainly great reluctance in applying to His Majesty, 
who had done already so much for my husband ; but on the 
other hand I had no other help in this country. 

The Emperor was however still in France, and the clamour- 
ing creditors were- at my door. Prompt action was required. 
Under these circuTistances, I remembered a man with whom 
I had become acquainted during the war, and who had made 
on me the impression of being a good and noble feeling man, 
— Edward Oppenheim, the great banker of Cologne. Repre- 
senting to him the situation in which I was placed, I requested 
from him a loan of two thousand thalers, which were sufficient 
to satisfy the most urgent necessities. The Baron responded 
to my confidence in the most amiable manner. 

When the Emperor returned to P .lin I went there, accom- 
panie4 by Miss Runkel. Colonri von Corvin not having re- 
turned from France Madame Corvin had not yet taken another 
home, but was living herself in lodgings, where there was no 
room for me and Miss Runkel ; I had therefore to go to an 

On my request, Count Lehndorf, the aide-de-camp of His 
Majesty, called on me, and making him acquainted with the 
object of my visit to Berlin, I requested him to procure for me 
a private audience with the Emperor. 

This audience was graciously granted, and I shall always 






Ten Years of my Life. 


cherish it as one of the most precious recollections of my lilc ; 
nut en account of its inaterial results, but far more because it 
made nv love and admire still more our kind Emperor, and as 
I, ii) audience, which lasted nearly an hour, had the satis- 
faction of seeing that my views about what I owed to the 
memory of my husband, were not ridiculed, but fully approved 
as correct and proper by the highest authority, — the first 
Prince and gentleman of the world, the great Emperor of Ger- 

His Majesty was extremely kind and gracious, and listened 
with great attention and patience to my lengthy explanation 
and re(iuest. When I asked frankly whether 1 was right or 
wrong in feeling bound in duty to pay the debts of my hus- 
band, which were made whilst I lived with him in Coblentz, 
though I had refused to accept his heritage, and declared that 
I would abide by the decision of His Majesty, the Emperor 
answered, with a certain emphasis and a glow of honest indig- 
nation in his noble face, that I certainly was right in wishing 
to pay the poor honest tradespeople, though I might accept 
the benefit of the common law in reference to Salm's old debts 
contracted with usurers and sharpers. 

1 told the Emperor that I had borrowed two thousand 
thalers from Baron P^dward Oppenheim, which I should have 
to refund first ; but that I required four thousand thalers more 
to come to an arrangement with that class of creditors whom I 
intended to pay. His Majesty referred mt ♦o General von 
Treskow, his adjutant-general, saying that ^^' would arrange 
with me that matter. I declared to this well-meaning, excellent 
gentleman, that I would not accept this money othc-vvise than 
as a loan, which I would repay by giving up my whole widow's 
pension until it was repaid. The Emperor, fully understanding 
the feeling which dictated this offer, was gracious enough to 
approve and accept it, with the modification, however," that I 
should repay only four of the six thousand thalers, and give 
annually only half of my pension for this purpose. 

Generrl von Treskow proposed to request Field-Marshal von 
Herwarth i.o arrange i.he settlement of my affairs, as I would 
no', receive the money myself; but considering that it would 
be a great i rouble for the veteran general, and that a man of 
business was more 'jsed to such uiings, 1 insisted on requesting 
Baron 0))penht.i!.i to take of that bui^jness, with whicU 
he kindly complied. 


my lilt- ; 
^cause it 
r, and as 
the satis- 
l to the 
-the first 
r of Ger- 

right or 
my hus- 
red that 
St indig- 
Id de'ots 

Id have 
rs more 
Iwhom I 
ral von 
le than 

I ugh to 

that I 
Id give 

lal von 



lian of 



A ugusta Hoi^pitaL 


Of course whilst MJ IJe-lin I first paid my r(;:-:'pects to Her 
Majesty the Empress and Queen, whom I saw there for the 
first time after the death of my husb: nd. Her Majesty kindly 
inquired about my affairs and future plans, and hearing from 
me that my presence in Berlin would be required for a longer 
lime, and further that I was thinking of taking charge of some 
hospital, Her Majesty graciously offered me a room in the 
Augusta hospital, where I not only would save great expense 
but have an opportunity of making myself acquainted with the 
management of such an establishment. I, of course, accepted 
with the greatest thanks. 

The Augusta Hospital is a creation of Her Majesty, and 
under her special protection and care. It is situated \n finely 
iaid-out grounds, and consists of a main building and two 
American barracks connected with it. It is certainly the 
finest and most elegant hospital I have seen on the Continent, 
and is not intended to be a general hospital, like the charity 
anc other establishments in Berlin, but more to afford accom- 
modation tor sick persons who are able to pay for their board 
and treatment, though there are also about a dozen beds for 
poor people. 

In establishing this hospital Her Majesty, thinking of the 
many poor daughters of noble families intended to create, tor 
a number ot them at least, a field of noble activity, by whic!, 
they might benefit society and find at the same time proteoti ii 
against care and want. 

At the head of this hospital was a Countess Rittberg ; a:? 1 
lour other ladies, belonging to noble families, assisted her, witli 
a number of nurses and servants. These ladies wear ali a 
rather simple but extremely becoming uniform dress, and are 
distinguished by a round white brooch with a red cross on it. 
Each two of these ladies have very elegantly and properly 
arranged apartments, and there are besides other rooms for 
their accommodation, as a dining-room, etc. They have free 
lodging in the hospital, and about fifteen pounds a year pocket- 
money. The first dress is given to them, but afterwards they 
have to provide for their clothing themselves. 

The whole hospital makes a very agreeable impression, for 
all the arrangements are very practical and convenient, and on 
going through the different wards one has not the uncomforta- 
ble feeling experienced in many public hospitals, where econ- 






Ten Years of my Life. 






omy seems the principal object, and the bareness of the rooms 
and passages reminds one of a prison or a barrack. The mind 
of sick pr^ople requires as much refreshment as the body ; and 
to look for days or weeks on the grim simplicity of bare white- 
washed walls is by no means cheering. I am therefore of 
opinion that a certain amount of ornamental elegance is just as 
necessary in a hospital as cleanliness ; and neither ornament 
nor cleanliness are wanting in the Augusta hospital. 

Though I was much pleased with this pattern hospital, it 
still seemed to me as if the kind intentions of Her Majesty 
were not perPjctiy fulfilled, and that the exclusive employment 
of noble nurses was rather prejudicial to practical success. 
Though the hospital may be directed by a lady, I think it 
would be preferable if some sisters of charity were substituted 
tor tiie noble nurses. Sisters of charity make nursing the sick 
the duty of their life ; they have done with family connections, 
have been trained to unreasoning obedience, and are most ex- 
cellent nursing machines with which a sensible director can 
work a hospital most admirably. The noble nurses, coming 
from the midst of their lamilies, bring with them to th? hospital 
prejudices, habits, and tastes which do not Iways agrci with 
it, and make it extremely difficult to maintain strict discipline, 
witliout which such establishments cannot prosper. 

Notwithstanding these objections to noble nurses, I was ex- 
tiernely pleased with my sojourn in the hospital, and with the 
amiable ladies employed in it. Her Majesty the P2m press 
visited the hospital frequently, mostly accompanied by Coun- 
tess Haake. One day, when the royal visit was announced 
and all were in thei^ rooms, the Empress, followed by the Em- 
peror, entered the room wnich I occupied together with Miss 
Runkel. Countess Haake presented Miss Runkel to their 
Majesties, and he Fnperor raid some kind words to her, in- 
quiring for her brothers w!u) li-.d been olBcers in the war. His 
Majesty is almost al.vays in a good humour, and makes fre- 
quently kind jocular remarks, wltich leave always with those to 
whom they are addressed a very pleasant feeling ; for in the 
jokes of the Emperor there is never a tinge of malice ; he is 
goodness itself 

I remained a fo' might in the Augusta hospital, and would 
have stayed until all my rather complicated affairs had been 
settled, if I had not received letters which made my presence 
in Coblentz necessary. 

,-<*— '"■^'^''W**''-?^^!^*^^^^ 

the rooms 
riie mind 
ody ; and 
are white- 
jrefore of 
is just as 

)spital, it 



think it 

the sick 
most ex- 
ctor can 
, coming 

:nyi with 

was ex- 
vith the 
m press 
le Em- 


ner, m- 

pr. His 

es fre- 

lose to 

in the 

he is 

i been 

A Royal Visit. 


Two days before I left, Her Majesty visited the hospital, and 
came to my room. Sitting down on my sofi she took a small 
parcel and a photograph out of her pocket. The parcel con- 
tained a black brooch ot onyx, with a locket at its back. 
Cutting with a pair of scissors her photograph to the proper 
size and fitting it in the locket, she gave me the brooch, re- 
questing me always to wear it in remembrance of her ; she had 
worn it herself in very sad moments. Much affected by this 
great kindnest: of my most gracious sovereign I put on the 
brooch, and inclined to superstitious ideas as I am, I imagined 
it was a kind of talisman protecting me against evil, which I 
must guard like the apple of my eye. As the fastening seemed 
to me not secure enough, I went on my return to Coblentz to 
Mrs. Goldschmidt the jeweller, and asked her to make me an 
extra chain as an additional security, but she laughed at me 
and said that the fastening was as secure as could be. Still it 
was not so. When I, one evening, undressed, I discovered 
with dismay that this my supposed talisman was gone : and I 
became the more excited, as I never lost anything and now 
imagined that my good luck was lost with it also. 1 advertised 
in several papers offering a reward exceeding the value of the 
brooch, but in vain ; it was not found, at least not restored to 
me. I was really afraid to meet Her Majesty again, and when 
a friendly lady advised me to buy a similar brooch, assuring 
nie that the Empress would not become aware of the change, 
I could not follow her advice, as it was repugnant to my feel- 
ings. The Empress did not notice my loss, but I always felt 
guilty for not confessing it to her. 

When I returned to Coblentz I was very sad and uncomfor- 
table in ray lodging, where everything reminded me of the 
happy past. Moreover it had never agreed alto, Jther with my 
ideas of a home, and to live now with other people in the same 
house was insupportable to me ; J wanted a home where I was 
not disturbed by others. Much as I would have liked to re- 
main in Coblentz, where I had so many kind friends, I could 
not find such a small house as I wanted, but in Bonn, which 
place I liked always very much, I was fortunate enough to find 
one which suited me in every respect, and which I rented 
for a less price than I paid for my lodgings in Coblentz. The 
house belonged to the banker of Bonn, Mr. Cahn, who had 

tastefully for his recently deceased wife, while 

• I 


up very 





? ' 


^671 Years of my Life. 

he was building his splendid castle on the Rhine in Plittersdorf, 
called Aiif dem Rech. 

The fatigues which I had undergone and the troubles which 
I experienced impaired my health, and the annoyances caused 
me by the importunity of many creditors of my poor husband 
made me still worse. Becoming aware that I had paid some, 
they imagined that I must pay all, and pursued me in the 
most annoying manner. One of them produced even a bill 
signed not only by Salm, but bearing also my own signature. 
I had not signed the bill produced ; it was a forgery ; but the 
Tew, believing himself to be in the right, went to law. The 
court, decided in my lavour, as the expert declared that the 
signature was not mine ; but I had to appear several times and 
at very inconvenient moments, for twice I was obliged ,to 
interrupt my travels and to return from great distances to 

The physicians advised me to go to Switzerland for a 
change of air, and I went to Luzern, accompanied by Miss 
Runkel. To travel under my real name would have been very 
expensive, and therefore I entered the pension Kaufman in 
Luzern under the assumed name of Baroness Stein, Though 
my health improved there I became even sadder than I had 
been before, and I resumed the idea of taking charge of an 
hospital, or if I should not find one, of going to a convent. 

After two months' sojourn in Luzern, I returned to Bonn. 
My atfairs were being arranged by Baron Oppenlreim, but he 
would and could not satisfy all the creditors, who imagined 
that they, not succeeding with the Baron, could force me to 
pay by making my life wretched. 

My intention of retiring to some hospital cr convent was 
confirmed still more ; but all my friends opposed vehemently, 
and I once more was induced to hope for a better time. My 
health becoming bad again I was sent in October, 1872, to the 
Lake of Geneva, where I lived in the pension Ketterer in 
Clarence. There I found several officers recovering from the 
late war, with their wives,, and other ladies, and led quite a 
peaceful, agreeable life. There I saw Prince Albrecht of 
Prussia for the last time, and became acquainted with th< 
Countess his wife, and her two sons. 

I remained in Clarence over Christmas ; butwhen it becaiuw 
cold the. doctors advised me to go to Italy, and I went to 

A tsa. 



?s which 
5 caused 
d some, 
in the 
n a bill 
but the 
^ The 
hat the 
nes and 
ged .to 
ices to 

for a 
y Miss 
m very- 
nan in 
I had 

of an 
)ut he 
me to 

it was 

o the 
er in 
n the 
ite a 
It of 



t to 

Pisa. In the house of a Dr. Feroce I had a very Jarge and 
y>leasant lodging, for which I had to pay only five hundred 
lires for three months. Everything was chea]) in ])roi)()rti(jn. 
From a restaurant close by, ktpt by the brother of our land- 
lord, we received two most excellent and rich meals, with wine 
at discretion, for three lires each a day. 

Though I was incognito there, a priest, who gave me lessons 
in Italian, had discovered who I was. In consecjuence of this 
I became acquainted with many persons belonging to the 
society of Pisa, as Countess Pandulfo, Countess Samiviatclii, 
and other very agreeable ladies and gentlemen, with whom I 
passed a pleasant time. I made frequent excursions in the 
neighbourhood, mostly on horseback, and liked especially to 
ride through a deer park oi the king's, where deer and boars 
were quite tame, browsing quietly when we passed, or looking 
at us fearlessly. 

Though I might say many things about Pisa and other places 
in Italy, I have to consider that this is much-trodden ground, 
and moreover, that my book has become more bulky already 
than I intended. I shall therelore limit myself to a very rapid 
sketch, in order not to tire the reader. 

The great event oi the day was at that period the eruption 
o. Vesuvius, and I wanted to see it. I went therefi)re to 
Naples, where the people were in great fear, for the ashes 
were lalling over the city, and a fate like that of Herculaneum 
and Pompeii was thought possible by many. Wlien the 
eruptions and the flow of lava had ceased, everybody, 
especially strangers, wanted to see the effects of the eruption 
as near as possible ; and I went also with Miss Runkel and 
Jimmy, joining a large company. The guides would not permit 
us to go beyond a certain place, saying that a further advance 
was extremely dangerous. I am somewhat incredulous in 
respect to such assurances and curious to ascertain • . i- truth. 
I therelore prevailed on two guides to go with us be -d the 
saiety-line. Finding, however, soon, that the thing was indeed 
somewhat venturesome, I insisted ton Miss Runkel staying 
behind with Jimmy at a certain place which I would pass on 
my return. 

The more we advanced the more interesting became our 
excursion, though we were compelled to jump over rather wide 
ciiasms, where one wrong step would have carried U3 to 





Ten 7cai-a of ny i;j-^^ 

Vulcan's workshon ATv f„.fi, 

down >vC^e°wt ''::t't'''<^;'rrr ^^ '"" pu. l'^ 
an undertakinir th.f h! ^^ *'^^ ^^"le way we hiH^^ 

t-'Tist,, regretting much , hat Z •''^' *'"' '^ 'mottle of lacryn,"^ 
thrown ,vas covered seve ' f "^!,^'"«y"d where it had K 

things, bearing evident th,7f!"'' ''^'^'^ '^^ =^>^ very str^n^. 
ago were as wicked as. hev are no' "'^^'f '"° tho.,s:u,d yeafs 
are m everybody's hand r/efer ,o rh"^' Murray and BaedJ4e 
o descrtbing imperfect ywfm h k""' "'"' ^'"^ 'he troul^le 
"ore art and knowledge th'ni ^ '' ''k'^ described with far 
mpressions on seeing'a I the p " V"^. '^■^PO^al ; and as to mv 
tiiey were the same a, L , ^°.™P«"an wonders, X sud,,^^ 
come there as ign^^^lu ZZT""'" "^ '""^' visito.T'X 



?. AJiss 
put liiin 
-ved me, 
:ook the 
come — 
tiiy hav- 
id been 
I which 
i where 
). The 
?d right 
)n as a 

d years 
'ith far 
to my 



1 want to enter a convent — Applying to the Kmprcss— T,ettcr of Coxut 

Armin — A cani from Baron S to tlicCicnnan minister in Komt'-- 

In Rome — Count Brazie de St. Simon — His portrait— His mixtnni 
compositum wine — His hob])V-horsc— I make an impression on the 
old diplomatist — EfTects— Seeing San Angela — Tlie Prison of Ben- 
venuto Cellini — Causing the death of tlie old Count — Monsignore 
Merode — Two audiences with the Pope — Declares that I have no 
talent for a nunnery — Private mass by Monsignore Merode at the 
grave of San Pietro — Presents from the Pope — A once celebrated 
lady and pretended princess — Rev. Joseph Mulloly— The Cliurch nf 
St. Clement and it.s subterranean wonders —What called me home — 
Invitation to Rostock in Mecklenburg — In Warnemunde — Grand Duke 
and Grand Duchess of Mecklenf)urg- -'I'he ' Stromfahrt ' — Festival — 
Curious Warfare — Called home again — I»ad health — In Scheveningeu 
— An American gold uncle — Change of affairs — I buy a house in 
Bonn — Ht'c rented it to Baron Gerolt — fourney to Spain — Madrid — 

Count W A river without water — The palace of the Duke of 

Ossuna — Invested by the Philistines — The picture gallery — The Arm- 
oury — Curious armour, &c. — The Theatres — A characteristic adventure 
— In the Prado — Duchess de la Torre — Serrano — Queen Isabella — 
Victor Amadeus — The attentate — Disturbed state — Return" I'.g to Bonn 
— A few last words — End of the book. 

I HAD not given up the idea yet of entering a convent, but my 
friends had so far prevailed upon me that 1 was in no hurry to 
take such a step. I had resolved to apply to the highest 
authority of our Church, His Holiness the Pope, and to do 
what he should order me. From Pisa I had written to Countess 
Schulemburg, requesting Her Majesty to give me a letter of re- 
commendation, which might facilitate my steps. Her gracious 
Majesty, complying with my request, caused Count Armin to 
send me such a letter, which was directed to Monsignore 

I had also written to Baron Oppenheim, and he sent me a 








|2£ 125 

us — "^ 

H? 144 ■" 
^ 1^ 12.0 

U£ |: 


III 1.25 III . .4 1^6 









(716) •73-4S03 



Ten Years of my Life. 


card for Count lirrizierde St. vSimon, the (tCTman minister in 

R')nie, ironi I]an)n S , one oj his Iriends, who had been 

once in the legation of the count, with whom he imagined he 
was on excellent terms. 

When the count received this card, he said to his secretary 
of legation, ' Heaven knows what ])erson that tellow has thrust 
on me ! I shall not take any notice of her ;' and it was with 
some difficulty that he was prevailed on to call on me, which 
he did only after three days, as I had forgotten to put on my 
card my lodging in Rome. It was lound out, however, by an 
old Italian factotum of the ambassador, who was a most inter- 
esting, original person. 

When he called, his first question before taking a seat was, 
* How did you become accjuainted with that fellow, princess?' 
AVJK'n I told him that 1 had never seen * that fellow '^ his face 
became friendlier ; he sat down, and I succeeded in winning the 
good graces of his Excellency in a most uncommon degree, 
wiiich favour was further increased when we by chance came 
to speak about animal magnetism and similar subjects, which 
were his hobby-horse, and on his discovering that I was not 
only greatly interested in that matter but had had some practi- 
cal experience. 

Count Brazier de St. Simon was a little dried-up old man, 
with a few grey hairs and projecting cheek bones, but very 
quick, small, grey eyes. His clothes hung about him as ii on 
a scarecrow, and were always the same ; I believe he Lad not 
more than one suit, and that was a rather singular one lor an 
old ambassador. It was made of some liiick English woollen 
stuff — for the count Iclt always cold — grey with red lines, form- 
ing large squares. Notwithstanding this dress he looked not 
vulgar, but like a man of distinction, like an old diplomast. 
He was past seventy, though he would not acknowledge his 
age, and when the census was taken he put himselt down ten 
years younger than he really was. 

He was very stingy, and about that many anecdotes were 
circulated. In his position he could not evade giving now and 
then a dinner ; but his dinners were dreaded on account oi 

1 As the Count was a vathcr queer old man, I believed liim prejudiced 
a.qainst the liaron, with whom I became ac([nainted much later ; but 1 am 
Sorry to say that I ought to have lollowed the warninsj of the old minister, 
for 1 found out that he was perfectly coirect in his estimation ol the Baron, 

iinister in 
md been 
Lgined he 

as thrust 
was with 
e, which 
It on my 
er, by an 
oat inter- 
seat was, 
rincess ?' 

his face 
ining the 

ce came 
s, which 

was not 
e practi- 

Id man, 

)ut very 

as ii on 

iad not 

lor an 
S torm- 
:ed not 


ge his 

rvn ten 

Is were 
»w and 
iunt oi 


t 1 rxm 



Count Brazier de St. Simon. 

t)4 .) 

his bad wines. Once, when at such a dinner he was sitting 
between the English and the Russian ambassadors, lie advised 
them not to drini< the wine had before them, but to drink 
with him. The other wine, though very good, he said, did not 
agree with him ; he called it * mixtum compositum,' and such 
indeed it was. A cask, arriving from a farm lie had some- 
where, broke, and the wine was rather spoiled, but he improved 
it by mixing it with some cheap Florentine wine. 

He was very angry that he had to give up his fine lodgings 
in Florence, and to go to Rome, of which he would not see 
anything, though he was now and then compelled to go out 
with persons recommended to him. He was very lively, and 
his conversation was amusing, lor he was rather sarcastic and 

1 do not know by what gifts I won the favour of this 
singular old man, but I cannot doubt that 1 made an impres- 
sion on him ; for he showed it in ;- manner which could not 
but convince all who were acquainted with him. He fetched 
me every morning in /its carriage — a hired one, for he kept 
none — offered me always Ais box in the theatre — of course he 
had none — and gave me even nice little dinners and luncheons, 

to the wonder of his secretary of legation. Count W , who 

is by marriage connected with the Salm family, and who 
generally took part in our parties and excursions. 

The old ambassador would have liked very much to mesme- 
rise me, and he tried to persuade me ; but 1 laughed it oil. 

I owe the good old count much thank^, tor he accompanied 
me everywhere, and showed me all the sights ot Rome and 
surroundings. When he was with me in the Castle San Angelo 
and we had seen all the rooms, which had made him rather 
warm, I am sorry I insisted on his accompanying me to see 
the prison ot Benvenuio Cellini, tor he caught a severe cold 
there, Irom which he never recovered, and he died soon after 
my departure. 

The letter of Count Arnim promised me a very kind recep- 
tion on the part ot Monsignore Merode, the former secretary 
of war of the Pope, and since then cardinal. He belongs 
to a great Belgian family, and is extremely rich. He is a man 
in his best years, a very portly gentleman, looking more like a 
disguised othcer of cuirassiers than a high dignitary of the 
Church, of which he is, however, one of the must distinguished 


"'>n Years oj my Life. 


There is notliing monkisli or ascetic about Monsignore 
Mcrode ; on the contrary, lie has all the manners of a man of 
the world, and is very polite and agreeable. In his purple 
dress, with his large golden cross, he looked elegant and 
splendid. I saw him frequently, and to his kindness 1 owed 
several privileges which are not generally granted. 

I confided my desire to him to enter a convent, but he did 
not approve of it , and his reasons had already half convinced 
me, when he procured me an audience with the Holy Father, 
which honour I had twice. 

The Pope had been already iniormed of my intention and 
person. He said he did not tliink I had a vocation for a nun- 
nery ; he advised me to reflect on it somewhat longer, and to 
stay at least one year more in the world, to see whether T 
would not change my mind. 'I'his advice ol the Holy Father 
was extrenjely kind , his clear mind anticipated what would 
happen ; he read my character, lor indeed I changed my mind, 
and before the year had passed 1 did not think any more of 
burying myself in a nunnery 

Monsignore Merode introduced me to a distinuished priest, 
who understood English, and to whom I could confess ; ami 
after having done so Monsignore himself conferred on me the 
distinction oi celebrating, assisted by one priest, a private nrjass 
on the grave of the holy apostle St. Peter, that is in the Httle 
chapel, and giving me the holy sacrament. After that he pre- 
sented me, on the part of the Holy Father, with a splendid 
golden Agnus Dei, in Roman mosaic, with the inscription ' Fix 
tibi' on the reverse, also with a large-sized photograph with the 
signature of His Holiness. 

Victor Emmanuel was then in Rome, and I sa;v him fre- 
quently pass ; but everybody will understand that 1 would and 
could not make any attempt to be introduced to his couit. 

On the promenade I saw also an interesting personage, who 
had been in some connection with Victor Emmanuel, and was 
now the wife of a great politician. She appeared always in a 
grand carriage, with an immense princely crown on its panels, 
for she pretended to have been formerly the wife of a German 
prince of a well-known family, though this lormer husband had 
only the same name, without being a prince or having any con- 
nection with the family. There are, for instance, many Mr. 
von Salms and Mr. Salms in Germany, and it is the same with 
Other family names. 

An Iniercsthij Persiniwjc. 


< t 

" a man of 
liis piirj)Ie 
egant and 
>s I owed 

Hit he did 
ly Father, 

ntion and 
for a nun- 
'r, and to 
^•hether f 
ly Father 
at would 
tny min(I, 
more of 

'd priest, 
ess; and 
I me the 
ate mass 
the little 
: he pre- 
on ' Fix 
with the 

lim fre- 
jld and 
e, who 
nd was 
's in a 
d had 
y con- 
y Mr. 

This ladv, who once exerted a certain innucnre, wlicn she 
was handsome, is now rather past ; but in ord- r to make th«f 
world believe that she is still yoiini;, she has hired or boui^hl a 
baby, which is always carried alter her when slie tlcscends troin 
her carriage and makes a promenade. 1 saw her descend 
thus, and noticed, what I heard before, that she wore very 
short dresses to show her small feet, which were encased, not 
in boots, but in shoes with old-flishioned cross ribbands. 

Of this lady, her husband, and the king himself, the most 
amusing anecdotes are tuld in society ; but as such anecdotes 
lose much \^ print, 1 must not communicate them here. In 
publishing R )man experiences discretion is advisable. 

Amongst my clerical acquaintances, I must not forget to 
mention that of a most excellent and distinguished man, my 
confessor, the R.P.F. Joseph MuUooly, O.P.S.'l'.L., prior of 
SS. Sixte and Clement ; what the letters before and behind his 
name mean 1 do not know, I copy them from the title-page ol 
a work he has written about his church, the most remarkable 
wonders ot which he was kind enough to show and explain to 
me himself 

The church of St. Clement is very old, and the most pericct 
type of the old catholic basilicas ; but in 1857 was discovered 
under this church another much older, which on purpose had 
been covered with earth. In this old edifice have been found 
not only precious marble columns and mosaics, but most valu- 
able fresco pictures, dating from the third to the ninth or tenth 
century. It was extremely difficult to get at these valuable 
relics, for it had to be done without endangering the actual 

But even underneath this most ancient building have been 
discovered walls, which according to anti(piarian researches 
date from the three distinct periods of heathenish Rome. 

The fresco pictures are highly interesting, and as their sub- 
terranean wonders have been accessible only since 18C6, many 
visitors to Rome will scarcely know anything of them, and 
artists and antiquarians who should hap[)en to read my book 
will thank me for having drawn their notice to St. Clement. 

I had been only five weeks in Rome, where I should have* 
liked to have stayed much longer, when a law-suit, which A. 
mentioned before, made my personal appearance in Bonn 

7 en years .y my Lije. 

I had been a short time in my house when my dear friend 

Mrs. von (I invited me to stay with her some time. The 

Colonel, her husband, had given up his idea of leaving the 
army and had now a command in Rostock, in Mecklenburg. 

Whilst Miss Runkel took care of my house in Bonn I left 
for Rostock. When, however, after a short sojourn there. Col. 

von G had to attend to certain military manoeuvres which 

would keep him from home for several weeks, we resolved to 
go to the watering-place of ^Varne^ulnde, on the Baltic. 

On my arrival in Rostock 1 had requested at once an audi- 
ence with the Grand Duchess Dowager, the sister of our Em- 
peror, and also called on the ladies of honour of the Grand , 
Duchess. Whilst I was with the Grand Duchess Dowager in 
Heiligendamm near Rostock, the Grand Duke and Grand 
Duchess, who had heard of my presence, entered the room, 
and I was presented to them. 

During my sojourn in Warnemunde occurred an annual 
popular festival, in which the Grand Duke and his court always 
take part. When their Royal Highnesses came to Warne- 
munde and saw me in passing by my window, they shook 
hands and graciously invited me to the ' Stromfahrt ' in the 

Several hundred boats of all sizes, headed by that in which 
was the court, went down the Warne river, accompanied by 
music. The boats were all decked out with flower garlands 
and canopies, illuminated with a great number ot Chinese lan- 
terns. It was a most lovely, animated scene, for amid great 
merriment and laughter was carried on an original warfare be- 
tween the crews of the different boats. At the Roman carni- 
val i)eople shoot at each other with confsitti, but here they used 
flower boi. ,uets which before being thrown were dipped in the 
river. It was rather a v/et game, and to protect our toilets we ' 
wore all our waterproofs. It was amusing to observe the 
lovely young Grand Duchess, who entered with much spirit 
into this sport, her whole face beaming mth pleasant excite- 
ment, whilst throwing incessantly bouquets in all directions. 
The festival lasted imtil ten o'clock p.m., when the royal party 
mounted their carriages and returned to Heiligendamm. 
*^ 'i'he same troublesome law-suit about the forged signature 
which called me back from Rome, interfered again with my 
plans, and on an urgent letter of my lawyer I had to return to 

3a r friend 
ne. The 
aving the 
mn I left 
here, Col. 
res which 
solved to 

2 an aiidi- 
our Ern- 
ie Grand , 
3 wager in 
id Grand 
the room, 

in annual 
Lirt always 
o Warne- 
ley shook 
•t' in the 

in which 
anied by 
nese lan- 
nid great 
irfare be- 
an carni- 
hey used 
;d in the 
ailets we 
irve the 
:h spirit 
t excite- 
al party 

Ivith my 
lilurn to 

A Leyac^j. 


I WAS, however, not pLTinitted to stay at h onie yet. I filt 
very weak and ill. The physicians said that my whole nervous 
system was in disorder, and advised me to go again to the 
seaside, and I selected Si:heveningen. There I became so 
weak that I had to be carried up and down the staircase, and 
had to go in a perambulator to the shore. 

It is true I had undergone many fatigues and mental 
anxieties, and they certainly had had an influence on my 
health ; but during the excitements and occupations of the 
war my energy had carried me through, and I might have 
escaped any bad^ consecjuences, it 1 could have had rest. 
More than all bodily latigues and mental anxieties of the past 
years, the hi<niiliations and mortifications to which I had been 
subjected since my return, in consequence of money affairs, 
undermined my health. Besides this, the whole i)osition in 
which 1 was placed made me melancholy. My very limited 
income compelled me to restrictions which excluded me from 
the company to which I was used, and I thought it much 
easier to live in a convent than to live in the world without 
means. This care was, however, taken trom me in a manner 
which occurs more trequently in novels than in reality, but 
which was fortunately reality, and changed a*; once the aspect 
of afiairs and restored my health. 

Whilst I was in Scheveningen, feeling most miserable, I 
received the news that a distant relative in America had left 
me a legacy. The exact amount of this legacy was not stated, 
but a sum, which seemed to me at that time very great, was 
placed at my disposal. I believed it then to be all I had to 
receive, and was anxious to employ the money in a judicious 
manner, and, if possible, to acquire with it a house of my 
own. In this I succeeded beyond mv expectation. When 1 
rented the houce in Bonn trom Mr. Cahn, he said, in the 
course of conversation, that it I wanted to buy it he would let 
me have it for a certain moderate sum. Since that time the 
price ot houses had increased considerably, and I knew that a 
good many thousands more than the sum mentioned by Mr. 
Cahn had been otiered to him. I reminded him, however, of 
his ofier ; and though it was not made in uuch a manner as to 
make any legal obligation, he was kind and honourable enough 
to make good his word, and I bought the house at niany 
thousands below its actual value. 


Ten Ycar8 of mi; Life. 

Tlie sum which I received was, however, not the whole 
legacy, but only accumulated interest, of which I was informed 

I had nearly forgotten this old relative, whom I had seen 
only when 1 still was a child. I was then extremely lively 
and daring, and he had taken a great fancy to me. Whether 
he was then already rich I do not know ; but for many years I 
had scarcely heard of him. He had, however, learnt from the 
papers that I had married a prince ; had reud everything writ- 
ten about my adventures in Mexico, etc. ; and being ])leased 
with all this he made over to me his considerable account at 
his bankers, of which capital the interest was to be ])aid to me 
after his death, as long as 1 should remain unmarried. 

1 had let my house, furnished as it was, to JJaron von Gerolt, 
our former minister in Washington, as 1 intended to travel for 
a long time. For this reason, and also being afraid of the 
winter, I resolved to go to a southern climate, and decided to 
visit Spain. As Miss Ruvikel wanted to return lor a time to 
her family, I took with me one of my cousins, Countess Con- 
stantine Salm-Hoe';straeten. 

On our arrival in Spain the weather was very bad and unfa- 
vourable for tcavelling ; I therelore went directly to Madrid, 
and alighted in the Fonda de Paris, where we felt rather mise- 
rable. My good luck would, however, have it that wx' met in 
Madrid an old acquaintance from Rome, Count \V , for- 
merly secretary of legation there, who had been sent mean- 
wliile as chargd d'aftaires to Madrid. Though he had only 
been a short time in the city he knew more of Spanish affliirs 
than I did, and with his assistance we found excellent lodgings 
in the Casa de Nuespedes de Seuor Jose Perez, wliich hrip- 
pened to be empty, and altogether at my disposition. 

Fverything reminded me hr;re of Cuba and ot* Mexico ; but 
I cannot say that I much enjoyed tl^ Spanish dishes, and I 
was glad when we found in the excellent restaurant in the Calle 
Alcazar Parisian fare. 

Speaking of Madrid I shall follow the same plan as I did 
in Rome ; that is, not to infringe on Murray's handbooks, 
especially as that about Spain, written by Mr Richard Ford, 
is most ex. client. I admired, or rather wondered at, the ugli- 
ness of Spanish churches in comparison with these in Italy, 
and at the solid bridges over an imaginary stream, the Manza- 

the whole 
s informed 

had seen 
iiely lively 
my years I 
It from the 
th'mf!, writ- 
ng ])leased 
iccount at 
)aid to me 
'on Gerolt, 

travel for 
aid of the 
iecided to 

a time to 
ntess Con- 

and iinta- 
) Madrid, 
ther mise- 

«.'e met in 
— , for- 

nt mean- 
lad only 

ish affc\irs 

iich hrip- 

Kico ; but 
;s, and I 
the Calle 

as I did 
rd Ford, 
the iicjli- 
n Italy, 

V'u'iv of Madrid. 


nares. This river was so dry that the many j-ictiircsfniclook- 
ing visherwonun could scarcely fir.d water cncjiigh in its bed 
tor their |)iiri)oses. After ihundersloinis the river is said to 
swell within a few hours to a dangerous size, but this is, how- 
ever, only of very short duration. 

From a rasa del campo in the ^tanzanares valley one has a 
beautiful vievv of Madrid, esi)C(iall> of the palace and of the 
artillery barracks, which ac(ii>ired some not( riety on account 
of what happened th'.Te in the revolt. There, at the side o; 
the monastery of St. Fernando,, is also the palace of the Duke 
of Ossuna. 1 wanted to see it, but was icfuscd entrance with- 
out tickets. These were of course easily procured, and when 
j)eople heard that I was a relative of the duchess, everything 
was shown me most readily. Jt is a splendid dwelling, and I 
admired i/.uch the order in which it was kei)t by the creditors 
of the duke, who had taken possession of the palace. 

Though the duke is perhaps the richest man in Spain, his 
whole fortune consists in landed property ; half Andalusia be- 
longs to him, I believe ; but owing to the unsettled state of 
Spain, the nelds were not tilled, and the farmers did not pay 
any rent. Thus it may be easily understood that the richest 
man in Spain was momentarily in difticulties and in the hands 
of his creditors. 

I saw, of course, all the sights of Madrid and its celebrated 
picture-gallery. An amiable artist, Senor de Grau, of whom I 
bought a, fine aquarelle, was kind enough to be our cicerone. 
I took with me photographs of the most celebrated pictures of 
Tidan, Velasquez, Murillo, and Ruebens, but will not describe 
th^in, because ' my paper is at an end,' and Mr. Ford has done 
it sufficiently. 

The Armeria 1 visited also, and admired the wonderful 
armoury of kin^^s and heroes. The f nest armour seems to me 
that of Philip II., which was presented to him by the city of 
Pampeluna. The most wonderful is, howevt., that of the 
Elector of Saxe — I do not know which — which has ample 
room for a couple of Spanish nights. Astonishing to me was 
the armour of Christopher Columbus, whom I always imagined 
with a compa:s and not with a sword in his hand. He must 
have had not only a big head, but also an almost gigantic body, 
oiiering a rather ugly appearance. 

In the cupooards are exhibited many historical curiosities, 


Icii YeavH «>/ my L'lje. 

of which the authcntlci'y is as doubtful as of many more holy 
relics. Tiicrc is, K)r inst vice, a swonl ol tiio Cui, rather short 
and hroad ; the sword <>. Roliiid, etr:. As very interesiin;^, , 
were ijoinled out to me two old curious, s'looting-irons, said to 
have come uoni M.ijorca, already one hundred years before 
the invention o gunpowder by Jierthold Schvvarz. 

1 went also fretiuenlly to the theatres, and saw at the Italian 
()|)era-hr)use 'Anna Holena,' which was ])eriormed rather badly. 
Excellent, liowever, was the Spanish theatre, where 1 enjoyed 
many lively comedies, which 1 witnessed without understand 
ing much oi the lam;;ua};e. Still more pleased was I with the 
Tlieatro del I*rincij)ie, where historical j)ieces were represented 
most beautilully, and where I admired ma correct costumes. 

Whilst waiting ior the ctmmiencing at the theatre, we had 
a little characteristic adventure. We were sittmg down on 
some emi)ty chairs, when a rather wild and suspicious-lookm^ 
extremely dirty individual placed himself close before me. 
Robberies being by no means rare in Madrid — my purse was 
cut out of my dress in a church — I lelt alarmed, and so did 

Count W , who accompanied us. As the lellovv did not 

moved, the count pushed him somewhat rudely back, without 
imagining that by doing so he would raise a storm. The in 
jured man made a great noise ; a crowd collected at once, and 
with them came some policemen. The dirty robber-like tel- 
low turned out to be the owner ol the chairs, and came only 
to collect his lare. After the thing v/as explained the count 
oflfered, as a peace-oi^ering, an apology in the shape of a gold 
coin ; but the dirty Spaniard relused it w^ith the disdain ol a 
caballero, declaring himseli, however, satisfied if ihe count 
would shake hands with him. The count would have rather 
parted with his goldpiece, ^or the ofiered hand was shocjcingly 
dirty, but knives being very loose in Madrid he complied with 
the dirty caballero's request though he ielt all the evening un- 
comfortable, no water being at hand. 

We went, ot course, frequently to the Prado, where we ad- 
mired the Spanish ladies in their yellow satin robes, black 
mantillas, and big Uns. I, of course, bought at once such a 
mantilla and a tan, and as my complexion is somewhat Spanish, 
I flatter myself thjt I looked much like a native. 

In the Trado I saw irequently a wcxy chic coupe, with a lady 
dressed elegantly in the Paiisian style. She was the Duchess 
de la Torre, the wife of Marshal Serrano — a great man now. 

norc holy 
licr sliort 

s, said to 
rs bclure 

ic Italian 
er badly, 
with the 
, we had 
lown on 
ore me. 
urse was 
d so did 
did not 
The in 
ice, and 
like tel- 
ne only 
* count 
a gold 
tin 01 a 
d with 
ng un- 

we ad- 
such a 

a lady 


Duchess dc. la 'lorre. 



Notwithsfandin^ her mode of life, the Queen was very 
popular with ihc loyal Spaniards, who used to say, whatever 
she may do at home, ,,when- she puts on iier gloves, she is 
every inch a queen. Serrano was hated, lor he treated the 
Queen, to whom he owed everything', shamefully. The 
measure was lUll at last ; he fell into disgrace. 'I'he (Jueen 
said to him : * I have made you a general ; I have m idc you 
a marquis ; I have made you a duke, — but I never could make 
you a gent'eman.' 

That he certainly was not, and never will be, whatever may 
be his titles or his politics. He now became hostile to the 
Queen, causing infamous newspaper articles to be written, and 
declaring himself in some j)ul)lic degree, that she was a (pieen 
oi whom wives and daughters of S[)aniardh must be ashamed. 
But who made her what she was? 

After Prim's death Se.rano turned radical. He oflended 
the Queen of Amadeus in the most insulting manner by for- 
biddmg his wife to be godmother to one ol her children. We 
have not yet seen the end of Serrano. May he meet his 
deserts ! 

Being a woman, I mu:>t not defend Queen Tsnbella ; though 
I may venture to say that she deserves more compassion than 
the contempt and ridicule with which she has been t.'ealed. 
Kings like her, even if not better jjrincts, a^e judged very 
leniently, but queens with morbid passions are forgiven only 
if great as sovereigns. 

I also saw frequently King Victor Amadeus, either on horse- 
back or in his carriage, driving himself He is a thin, insig- 
nificant-looking man, much too simple in his habits to win the 
love of the Spaniards, who have no sympathy with citizen 
kings. He was almost always seen together with his queen, 
who is a very virtuous woman and good wife, and who was 
more popular than Victor Amadeus. 

The King was, however, a man of pluck, and showed it at 
the great attempt against hitn. The history of this attempt is 
still a mystery. 1 saw the narrow street in which it took place, 
and it is difficult to understand how the bullets could have 
missed him. Still more difficult is it to explain why the police 
did not take any measures to prevent such a crime, as it was 
prepared without much secrecy and evidently cxj)ecied by the 
police, for the governor of the city followed the carriage of the 


Ten Years oi my Lije, 

King in a fiacre about a hundred paces behind it. The 
leader oi the conspirators was killc<l on the spot l)ut — it seems 
pui|)oseIy — was sn disfigured ♦hat he could not be recognized. 
Other persons arrested escaped from prison, and thus the 
j)rophecy was fultilled that the attempted regicides would never 
be punished. 

It had been my intention to travel in Andalusia, to make re- 
searches in re;erence to relatives of my mother, but things in 
Spain took a turn which made travelling in the country very 
inconvenient and even dangerous, and under these circum- 
stances 1 resolved to give up my purpose and to return 

My task is done ; my book at last finished. When occupied 
with writing it, and absorbed in my recollections of the past, 
all I have told seemed very interesting — to me : whether it be 
interesting to the public, or whether I should have done bet- 
ter to leave my book unpublishd, is a quts ion which now 
suddenly oppresses me in an uncomlortable manner. 

I suppose I must take my chance, like greater authors, and 
prepare myseli against some critics, who will say, with a shrug 
of their shoulders, * American, Mexican, and French wars ! 
Why, that's ancient history ; we are tired ol it. Why did she 
not write the history of next year ?' 

I most humbly beg to remark that I do not pretend to write his- 
tory at all ; but only my personal adventures during three great 
wars, in which I by chance had to take part. I would not 
have ventured to write a uook at. all, had not some men, whom 
I believe to be competent, encouraged me, saying that the 
narratives ot personal adventures of eyewitnesses, if told simply 
and truthfully, are much valued, because they serve to fill 
up with flesh and give colour and life to the skeleton-like dry 
histories presented to us so frequently by most learned military 
authors or professors of history. 

What I experienced and saw during these ten eventful years 
I have described simply and truthfully, expressing my opinions 
perhaps with too little reserve ; v/hether they are worth any- 
thing is a question which will be answered by others, and I 
Iiave only to excuse myself for speaking too much of private 
affairs, which have really novhing to do with the great histori- 
cal events which form the frame of my narrative. If I have 



d it. The 
t — it seems 
d thus the 
ould never 

to make re- 
it things in 
Duntry very 
jse circum- 
i to return 

:n occupied 
of the past, 
lether it be 
: done bet- 
which now 

uthors, and 

irith a shrug 

mch v.-ars ! 

hy did she 

to write his- 
three great 
would not 
nen, whom 
g that the 
old simply 
rve to fill 
n-like dry 
led military 

failed in this respect I have no other excuse than ilvit f have 
acted, as it were, in self-defence. Some persons, taking ad- 
vantage of my unprotected j)osition, have amused themselves 
with commenting on my iloings, or not doings, tlirouing out 
hints and suggestions which niii;ljt cre.ite prejudicial opinions 
about me in iktsdiis whose judgment is 'lOt iniliffereiu to me. 
To s(.'t them right I ha«l to make known some facts \vhi< h I 
otherwise might have withheld. If tliese facts are nt)t always 
agreeable to the persons concerned, I cannot hel[) it ; every- 
one has first to look out for himself. 1 am not a person to 
suffer in silent e. 

In taking leave of the kind readers who may perhaps be in- 
terested in my fortunes, I beg to say that I have at last found 
that rest lor which I longed so much. I have a home with 
which 1 am i)erfectlv satisfied, am independent in every re- 
spect, and have some true Iriends who know and love me ; 
more I do nut dcbire. 


^ntful years 
j»y opinions 
(worth any- 
]ers, and I 
of private 
leat histori- 
If 1 liave